nep-his New Economics Papers
on Business, Economic and Financial History
Issue of 2023‒10‒23
23 papers chosen by
Bernardo Bátiz-Lazo, Northumbria University

  1. THE CONCEPT OF FREEDOM IN LIBERAL AND CONSERVATIVE POLITICAL THOUGHT AT THE TURN OF THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES By Budraitskis, Ilya (Будрайтскис, Илья); Vanunts, Georgy (Ванунц, Георгий); Yegorova, A. (Егорова, А.); Zapolskaya, A. (Запольская, А.); Yudin, Grigory (Юдин, Григорий)
  2. Historical View of Diabetics Mellitus: From Ancient Egyptian Polyuria to Discovery of Insulin By Mohajan, Devajit
  3. Structural Transformation and Value Change: The British Abolitionist Movement By Valentín Figueroa; Vasiliki Fouka
  4. European business cycles and economic growth, 1300-2000 By Broadberry, Stephen; Lennard, Jason
  5. A Short History of the Great Depression in Bulgaria By Marinova, Tsvetelina; Nenovsky, Nikolay
  6. The Birth Order Effect: A Modern Phenomenon? By Nuevo-Chiquero, Ana; Vidal-Fernandez, Marian; Lehmann, Jee-Yeon K.
  7. Wages and labour relations in the Middle Ages: it's not (all) about the money By Claridge, Jordan; Delabastita, Vincent; Gibbs, Spike
  8. Industrial Policy and the Great Divergence By Juhász, Réka; Steinwender, Claudia
  9. Intergenerational Mobility of Daughters and Marital Sorting: New Evidence from Imperial China By Wolfgang Keller; Carol H. Shiue
  10. Populist Leaders and the Economy By Manuel Funke; Moritz Schularick; Christoph Trebesch
  11. The organizational identity of business schools: Toward an entrepreneurial redefinition? A longitudinal case study of a European business school By Adrien Jean-Guy Passant
  12. Origins of Latin American Inequality By Eslava, Francisco; Valencia Caicedo, Felipe
  13. Napoleonic Administrative Reforms and Development. Lessons from the Italian Mezzogiorno By Cainelli, Giulio; Ciccarelli, Carlo; Ganau, Roberto
  14. Resilience and Recovery: Insights from the July 2022 Eastern Kentucky Flood By Matthew Klesta
  15. One Hundred Inflation Shocks: Seven Stylized Facts By Mr. Anil Ari; Mr. Carlos Mulas-Granados; Mr. Victor Mylonas; Mr. Lev Ratnovski; Wei Zhao
  16. Between territorial matrix and sectoral issues: a socio-historical approach to the political work undertaken by French Basque worker cooperatives By Xabier Itçaina
  17. The 1950 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship: Road to Review By Acharya, Mahesh
  18. Elite-led revolutions By Raouf Boucekkine; Rodolphe Desbordes; Paolo Melindi-Ghidi
  19. Economics and Nature: A Long-Neglected Combination By Anna Pettini
  20. Techno-economic analysis of forward osmosis pre-concentration before an anaerobic membrane bioreactor: Impact of draw solute and membrane material By Sergi Vinardell; Gaetan Blandin; Federico Ferrari; Geoffroy Lesage; Joan Mata-Alvarez; Joan Dosta; Sergi Astals
  21. Inequality and capabilities in an era of rising instability By Giovanni Andrea Cornia
  22. INDUSTRIFEM : Entrepreneuriat industriel féminin en France au XIXe siècle By Charlotte Le Chapelain
  23. Debt and Economic Growth: Does Size Matter? Evidence from Dynamic Parametric and Static Non-parametric Approaches By Reyes-Tagle, Gerardo; Muñoz-Ayala, Jorge E.

