nep-hme New Economics Papers
on Heterodox Microeconomics
Issue of 2011‒08‒02
23 papers chosen by
Frederic S. Lee
University of Missouri-Kansas City

  1. What’s wrong and right with microfinance – missing an angle on responsible finance? By David Hulme; Thankom Arun
  2. Rock, scissors, paper: the problem of incentives and information in traditional Chinese state and the origin of Great Divergence By Ma, Debin
  3. Electronic governance, premise for implementation of electronic democr acy By Grigorovici, Iulia; Matei, Ani
  4. Gendered impacts of the 2007-08 food price crisis: Evidence using panel data from rural Ethiopia By Kumar, Neha; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
  5. Do men and women accumulate assets in different ways?: Evidence from rural Bangladesh By Quisumbing, Agnes R.
  6. Agricultural extension services and gender equality: An institutional analysis of four districts in Ethiopia By Cohen, Marc J.; Lemma, Mamusha
  7. Managerial ownership and urban water utilities efficiency in Uganda By Mbuvi, Dorcas; Tarsim, Achraf
  8. Education, training and skill development policies in Sudan: Macro-micro overview By Nour, Samia
  9. Political economy of the mining sector in Ghana By Ayee, Joseph; Soreide, Tina; Shukla, G. P.; Le, Tuan Minh
  10. Socioeconomic Factors and Water Quality in California By Y. Hossein Farzin; Kelly A. Grogan
  11. Measuring the contribution of extractive industries to local development : the case of oil companies in Nigeria. By Abdou Kâ Diongue; Gaël Giraud; Cécile Renouard
  12. Who benefits the most from peer effects within ethnic group ? Empirical evidence on the South African Labour Market. By Gaëlle Ferrant; Yannick Bourquin
  13. Beyond Ideological Battles: A Strategic Analysis of Hedge Fund Regulation in Europe By Cornelia Woll
  14. Econophysics: Bridges over a Turbulent Current By Shu-Heng Chen; Sai-Ping Li
  15. A Behavioural Analysis of Online Privacy and Security By Baddeley, M.
  16. Economics and Theoretical Physics By Punabantu, Siize
  17. A behavioral approach to the political and economic inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations By Boettke, Peter
  18. Education, vocational training and R&D: towards new forms of labor market regulation By Lopes, Margarida
  19. Microfinance: Champion in Poverty Alleviation and Failure in Female Empowerment By Dobra, Alexandra
  20. The microfinance of reproduction and the reproduction of microfinance: understanding the connections between microfinance, empowerment, contraception and fertility in Bangladesh in the 1990s. By Duvendack, Maren; Palmer-Jones, Richard
  21. Neo-liberalism, consequences on the prospect of democratization in Latin America By Dobra, Alexandra
  22. المسؤولية الاجتماعية للشركات :التحديات والأفاق من أجل التنمية فى الدول العربية By Elasrag, Hussein
  23. The regional economic structure of Brazil in 1959: an overview based on an inter-State input-output system By Barros, Gustavo; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins

  1. By: David Hulme; Thankom Arun
    Abstract: Microfinance as the best way of tackling poverty is under attack. It has been accused of failing to help the poor, of treating its clients badly, of charging high interest rates and of encouraging poor people to take on excessive debt burdens. The authors examine these issues, and find that microfinance institutions (MFIs) can have significant positive impacts, including democratisation of banking services, provision of secure savings facilities for poor people, and social benefits, particularly for women. The paper looks at the way forward for microfinance, suggesting some changes that need to be implemented by MFIs, banking authorities and governments.
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Ma, Debin
    Abstract: This article posits that the political institution of imperial China – its unitary and centralized ruling structure – is an essential determinant to China‘s long-run economic trajectory and its early modern divergence from Western Europe. Drawing on institutional economics, I demonstrate that monopoly rule, a long time-horizon and the large size of the empire could give rise to a path of low-taxation and dynastic stability in imperial China. But fundamental incentive misalignment and information asymmetry problems within its centralized and hierarchical political structure also constrained the development the fiscal and financial capacity of the Chinese state. Based on a reconstruction of two millennia records of incidences of warfare, this paper develops a narrative to show that the establishment and consolidation towards a single unitary monopoly of political power was an endogenous historical process. Using data series on warfare and government revenue for 17-19th century, I illustrate the Qing imperial rule as an epitome of the traditional Chinese political economy.
