nep-his New Economics Papers
on Business, Economic and Financial History
Issue of 2023‒02‒20
twenty-one papers chosen by

  1. How many people on earth? World population 1800-1938 By Federico, Giovanni; Tena Junguito, Antonio
  2. Convergence on inflation and divergence on price-control among Post-Keynesian pioneers: insights from Galbraith and Lerner By Alexandre Chirat; Basile Clerc
  3. Connected Lending of Last Resort By Kris James Mitchener; Eric Monnet
  4. Connected Lending of Last Resort By Kris James Mitchener; Eric Monnet
  5. The Economics of Woman's Rights The Mary Paley and Alfred Marshall Lecture By Michele Tertilt; Matthias Doepke; Anne Hannusch; Laura Montenbruck
  6. The Contribution of Industries over Sixty Years of Economic Growth in South Korea By Gil, Eunsun
  7. Mœbius, an ecological imagination? From the Time Masters, through the World of Edena, to Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind 風の谷のナウシカ By Patrice Ballester
  8. Opiates of the Masses? Deaths of Despair and the Decline of American Religion By Tyler Giles; Daniel M. Hungerman; Tamar Oostrom
  9. Sprouting Cities: How Rural America Industrialized By Fabian Eckert; John Juneau; Michael Peters
  10. Fritz John's Equation in Mechanism Design By Alfred Galichon
  11. The Limits of Limitless Debt By Kent Osband Valerio Filoso; Capasso Salvatore; Valerio Filoso
  12. Around Asia in 80 days: Uncovering inter-linked networks in the corporate landscape Keiretsu of Japan By Hoang, Giang
  13. Bref retour cliométrique sur 50 ans de performances scolaires en lecture et en mathématique en France : 1970-2020. By Nadir ALTINOK; Claude DIEBOLT
  14. Prenatal Sugar Consumption and Late-Life Human Capital and Health: Analyses Based on Postwar Rationing and Polygenic Scores By Gerard J. van den Berg; Stephanie von Hinke; R. Adele H. Wang
  15. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP): history and challenges of successive reforms By Vincent Chatellier
  16. The Bank of Amsterdam and the limits of fiat money By Wilko Bolt; Jon Frost; Hyun Song Shin; Peter Wierts
  17. Le grand oubli des sciences de gestion et de la théorie des organisations By Hervé Dumez; Camille Toussaint
  18. Characteristics of Korea's Industrial Structure through the Structural Change Index By Lee, Geonwoo
  19. Remarks to Delta Sigma Theta, a speech at the “110 Years of Deltas Embracing the Past while Shaping the Future” event, Norfolk, Virginia, January 21, 2023 By Cook Lisa D.
  20. Estimating the Effects of Trade Agreements: Lessons From 60 Years of Methods and Data By Larch, Mario; Yotov, Yoto
  21. National Integration and Institution Building By Zhou, Haiwen

  1. By: Federico, Giovanni; Tena Junguito, Antonio
    Abstract: The number of people is one of the most basic information about any society but it is difficult to know it. The data are missing for most of human history and scarce and/or hardly reliable for advanced countries until the early 19th century and for the rest of the world until the mid-20th century. Yet, historical demographers have tried hard and often successfully to estimate population in the past, but their results have often been neglected in the most common general historical data-bases. Thus, we do not have a continuous series of world population at least until World War One if not until 1950. In this paper we fill this gap by re-estimating series of population for all polities from 1800 to 1938 using first-hand sources and country-specific literature. We use our series to address two issues which have attracted some attention by economist and economic historians in the last years, the start of the demographic transition and the impact of major demographic crises such as the Tai'ping civil war, World War One and the Spanish flu.
    Keywords: World Population Dataset; Demographic Transition
    JEL: I10 J11 J13
    Date: 2023–01–31
  2. By: Alexandre Chirat; Basile Clerc
    Abstract: This article proposes a historical and analytical reconstruction of a debate that never happened between John Kenneth Galbraith and Abba Lerner over the issue of price controls. While they adopted a similar analysis of underemployment inflation, shared by many post Keynesians, Lerner and Galbraith remained fundamentally opposed as to the effectiveness of price controls. Indeed, while both agreed on the relevance of price controls in the specific context of World War II, they disagreed over including price controls within the conventional framework of economic policies, as illustrated by their respective stances in the debate surrounding the stagflation of the 1970s. Throughout the paper, we provide the rationales behind their divergence on price controls by investigating its theoretical, epistemological, and normative roots. Finally, we put into perspective the contemporary debates about price control in the context of resurgent inflationary pressures with some salient points drawn from our reconstruction of the debate that opposed these two pioneering post Keynesians economists.
    Keywords: Price control - Wage control - Inflation - Unemployment - Stagflation
    JEL: B22 B31 E12 E64
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Kris James Mitchener; Eric Monnet
    Abstract: Because of secrecy, little is known about the political economy of central bank lending. Utilizing a novel, hand-collected historical daily dataset on loans to commercial banks, we analyze how personal connections matter for lending of last resort, highlighting the importance of governance for this core function of central banks. We show that, when faced with a banking panic in November 1930, the Banque de France (BdF) lent selectively rather than broadly, providing substantially more liquidity to connected banks – those whose board members were BdF shareholders. The BdF’s selective lending policy failed to internalize a negative externality – that lending would be insufficient to arrest the panic and that distress via contagion would spillover to connected banks. Connected lending of last resort fueled the worst banking crisis in French history, caused an unprecedented government bailout of the central bank, and resulted in loss of shareholder control over the central bank.