  1. By: Budraitskis, Ilya (Будрайтскис, Илья) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Vanunts, Georgy (Ванунц, Георгий) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Yegorova, A. (Егорова, А.) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Zapolskaya, A. (Запольская, А.) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Yudin, Grigory (Юдин, Григорий) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The subject of our research is the evolution of the concept of "freedom" in liberal political thought at the end of the 19th century – first half of the 20th century, as well as its influence on further academic discussions of "freedom" as a concept. Our main sources, therefore, are the texts by liberal, conservative as well as left-wing theorists of the period in question (Isaiah Berlin, Carl Schmitt, Edmund Burke, Max Weber, Joseph Schumpeter, Walter Benjamin) and their interconnections with the subsequent development of the liberal tradition (Jurgen Habermas, Hannah Arendt) as well as its critics (Giorgio Agamben, Judith Butler). The aim of the project was to confirm our basic hypothesis that the key transformation of the concept of "freedom" in political and social thought takes place at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries – this was the moment when liberal doctrines took shape, in which collective freedom gave way to individual freedom. Thus, our project had three objectives: 1) to trace the transformation of the notion of freedom in the liberal tradition of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, 2) to identify lines of criticism of individual freedom in conservative and leftist thought of the early twentieth century, 3) to analyze the current crisis of liberalism related to the non-democratic basis of actual political representation and to show how the notion of freedom formed in early twentieth century liberal theory has affected the institutions of modern liberal democracy. The relevance of the research is determined by the deepening crisis of liberalism in our days and the pursuit of programmatic alternatives to liberal democratic institutions. Through an analysis based primarily on the "history of concepts" method, we have described the contradictions in liberal thought associated with the form of the democratic process and its elitist content. The scientific novelty of this study lies in the fact that, for the first time in domestic political theory, an attempt was made to examine the key category of "freedom" in the liberal tradition in a broad historical and theoretical context, which made it possible to identify its contemporary understanding. We conclude that this anti-democratic and anti-egalitarian element of the liberal tradition has common origins with the conservative critique of democracy of the early to mid-20th century. Since the Russian Federation's policy documents (in particular, the National Security Strategy) pay considerable attention to rethinking the relationship between individual freedoms and securing the collective freedom of the Russian people in the face of external challenges, the practical recommendation of the study is to further develop an original historical and theoretical concept of freedom that meets the contemporary conditions of our country.
    Keywords: democracy, conservatism, politics, freedom, republicanism, liberalism, neoliberalism, political theology, political subject, political sphere
    JEL: B10 B30
    Date: 2021–11–12
  2. By: Mohajan, Devajit
    Abstract: History is the pioneer of all researches and developments, and the history of diabetes has its beginnings in antiquity about over three millennia. Diabetes mellitus is one of the oldest diseases from the human civilization. Also it is one of the most studied diseases in the history of medicine. Main symptoms of this disease are hyperglycaemia, excessive thirsty, increased appetite, gradual loss of body weight, and continuous passing of huge honey-sweet urine that often drew ants. The disease causes either for inadequate insulin production, or for the body cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Descriptions of diabetes mellitus have been found in the Egyptian Papyri, in ancient Indian and Chinese medical literature, and in the works of ancient Greek and Arab physicians. In the 17th century works of Thomas Willis; in the 19th century, the glycogenic action of the liver is done by French physiologist Claude Bernard; famous experiment of removing the pancreas from a dog and producing severe and fatal diabetes are performed by Oskar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering; and finally in the 19th century, isolation of insulin from pancreatic islets is done by Frederick Banting and Charles Best to save diabetes patients from the suffering from diabetes. These are the roots of all achievements in favor of welfare of diabetes patients. At present the prevalence of diabetes is very high worldwide, and is increasing day by day. In this study historical points of diabetes are highlighted for the awareness of this disease.
    Keywords: Dibatics, Papyrus Ebers, ancient period, history, insulin, treatment
    JEL: A1 A13 A14 I1 I12 I15 I3 I31
    Date: 2023–03–10
  3. By: Valentín Figueroa; Vasiliki Fouka
    Abstract: What drives change in a society’s values? From Marx to modernization theory, scholars have identified a connection between structural transformation and social change. To understand how changes in a society’s dominant mode of production affect its dominant values, we examine the case of the movement for the abolition of slavery in the late 18th and early 19th century Britain, one of history’s most well-known campaigns for social change, which coincided temporally with the Industrial Revolution. We argue that structural transformation alters the distribution of power in society and enables groups with distinct values and weak economic interest in the status quo to mobilize for change. Using data on anti-slavery petitions, membership in abolitionist groups, MP voting behavior in Parliament and economic activity, we show that support for abolition was strongly connected to manufacturing at the aggregate and individual level. We rely on biographical data and the analysis of parliamentary speeches to show that industrialists were relatively less reliant on income from slavery and were characterized by a universalist worldview that distinguished them from established elites. Together, our findings suggest that both values and economic interest play a role in driving social change.