    JEL: O53 N0
    Date: 2011–07
  3. By: Grigorovici, Iulia; Matei, Ani
    Abstract: Living in a rapidly changing society, where information travels with great speed and its upgrade is essential, we decided to approach certain aspects of e-democracy, as a dynamic way of citizen participation, using new Information and Communications Technologies.
    Abstract: The theme chosen for this research, Electronic governance, premise for implementation of electronic democracy, is a part of Electronic Administration field and identifies the meanings of implementing e-government and e-democracy, the necessity and effects of putting them into practice and the conditions to be fulfilled for the development of electronic services and fostering citizen participation in their use. E-governance as well as e-democracy have a clear contribution in making social progress, thanks to capitalize the most important irreversible resource, the time for achievement of the main administrative operations. The overall objective of the research aims to establish the relationship between governance and electronic democracy. From this perspective, this paper will contain: analyzing the importance of both e-governance and e-democracy, risks and benefits for each one, clarifying the need and implications underlying the implementation of electronic systems and explain the conditions to be met by citizens in order to benefit from these services.
    Abstract: To achieve the objectives set, will be dominant the analyzing method of the social phenomena in their evolution. They will also combine harmoniously with practical examples in various member states of the European Unio n.
    Keywords: electronic democracy; electronic governance
    Date: 2011–04–15
  4. By: Kumar, Neha; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
    Abstract: This paper provides empirical evidence on the gendered impact of the 2007–08 food price crisis using panel data on 1,400 households from rural Ethiopia that were initially surveyed before the onset of the crisis, in 1994–95, 1997, and 2004, and after food prices spiked, in 2009. It investigates whether female-headed households are more likely to report experiencing a food price shock, and whether female-headed households experiencing a shock are more (or less) likely to adopt certain coping strategies, controlling for individual, household, and community characteristics. Our findings suggest that female-headed households are more vulnerable to food price changes and are more likely to have experienced a food price shock in 2007–08. Because female-headed households are also resource poor and have a larger food gap compared with male-headed households, they cope by cutting back on the number of meals they provide their households during good months and eating less preferred foods in general. Our findings that land—particularly better quality land—has a protective effect against food price shocks also highlight the role of strengthening land rights of the poor, particularly poor women, to enable them to cope better with food price increases.
    Keywords: coping mechanisms, food price crisis, Gender,
    Date: 2011
  5. By: Quisumbing, Agnes R.
    Abstract: This paper examines asset dynamics for husband-owned, wife-owned, and jointly owned assets, using unique longitudinal survey data from rural Bangladesh. Nonparametric and parametric methods are used to examine the shape of the dynamic asset frontier, the number of equilibria, and whether land and nonland asset stocks converge to such equilibria. The paper also investigates the differential impact of negative shocks and positive events on husbands', wives', and jointly owned assets. Husbands' and wives' asset stocks are drawn down for different kinds of shocks, with husbands' assets being liquidated in response to death of a household member and dowry and wedding expenses, and both husbands' and wives' assets being negatively affected by illness shocks. The paper concludes by drawing out implications for the design of gender-sensitive social protection mechanisms.
    Keywords: Asset dynamics, Gender, Poverty traps,
    Date: 2011
  6. By: Cohen, Marc J.; Lemma, Mamusha
    Abstract: Decentralized delivery of public services has been promoted as a means to enhance citizen voice and make service provision more responsive to users. Ethiopia has undertaken two rounds of decentralization, making first the regional states and then the district governments responsible for providing key public services. This paper explores whether decentralization has improved the quality of service delivery and citizen satisfaction with the services provided, focusing on agricultural extension. Specifically, we examine whether services are responsive to the needs and expressed demands of poor farmers, including women farmers. We focus on the institutional arrangements through which agricultural extension services are provided and how these contribute to efficiency, effectiveness, and equity in service delivery.
    Keywords: agricultural extension, Decentralization, Gender, institutional analysis,
    Date: 2011
  7. By: Mbuvi, Dorcas (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University); Tarsim, Achraf (University of Liège)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the impact of the early 1980s neoliberalistic reform strategies in urban water distribution in developing countries. It examines in particular, the technical efficiency of two heterogeneous urban water utility-groups in Uganda. Performance is considered in light of the key urban water sector objectives that are to universally increase qualitative water coverage and enhance utility revenue. Using a two-staged bias-corrected metafrontier based on the data envelopment analysis estimators, the public-private (than the public-public) owned utilities are found less efficient. Efficiency differences between both groups are further linked to utilities scale of operation and market capture capabilities among other factors. The paper urges policy makers to strengthen public sector capabilities as a development policy solution for inclusive quality water services access among other basic public utility services in Uganda, Africa and the developing countries in general.
    Keywords: Efficiency, managerial ownership, non-parametric, Uganda, urban water supply, water supply, water resource management, water utilities
    JEL: C14 H41 L95 Q25
    Date: 2011
  8. By: Nour, Samia (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and Khartoum University)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the education, training and skill development policies in Sudan using a combination of new secondary and primary data. A novel element in our paper is that we use new primary macro and micro (firm) surveys data to discuss and compare the macro and micro perspectives concerning policies implemented to improve skill upgrading through enhancing the educational system, provision of training and transfer of knowledge. Different from the Sudanese literature, an interesting element in our analysis is that we discuss both the supply and demand sides of educational policies and we provide a more comprehensive analysis by explaining the low commitment to the standardised international adequacy, equity and efficiency criterion related to the supply and demand sides of education and training policies in Sudan. We provide a new contribution and fill important gap in the Sudanese literature by explaining that the regional disparity in the demand for education (share in enrolment in education) is most probably due to economic reasons (per capita income and poverty rate), demographic reasons (share in total population) and other reasons (degree of urbanization) in Sudan. We find that the increase in the incidence of high poverty rate and low per capita income seem to be the most important factor limiting the demand for education, notably, the demand for primary education, especially for females in Sudan. The major policy implication from our findings is that poverty eradication is key for the achievement of universal access to primary education and gender equality and therefore, fulfillment of the second and third United Nations Millennium Development Goals in Sudan by 2015. We recommend further efforts to be made to improve quality, increase firm commitment to the standardised international adequacy, equity and efficiency criterion in the provision of education and training, increase incentives at tertiary and technical education, enhance consistency of education, training and skill development policies and encourage collaboration between public and private sectors.
    Keywords: Education, training, supply, demand, adequacy, efficiency, equity, skill development, Sudan
    JEL: H52 I20 I21 I28 M53 O15
    Date: 2011
  9. By: Ayee, Joseph; Soreide, Tina; Shukla, G. P.; Le, Tuan Minh
    Abstract: With a focus on the institutional set-up and the political environment as central to understanding and rectifying the poor impact of mining on Ghana's economic development, this paper highlights the vulnerabilities in mining sector governance along the industry value chain. The authors explain why it has been difficult to implement policies that would have improved social welfare. They find that incentive problems in institutions directly or peripherally involved in mining governance are a major factor, as are an excessively centralized policy-making process, a powerful executive president, strong party loyalty, a system of political patronage, lack of transparency, and weak institutional capacity at the political and regulatory levels. The paper argues that the net impact of mining on economic development is likely to be enhanced with appropriate reforms in governance. Most importantly, there should be a greater awareness of incentive problems at the political level and their possible implications for sector performance and the economy at large. The set of checks and balances, as stipulated by the Constitution, have to be reinforced. Furthermore, capacity building at different levels and institutions is needed and should be combined with efforts to enhance incentives for institutional performance.
    Keywords: National Governance,Environmental Economics&Policies,Public Sector Corruption&Anticorruption Measures,Mining&Extractive Industry (Non-Energy),Governance Indicators
    Date: 2011–07–01
  10. By: Y. Hossein Farzin (Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California); Kelly A. Grogan (Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida)
    Abstract: We investigate the relationships between water quality and socioeconomic factors in California at the county level for the years 1993 to 2006 using 24 water quality indicators coming from seven different types of water bodies. We estimate these relationships using three classes of models: the traditional per capita income-pollution level - Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) - specifications, a more inclusive model containing main socioeconomic variables such as agricultural intensity, land use, ethnic composition, population density and educational attainment, and a model that includes the socioeconomic variables while accounting for spatial correlations too. For most water quality indicators, we do not find support for EKC specifications. For pollutants like phosphorus and total suspended solids, the level of agricultural activity is a significant determinant of water quality in California, but for other surface water pollutants commonly considered agricultural pollutants, such as ammonia and nitrate, the level of agricultural activity is not statistically significant. We find that education, ethnic composition, age structure, land use, population density, and water area are all significantly correlated with various indicators of water quality.