    Keywords: values, structural transformation, social change, slavery, abolition
    JEL: A13 N63 O14 P16 Z10
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Broadberry, Stephen; Lennard, Jason
    Abstract: The modern business cycle features long expansions combined with short recessions and is thus related to the emergence of sustained economic growth. It also features significant international co-movement and is therefore associated with growing market integration and globalisation. When did these patterns first appear? This paper explores the changing nature of the business cycle using historical national accounts for nine European economies between 1300 and 2000. For the sample as a whole, the modern business cycle emerged at the end of the eighteenth century.
    Keywords: business cycle; economic growth; Europe
    JEL: N10 E32 O47
    Date: 2023–10–01
  5. By: Marinova, Tsvetelina; Nenovsky, Nikolay
    Abstract: The paper aims to synthesize the causes and factors that have given specific shape to the Great Depression in Bulgaria, its manifestation in the country (Part 1), its phases and forms (Part 2), as well as the subsequent structural change and trajectory of the Bulgarian economy and society (Part 3). We present the major economic ideas as well as the debates that accompanied them. We argue that the overall dynamic of the causes, phases, and consequences of the Great Depression has an internal logic and causal consistency.
    Keywords: agrarian crisis, financial crisis, Great Depression, Bulgaria, economic policy, economic thought
    JEL: B2 B25 E5 E52 N1 N2 N24 N54 Q1
    Date: 2023–09–01
  6. By: Nuevo-Chiquero, Ana (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid); Vidal-Fernandez, Marian (University of Sydney); Lehmann, Jee-Yeon K. (University of Houston)
    Abstract: We provide a historical perspective on the birth order effect by examining differences in adult occupational rank among brothers in 19th and early 20th century Netherlands. Using a rich historical dataset compiling administrative birth and marriage registry records linking family members, we further analyze the role of family composition and socio-economic status in modulating the birth order effect. While consistent with findings in modern developed countries, we find that later-born males hold lower-ranked occupations than their older male siblings, we also find that consistent with modern evidence from emerging economies like India and China, this negative birth order effect is primarily driven by differences between the first- and the last-born and their siblings, and by the number of brothers in the family. Birth order differences – particularly the first-born advantage – are larger among socio-economically advantaged families and in more urbanised areas, while the opposite is true for the last-born effect. Surprisingly, the first-born advantage or son-preference is not driven by inheritance rules or transmission of occupations to children born earlier in the family. Taken together, our findings suggest that birth order effects and quantity-quality tradeoffs in families, are not merely modern phenomena but have been a source of context-dependent intrahousehold inequality throughout the centuries.
    Keywords: birth order, first-born, the Netherlands, historical data
    JEL: J01 N14
    Date: 2023–09
  7. By: Claridge, Jordan; Delabastita, Vincent; Gibbs, Spike
    Abstract: For long periods of history, a significant proportion of the labour force has received all or part of their wages in non-monetary in-kind payments. Despite its historical ubiquity, this form of labour remuneration remains poorly understood. This paper presents a framework which allows for the valuation and interpretation of in-kind wages. We apply our method to a new dataset of agricultural wages for labourers in medieval England (1270-1440), most of whom received a composite wage for which in-kind payment was the largest share. Assessing the market value of the wages these workers received, we find an increase in the relative importance of cash payments in the latter decades of the 14th century. We show that this was connected to a fundamental shift in labour relations, providing new empirical insights into the so-called ‘golden age of labour’ that followed the Black Death.
    Keywords: labour markets; labour relations; medieval economy; wages
    JEL: J33 J42 N33 N53
    Date: 2023–09–01
  8. By: Juhász, Réka; Steinwender, Claudia
    Abstract: We discuss recent work evaluating the role of the government in shaping the economy during the long 19th century, a practice we refer to as industrial policy. We show that states deployed a vast variety of different policies aimed at, primarily, but not exclusively, fostering industrialization. We discuss the thin, but growing literature that evaluates the economic effects of these policies. We highlight some fruitful avenues for future study.