    Keywords: Water Quality Indicators, Socioeconomic Variables, EKC, Agriculture, Industry
    JEL: Q53 Q56 Q58 C23
    Date: 2011–07
  11. By: Abdou Kâ Diongue (Saint-Louis Université - Sénégal); Gaël Giraud (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne - Paris School of Economics et ESCP-Europe); Cécile Renouard (ESSEC - Business School)
    Abstract: Extractive industries face two main challenges in terms of CSR and poverty reduction : 1) recognize that societal activity is part of their core business ; 2) take part in socio-economic projects that contribute to their stakeholders' empowerment and not only to their living conditions. Based on surveys achieved in Nigeria in 2008, the paper presents two societal performance indices meant to be complementary : the Poverty Exit Index (PEI) and the Relational Capability Index (RCI). We show that, while they have fostered the PEI of the local communities, the development projects of the oil companies had a rather negative impact on their RCI. We then identify key variables that can influence positively the RCI and on which a sensible development policy should focus.
    Keywords: Development indices, capability approach, relational capability, development, poverty, impact assessment.
    JEL: C43 D21 F21 L71 O12 O55
    Date: 2011–07
  12. By: Gaëlle Ferrant (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne); Yannick Bourquin (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne)
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence that local social interactions within etnic groups may explain the puzzling variations in labour-market outcomes across individuals. Peer effects work first by creating pressure on labor-market participation, second, by conveying information about job opportunities and by raising wages. These effects differ through a selection effect : gender and ethnic groups who are less integrated in the labour market benefit more from peer effect. Finally, networks exhibit decreasing returns. The problems of endogeneity and simultaneity of local peer effects are addressed by using (i) data aggregated at the province level, (ii) the distribution of the sex of the peers' siblings as an instrumental variable and (iii) a quasi-panel data approach relying on the Hausman-Taylor estimator. The importance of social interactions in the labour market suggests that a social multiplier exists and our estimates show that any labour-market shock is magnified with an elasticity of 0.5.
    Keywords: Peer efects, development economics, labour, South Africa.
    JEL: J15 J16 O18 Z13
    Date: 2011–07
  13. By: Cornelia Woll
    Abstract: The highly politicized debate about the recent Alternative Investment Fund Manager (AIFM) Directive of the European Union led many observers to suspect an ideological battle between countries seeking to impose transnational regulation on financial service industries such as hedge funds and liberal market economies insisting on the benefits of market discipline in order to protect their financial centers. The battle that appeared to particularly pit France against the United Kingdom can thus be interpreted as an example of a regulatory paradigm shift in the aftermath of the crisis. This article cautions against such an ideas-centered account of financial regulation and points to the economic interests that drove the French and German agendas. However, contrary to the assumptions of traditional political economy approaches, national preferences were not simply defined by the aggregate of a country’s economic interests. Rather, industry success in shaping government positions on alternative investment regulation crucially depended on how a given industry fit into the government’s overarching geo-political agenda. By highlighting this feedback loop between government strategy and industry lobbying, the paper proposes a strategic analysis of financial regulation, as opposed to accounts that consider positions to be pre-determined by ideas or socio-economic structures.
    Keywords: economic policy; financial markets; ideas; liberalization; regulation
    Date: 2011–07–22
  14. By: Shu-Heng Chen; Sai-Ping Li
    Abstract: In this editorial guide for the special issue on econophysics, we give a unique review of this young but quickly growing discipline. A suggestive taxonomy of the development is proposed by making a distinction between classical econophysics and modern econophysics. For each of these two stages of development, we identify the key economic issues whose formulations and/or treatments have been affected by physics or physicists, which includes value, business fluctuations, economic growth, economic and financial time series, the distribution of economic entities, interactions of economic agents, and economic and social networks. The recent advancements in these issues of modern econophysics are demonstrated by nine articles selected from the papers presented at the Econophysics Colloquium 2010 held at Academia Sinica in Taipei.