    Date: 2023–09–21
  9. By: Wolfgang Keller; Carol H. Shiue
    Abstract: We study the role of marriage for women's intergenerational mobility during the Ming-Qing (1368-1911) period. Using status information based on the timing of marriage from family histories in Central China, already in the early 1500s it is the case that daughters from rich families attain higher status over their lifetime than daughters from poorer families. This intergenerational status persistence is partly due to marital sorting because daughters from high-status families tend to become the wives of sons who themselves come from rich families. Quantitatively, the correlation of 0.6 between the status of biological and in-law families means that marriage accounts for more than one third of total intergenerational status transmission, while not accounting for marriage overestimates mobility by more than 20 percent. Further underscoring the importance of marriage, typically the status of the in-law family plays a larger role for intergenerational status transmission than the child's biological grandparents. Over the period 1500 to 1900, the degree of marital sorting falls, as does intergenerational persistence. Lower investments in the marriage market to find a good match for a daughter go hand in hand with the fall in the returns to son education due to the decline of China's civil service examination.
    JEL: J62 N3
    Date: 2023–09
  10. By: Manuel Funke (Kiel Institute for the World Economy - Kiel Institute for the World Economy); Moritz Schularick (Kiel Institute for the World Economy - Kiel Institute for the World Economy, ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Christoph Trebesch (Kiel Institute for the World Economy - Kiel Institute for the World Economy)
    Abstract: Populism at the country level is at an all-time high, with more than 25% of nations currently governed by populists. How do economies perform under populist leaders? We build a new long run crosscountry database to study the macroeconomic history of populism. We identify 51 populist presidents and prime ministers from 1900 to 2020 and show that the economic cost of populism is high. After 15 years, GDP per capita is 10% lower compared to a plausible non-populist counterfactual. Economic disintegration, decreasing macroeconomic stability, and the erosion of institutions typically go hand in hand with populist rule.
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Adrien Jean-Guy Passant (ISTEC - Institut supérieur des Sciences, Techniques et Economie Commerciales - ISTEC)
    Abstract: A growing number of business schools are redefining their organizational identity in an entrepreneurial sense. What are the causes and consequences of this transformation? This article presents a longitudinal case study of the evolution of the organizational identity of a European business school from the 1970s to the present day. It shows that the processes of transforming organizational identity from an entrepreneurial perspective constitute historical constructs that sometimes stem from emerging strategies. This study reveals the extent to which these transformation processes can discursively and factually contribute to the entrepreneurial orientation of such schools
    Keywords: Education and entrepreneurial pedagogy organizational identity history business school entrepreneurialism, Education and entrepreneurial pedagogy, organizational identity, history, business school, entrepreneurialism
    Date: 2022–01–05
  12. By: Eslava, Francisco; Valencia Caicedo, Felipe
    Abstract: How deep are the roots of Latin America's economic inequalities? In this chapter we survey both the history and the literature about the region's extreme economic disparities, focusing on the most recent academic contributions. We begin by documenting the broad patterns of national and sub-national differences in income and inequality, building on the seminal contributions of Engerman and Sokoloff (2000; 2002, 2005) and aiming to capture different dimensions of inequality. We then proceed thematically, providing empirical evidence and summarizing the key recent studies on colonial institutions, slavery, land reform, education and the role of elites. Finally, we conduct a “replication” exercise with some seminal papers in the literature, extending their economic results to include different measures of inequality as outcomes.
    Keywords: Elites;Inequality;Latin America;History;Colonization;Persistence;Slavery;Land Refor;Education
    JEL: D02 D63 I24 N10 N16 O43 Q15
    Date: 2023–07
  13. By: Cainelli, Giulio (University of Padua); Ciccarelli, Carlo (University of Rome "Tor Vergata" and CAGE); Ganau, Roberto (University of Padua and LSE)
    Abstract: We study how changes in the administrative hierarchy of a country affect development at the city level. We exploit the 1806 Napoleonic administrative reform implemented in the Kingdom of Naples as a historical experiment to assess whether district capitals endowed with supra-municipal administrative functions by law gained an urban development premium compared with non-capital cities. We assemble an original dataset combining historical data from 1648 to 1911, and rely on difference-in-differences and instrumental variable estimation strategies. We find that district capitals recorded a time-persistent population growth premium in the period 1828–1911, and experienced higher industrialization both before and after the Italian unification occurred in 1861, compared with non-capital cities. We explain our results through mechanisms related to public goods provision and transport network accessibility.
    Keywords: Napoleonic reforms; territorial administrative hierarchy; long-run development JEL Classification: H11, N13, O11, R11
    Date: 2023
  14. By: Matthew Klesta
    Abstract: Because of its topography, location, and coal mining legacy, eastern Kentucky has a long history of flooding. This report focuses on housing in the 13 counties declared federal disaster areas after the July 2022 flood.
    Keywords: affordable housing; Infrastructure; rural economy; natural disasters
    Date: 2023–09–27
  15. By: Mr. Anil Ari; Mr. Carlos Mulas-Granados; Mr. Victor Mylonas; Mr. Lev Ratnovski; Wei Zhao
    Abstract: This paper identifies over 100 inflation shock episodes in 56 countries since the 1970s, including over 60 episodes linked to the 1973–79 oil crises. We document that only in 60 percent of the episodes was inflation brought back down (or “resolved”) within 5 years, and that even in these “successful” cases resolving inflation took, on average, over 3 years. Success rates were lower and resolution times longer for episodes induced by terms-of-trade shocks during the 1973–79 oil crises. Most unresolved episodes involved “premature celebrations”, where inflation declined initially, only to plateau at an elevated level or re-accelerate. Сountries that resolved inflation had tighter monetary policy that was maintained more consistently over time, lower nominal wage growth, and less currency depreciation, compared to unresolved cases. Successful disinflations were associated with short-term output losses, but not with larger output, employment, or real wage losses over a 5-year horizon, potentially indicating the value of policy credibility and macroeconomic stability.
    Keywords: Inflation Shocks; Disinflation; Monetary Policy; 1973–79 Oil Crises; Termsof- Trade Shocks
    Date: 2023–09–15
  16. By: Xabier Itçaina (CED - Centre Émile Durkheim - IEP Bordeaux - Sciences Po Bordeaux - Institut d'études politiques de Bordeaux - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The article revisits the question of the territorial anchoring of cooperatives through an analytical framework that combines the regulationist approach and the sociology of political work. This general framing is put to the test through a case study of production cooperatives in the French Basque Country, considered as a social and economic movement aspiring to rebuild local development on a cooperative, territorial, and intersectoral basis. The visions of territorial development thus conveyed, however, are not static. Therefore, the article follows a socio-historical reading by distinguishing three sequences. The genesis of the movement, first, in the 1970s is characterized by its politicization since the founders of the SCOPs refer to a model of endogenous economic development, to the cross-border model of Mondragón, to territorial identity, and to inherited forms of cooperation. In a second phase, the movement slowed down due to some significant entrepreneurial failures in the 1980s and 1990s. Sectoral and market constraints put the cooperative model and inter-cooperation to the test. A third phase, starting in the 2000s, saw a redeployment of cooperatives within the framework of a broader spectrum of citizen mobilizations around the social and solidarity economy, but also around the ecological transition and the Basque language and culture, this redeployment coinciding with a substantial change in territorial governance. The concluding section looks at some general lessons on the territorial anchoring of cooperatives.
    Abstract: El artículo retoma la cuestión del anclaje territorial de las cooperativas a través del prisma de un marco analítico que cruza la sociología del trabajo político y el enfoque regulacionista "meso". Este marco general se pone a prueba a partir de un estudio de caso de las cooperativas de producción (SCOP) en el País Vasco francés, consideradas como un movimiento social y económico que aspira a refundar el desarrollo local en clave cooperativa, territorial e intersectorial. Sin embargo, las visiones de desarrollo territorial así transmitidas no son estáticas. Proponemos, por tanto, una lectura socio-histórica del mismo distinguiendo tres secuencias. La génesis del movimiento, por un lado, se caracteriza en los años 70 por su politización, aludiendo los fundadores de las SCOP a un modelo de desarrollo económico endógeno, al modelo transfronterizo de Mondragón, a la identidad territorial y a los registros heredados de cooperación. En una segunda fase, el movimiento experimentará una desaceleración debido a algunos fracasos empresariales. Las limitaciones sectoriales y de mercado ponen entonces a prueba el modelo cooperativo y la inter-cooperación. Una tercera fase, a partir de la década de 2000, supuso un redespliegue de las cooperativas en el marco de un espectro más amplio de movilizaciones ciudadanas en torno a la economía social y solidaria pero también a la transición ecológica, el euskera y la cultura, coincidiendo este redespliegue con un cambio sustancial de ordenamiento territorial. La sección final revisa algunas lecciones generales sobre el anclaje territorial de las cooperativas.