    Date: 2011–07
  15. By: Baddeley, M.
    Abstract: Psychological and sociological factors constrain economic decision-making in many contexts including the online world. Behavioural economics and economic psychology emphasise that people will make mistakes in processing information and in planning for the future; these mistakes will also distort learning processes. Emotions and visceral factors will play a key role - not only aecting people's actions but also distorting the interactions between information, learning and choices. This will have wide-ranging implications for online behavior and information security management, making people more vulnerable to security/privacy abuses including hacking, spam attacks, phishing, identity theft and online financial exploitation. These vulnerabilities raise crucial policy questions - recently made more pressing in the light of recent phone-hacking scandals in the UK. This paper outlines some of the behavioural factors affecting people's online behaviour and analyses real-world reactions to online fraud using evidence from the British Crime Survey 2009-10.
    JEL: D18 D83 K42
    Date: 2011–07–25
  16. By: Punabantu, Siize
    Abstract: The recent earthquake in Japan and its impact on the Fukushima nuclear power plant is a tragic reminder of humanity’s ever growing dependence on energy for its socioeconomic development. Energy plays a central role in determining the effectiveness of economics. However, are the fundamental difficulties associated with understanding the true nature of energy impeding development? This paper is a reflection on theoretical physics from an economic vantage point. As difficult as it may seem to band them together as this article will attempt to do, physics and economics are conjoined. Space, Time , Matter and Energy all play a significant role in the capacity of economics to better provide for humanity. For example, energy; its, provision, evolution and consumption play a significant role in the capacity of economics to develop strategies with which to satisfactorily manage human development. The impact the price of oil has on the global economy is testimony to the impact the cost of energy has on economies and governments in general. If global incomes could rise or the cost of energy could fall this could significantly increase its affordability. Therefore, advances in physics and the natural sciences in general can have a positive impact on economics.
    Keywords: Scarcity; money; money supply; energy; zero cost energy; open market operations; resource creation; economic thought; poverty; wealth; cost; market efficiency; supply; demand; money; price; time; space; matter; mark-up; cost plus pricing; rationality; operating level economics; economic growth; paradox
    JEL: Q32 Q38 B40 A20 Q42 Q40 C70 A10
    Date: 2011–07–26
  17. By: Boettke, Peter
    Abstract: Deirdre McCloskey’s Bourgeois Dignity (2010) represents another breakthrough work in her career, and the second volume in a multi-volume work on the economic and intellectual history of western civilization. In a sense, the subtitle of the book explains well what this volume is all about--why economics can’t explain the modern world. An important modifier would be – modern economics can’t explain the modern world – because much of what McCloskey argues is the resurrection of an older argument that was associated with classical liberal political economists from Smith, Bastiat, Mises, Hayek and Friedman. Fundamentally, she reasserts the power of ideas to shape the world. McCloskey’s narrative is simple and compelling -- materialist stories (whether technological, genetic, or institutional) do not work; incentive based stories do not provide a complete picture of why some countries grew rich while others remained poor, let alone for the exact timing for the divergence in the wealth and poverty of nations with the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th century. McCloskey proposes that incentive based explanations must reside within a broader narrative that addresses values and beliefs, as well as institutions, technologies, and material conditions. In doing so, McCloskey paves the way for a true behavioral approach to a political and economic inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations.
    Keywords: Economic History; Economic Development; Industrial Revolution
    JEL: O10 N00 P10
    Date: 2011
  18. By: Lopes, Margarida
    Abstract: Abstract Labor market regulation and its relations with education and training have been performing an historical trajectory which closely intertwined with developments in economic thought. Under the form of human capital theories, neo-classical economics set the bridge between labor market equilibrium and education outputs for decades. The functionalist approach behind that lasting relationship was to be challenged by economic crises and globalization, which imposed the unquestionable supremacy of the demand for skilled work. Likewise, even if only that more strict perspective of education would prevail, which fortunately is not the case, time and hazard came to undertake its denigration on the grounds of a severe loss of regulatory efficiency as globalization was setting up. In this paper we shed light on the increasing role which innovation is called to perform in labor market hetero regulation in the present phase of globalization. Depending on the institutional design throughout which R&D become embedded in nowadays societies, evidence clearly reveals how innovation strategies are to be found so asymmetrically implemented between developed and developing countries, thereby leading to the enlarging divide between the “new North” and “new South” globalization off springs.
    Keywords: Key Words: labor market regulation; education and training; innovation; knowledge.