    Abstract: L'article revisite la question de l'ancrage territorial des coopératives au prisme d'un cadre d'analyse croisant la sociologie du travail politique et l'approche régulationniste « méso ». Ce cadrage général est mis à l'épreuve à partir d'une étude de cas portant sur les coopératives de production (SCOP) du Pays basque français, considérées comme un mouvement social économique aspirant à refonder le développement local sur une base coopérative, territoriale et intersectorielle. Les visions du développement territorial ainsi véhiculées ne sont cependant pas statiques. Nous en proposons dès lors une lecture sociohistorique en distinguant trois séquences. La genèse du mouvement, d'une part, se caractérise dans les années 1970 par sa politisation, les fondateurs des SCOP se référant à un modèle de développement économique endogène, au modèle transfrontalier de Mondragón, à l'identité territoriale et à des registres hérités de coopération. Dans une deuxième phase, le mouvement connaitra un ralentissement dû à quelques échecs entrepreneuriaux. Les contraintes sectorielles et marchandes mettent alors à l'épreuve le modèle coopératif et l'inter-coopération. Une troisième phase, à compter des années 2000, voit un redéploiement des coopératives dans le cadre d'un spectre élargi de mobilisations citoyennes autour de l'économie sociale et solidaire mais aussi de la transition écologique, de la langue et de la culture basques, ce redéploiement coïncidant avec un changement substantiel de la gouvernance territoriale. La section conclusive revient sur quelques enseignements à portée générale concernant l'ancrage territorial des coopératives.
    Keywords: workers cooperatives, territorial anchoring, politicization, identity, territorial governance, cooperativas de producción, anclaje territorial, politización, identidad, gobernanza territorial, coopératives de production, ancrage territorial, politisation, identité, gouvernance territoriale
    Date: 2023–07–07
  17. By: Acharya, Mahesh
    Abstract: After much wrangling for decades, Nepal and India have finally spearheaded in the direction to revise officially perhaps the most controversial treaty between them. Kathmandu and New Delhi have constituted a joint Eminent Persons Group (EPG) in early 2016 to review the past treaties and agreements and submit recommendations to the respective governments so that they befit the current realities. The Indo-Nepalese Treaty of Peace and Friendship signed in 1950 which has been a perennial irritant from the early years of its inception, is undoubtedly the major agenda on the table. There would be hardly disagreement that it could be a good starting point in the direction to quell the deeply ingrained mutual distrust but much will depend on the political will of both the capitals as the recommendations of EPG will not be obligatory. The paper will examine the different facets of the Treaty which both the parties see the need to review, and explore the reasons which held New Delhi and Kathmandu back for whopping sixty seven years to traverse the road to the review.
    Date: 2023–09–21
  18. By: Raouf Boucekkine (Centre for Unframed Thinking, Rennes School of Business, Rennes, France.); Rodolphe Desbordes (SKEMA Business School-UCA.); Paolo Melindi-Ghidi (Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, AMSE, Marseille, France.)
    Abstract: Revolutions are often perceived as the key event triggering the fall of an autocratic regime. They are believed to be driven by the people with the purpose of establishing a democratic regime for the people. However, the historical record does not agree with this picture: revolutions are rare, elite-driven, and often non-democratising. We first develop a new set of stylised facts summarising and deepening the latter features. Second, to explain these facts, we develop a theory of elite-driven non-democratising institutional changes triggered by popular uprisings. Our model includes four key ingredients: (i) a minority/majority split in the population; (ii) the persistence of fiscal particularism post-revolution; (iii) the presence of windfall resources; (iv) a distinction between labour income and resource windfalls as well as endogeneity of the labour supply. We show that revolutions are initiated by the elite and only when fractionalisation is moderate. Resource windfalls and labour market repression can also play a role in triggering this 'alliance' between the majority and the elite. If a revolution happens, redistribution in the subsequent regime still favours the elite, although the masses are better off.
    Keywords: dominant minorities, elite-led revolutions, social structures, particularism, resources
    JEL: D72 C73 Q32
    Date: 2023–10
  19. By: Anna Pettini
    Abstract: The intersection of Economics and Nature has long been overlooked, but recent events have shed new light on their interconnectedness. This paper explores this relationship, focusing on the impact of economic cycles and the role of GDP as a measure of economic success. The paper highlights the historically dominant role of GDP, tracing its origins from Simon Kuznets’ report in the 1930s to the present. It considers the rise of quantitative growth as a paradigm and its influence on economic policy, including the neo-liberal perspective that prioritises private market initiative. The paper concludes by exploring the potential for change in the aftermath of the syndemic crisis, and argues for a move away from GDP-centred measurements towards indicators that are fully researched and ready to use.
    Keywords: critical deceleration theory, nature, GDP, beyond-GDP indicators
    JEL: I31 O10 D00
    Date: 2023
  20. By: Sergi Vinardell (UB - Universitat de Barcelona); Gaetan Blandin (UdG - Universitat de Girona); Federico Ferrari; Geoffroy Lesage (IEM - Institut Européen des membranes - INC - Institut de Chimie du CNRS - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UM - Université de Montpellier - ENSCM - Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier - UM - Université de Montpellier); Joan Mata-Alvarez (UB - Universitat de Barcelona); Joan Dosta; Sergi Astals (UB - Universitat de Barcelona)
    Abstract: This research investigated the impact of draw solute and membrane material on the economic balance of a forward osmosis (FO) system pre-concentrating municipal sewage prior to an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). Eight and three different draw solutes were evaluated for cellulose triacetate (CTA) and polyamide thin film composite (TFC) membranes, respectively. The material of the FO membrane was a key economic driver since the net cost of TFC membrane was substantially lower than the CTA membrane. The draw solute had a moderate impact on the economic balance. The most economically favourable draw solutes were sodium acetate and calcium chloride for the CTA membrane and magnesium chloride for the TFC membrane. The FO + AnMBR performance was modelled for both FO membrane materials and each draw solute considering three FO recoveries (50, 80 and 90%). The estimated COD removal efficiency of the AnMBR was similar regardless of the draw solute and FO membrane material. However, the COD and draw solute concentrations in the permeate and digestate increased as the FO recovery increased. These results highlight that FO membranes with high permselectivity are needed to improve the economic balance of mainstream AnMBR and to ensure the quality of the permeate and digestate.
    Keywords: Draw solute, Techno-economic evaluation, Forward osmosis (FO), Anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), Anaerobic digestionReverse osmosis (RO)
    Date: 2022–07
  21. By: Giovanni Andrea Cornia
    Date: 2023
  22. By: Charlotte Le Chapelain (CLHDPP - Centre lyonnais d'Histoire du droit et de la pensée politique - UJML - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon 3 - Université de Lyon)
    Abstract: L'entrepreneuriat féminin en France au XIXe siècle demeure largement sous-évalué Le projet INDUSTRIFEM éclaire la contribution femmes françaises en affaires au XIXe siècle à l'essor de l'industrialisation et d'évaluer la spécificité de l'entrepreneuriat féminin de cette époque. Il propose le réexamen de la place et du rôle exercé par les femmes dans le processus d'industrialisation français et participe ainsi d'un renouvellement de la vision du rôle économique joué par les femmes au XIXe siècle. Il vise en outre à éclairer et comprendre, grâce à un dialogue interdisciplinaire au carrefour de l'histoire, de l'économie, de la gestion et du droit, les conditions et modalités de l'exercice entrepreneurial féminin au XIXe siècle.
    Keywords: femme, Entreprenariat
    Date: 2023
  23. By: Reyes-Tagle, Gerardo; Muñoz-Ayala, Jorge E.
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence on the effect of debt on economic growth through two alternative methodological approaches. On the one hand, by using a panel error correction model with a sample of 130 countries between 1980 and 2020, we found evidence of the existence of a range of debt-to-GDP ratios for which economic growth remains positive after debt surges. This threshold may lie between 32 percent and 136 percent, with optimal economic growth achieved at an 84 percent debt-to-GDP ratio for the whole sample of countries. The error correction form for the economic growth was dynamically consistent and non-linear with respect to the debt-to-GDP ratio. On the other hand, recent evidence has shown that commodity price volatility increases external debt accumulation for commodity-exporting countries. Still, there is no evidence of the effects of debt surges on these countries' economic growth. This paper provides original insights into the relationship between economic growth and the debt-to-GDP ratio for commodity and non-commodity-driven economies by employing a regression discontinuity design (RDD) approach. This method allows us to estimate differences in economic growth around an estimated threshold without assuming any specific function for the underlying relationship between the two variables. Our findings suggest that non-commodity-driven economies benefit from a higher threshold (85 percent) than commodity-exporting economies (50 percent).
    Keywords: debt thresholds;optimal debt;economic growth;ECM/ARDL panel;panel cointegration;RDD;commodity-exporting and non-commodity-exporting economies
    JEL: C22 C23 E62 F43 G18 H63
    Date: 2023–04

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