    JEL: J08 D84 A23 I21
    Date: 2011–05–07
  19. By: Dobra, Alexandra
    Abstract: In the past few years the provision of financial services to low-income clients via microfinance programs has drastically increased due to its positive effects on development. There are plenty of policy concerns surrounding the triad of microfinance, poverty reduction, and female empowerment. Microfinance programs provide an effective and operational policy tool which is successful in reducing poverty »holistically,« in the sense that women tend to share their income with others more than men. However, the rigidity of microfinance programs does little to enhance female political empowerment. Thus, it is important to go beyond the mainly economics-centred literature and to draw on examples from less developed countries and to propose ways of overcoming the programs’ weaknesses. As a result, a positive correlation between targeting women with microfinance programs has to be found that consistently decreases overall poverty.
    Keywords: Microfinance ; Empowerment ; Limits ; Targeting
    JEL: B21 D63 A14
    Date: 2011–07–01
  20. By: Duvendack, Maren; Palmer-Jones, Richard
    Abstract: Microfinance (MF) and family planning (FP) are thought to be very important interventions in the promotion of human development and it has been suggested that MF has significant beneficent impacts on contraceptive adoption and fertility. Thus, several authors, e.g. Amin, Hill and Li (1995), Amin et al (1994 and 2001); Schuler, Hashemi and Riley (1997); Hashemi, Schuler and Riley (1996); Schuler and Hashemi (1994), using naive methods find that MF in Bangladesh increases contraceptive use and reduces fertility at the individual level, largely because MF empowers women. Pitt et al (1999 – henceforth PKML), however, using instrumental variables (IV) estimation find that MF is associated with decreases in contraceptive use especially when females borrow, and male borrowing decreases fertility, perhaps because fertility increasing income effects of MF outweigh substitution. Steele et al (2001), also using data from Bangladesh from around the same time as the PKML study, come to conclusions closer to the orthodoxy, arguing that PKML use an inappropriate metric for MF programme participation. In this paper we apply matching methods to our reconstruction of the PKML data to test whether other methods reproduce their results. We find that female borrowing substantially increases contraceptive use but has mainly no effects on fertility, while male borrowing has no effect on contraceptive use or on fertility; this contradicts some of the findings of PKML. Our results are shown to be vulnerable to unobservables, but there is no reason to believe that results on IV based methods are more reliable.
    Keywords: Microfinance; family planning; propensity score matching; Bangladesh
    JEL: J13 O10 O16 O12
    Date: 2011–06
  21. By: Dobra, Alexandra
    Abstract: The present paper aims to analyze the consequences of neo-liberalism on the prospect of democratization in Latin America, by concentrating on two case-studies, Brazil and Chile. The analysis is done on a double level. In a first part it considers the consequences of neo-liberalism on the first dimension of the infra-State level, the State itself and the government. In a second part it moves to the analysis of the second dimension of the infra-State level, the society. This double level of evaluation highlights the deficiency of an efficacious political democratization at the level of the State and the lack of the application of civil rights at the level of society. The neo-liberal context has accentuated democratic lacunas, because it has been ineffective in providing monitoring capacities in the field of democratic norms and institutional implementation.
    Keywords: Neo-liberalism; Latin America; Democratization; Democratic deconsolidation; Depolitization; Public sphere
    JEL: J08 A13 I38 A11
    Date: 2010–10
  22. By: Elasrag, Hussein
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibilities and problems for Establishment of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the Arab countries. The paper explores the nature and concept of CSR, particularly the Arab initiatives. As well as studying the activation of the corporate social responsibility role in the economic and social development of Arab countries.
    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Development ; Arab countries
    JEL: M14
    Date: 2011–06
  23. By: Barros, Gustavo; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins
    Abstract: This paper aims at describing the regional configuration of 1959 Brazil’s productive structure through the estimation of an Inter-State Input-Output system. The estimated matrix is the oldest of this kind for Brazil. It can, hence, be an important tool for the study of the regional productive structure at an historical moment in which the regional question appeared as a central national issue. In this paper we describe estimation procedures and sources of data, and present some general characterization of the regional structure of the economy in 1959 through selected structural indicators.
    Keywords: Regional Economic Structure; Brazil; Input-Output; Economic Development; Industrialization
    JEL: R15
    Date: 2011

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