    JEL: E4 E58 G01 G32 G38 N1 N24
    Date: 2023–01
  4. By: Kris James Mitchener; Eric Monnet
    Abstract: Because of secrecy, little is known about the political economy of central bank lending. Utilizing a novel, hand-collected historical daily dataset on loans to commercial banks, we analyze how personal connections matter for lending of last resort, highlighting the importance of governance for this core function of central banks. We show that, when faced with a banking panic in November 1930, the Banque de France (BdF) lent selectively rather than broadly, providing substantially more liquidity to connected banks – those whose board members were BdF shareholders. The BdF’s selective lending policy failed to internalize a negative externality – that lending would be insufficient to arrest the panic and that distress via contagion would spillover to connected banks. Connected lending of last resort fueled the worst banking crisis in French history, caused an unprecedented government bailout of the central bank, and resulted in loss of shareholder control over the central bank.
    Keywords: lender of last resort, fiscal backing, central-bank solvency, central-bank design, banking crises, central bank independence, Banque de France, Great Depression
    JEL: E44 E58 G01 G32 G33 G38 N14 N24
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Michele Tertilt; Matthias Doepke; Anne Hannusch; Laura Montenbruck
    Abstract: Two centuries ago, in most countries around the world, women were unable to vote, had no say over their own children or property, and could not obtain a divorce. Women have gradually gained rights in many areas of life, and this legal expansion has been closely intertwined with economic development. We aim to understand the drivers behind these reforms. To this end, we distinguish between four types of women’s rights—economic, political, labor, and body—and document their evolution over the past 50 years across countries. We summarize the political-economy mechanisms that link economic development to changes in women’s rights and show empirically that these mechanisms account for a large share of the variation in women’s rights across countries and over time
    Keywords: Women's Rights, Female Suffrage, Family Economics, Bargaining, Political Economy
    JEL: D13 D72 E24 J12 J16 N4 N30 O10 O43
    Date: 2022–11
  6. By: Gil, Eunsun (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: This article reassesses the contribution of industry over 60 years of economic growth in South Korea. The study bases its analysis using one-digit level industrial classification codes used in national GDP accounts, and analyzes the patterns of industrial concentration of growth by looking at five-digit level industrial classification for the most recent 10 years. Based on the historical evidence of economic growth in South Korea, the findings of the work carry five key implications for for economic growth from an industrial policy perspective. It is possible that future economic growth patterns may be totally different with those of the past, but learning from history offers some insight to policy makers seeking to design a realistic roadmap for continued economic prosperity.
    Keywords: economic growth; industrial policy; Korea; growth policy; GDP growth
    JEL: E61 L52 L60
    Date: 2021–10–01
  7. By: Patrice Ballester (Euridis - Euridis Business School, M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, Société de Géographie (Paris))
    Abstract: Moebius, ecologist? Mœbius - Jean Giraud: an artist who has become a world reference, a model and a source of inspiration for contemporary artists, an ecologist through landscape and sovereign thought, often unprecedented, sometimes esoteric. Jean Giraud, alias Mœbius or Gir, is a major author and designer of comics, this on a global scale. Born in 1938 in Nogent-sur-Marne, he entered Applied Arts in Paris in 1954. In 1963, he created with Jean-Michel Charlier – at the time director of the magazine Pilote – the Blueberry series, which he continued after his disappearance and which today has around thirty albums, without counting an equivalent number of works produced in collaboration with other artists, screenwriters and designers. At the same time under the signature of MŒBIUS, it inaugurated in 1962 a new source of inspiration turned towards humor, fantasy and science fiction. He is also the author of numerous illustrations, paintings and advertising works. Co-founder in 1975 of the magazine Métal Hurlant and the publishing house Les Humanoïde Associés, Jean Giraud developed a unique style signed Mœbius. He revolutionized the creative aspect of comics on a screenplay by Alejandro Jodorowsky, he then began the story of the adventures of John Difool in L'Incal (1980), a series whose success places him among the most innovative cartoonists in the field. of Science fiction. He also began the series Le Monde d'Edena in the 1980s, with more personal comments and reflections. He collaborates for the cinema, his drawings hold the attention of great directors with Alien by Ridley Scott (costumes), Blade Runner, Les Maîtres du temps by René Laloux (complete storyboard), Tron by Steven Lisberger (costumes), Abyss by James Cameron (underwater creatures), Willow by George Lucas & Ron Howard. It incorporates Alejandro Jodorowsky's Team for the movie Dune and its famous storyboard which still remains unpublished. He also collaborates with Marvel Comics by drawing an album with Stan Lee (Galactus and the Silver Surfer). From the 2000s, it was the time of major exhibitions and international recognition, Japan, America… The Mœbius – Myazaki exhibition (2004 – 2005) was a revelation and confirmation for the two artists concerning their mutual influence. A major exhibition is dedicated to him at the Cartier Foundation in Paris, entitled MŒBIUS-TRANSE-FORME from October 2010 to March 2011. He died in Paris on March 10, 2012. We approach our reflection on this major author of world comics through four stages: the Deviation – a major turning point for the author and his way of describing, drawing and breaking down his stories. Commitments like Greenpeace are present in his way of conceiving the world. We also analyze the artist's most personal work with "Le monde d'Edena", a poetic and ecological reflection. Finally, in an essay, we show the important links between two animated cinematographic works, "Les Maîtres du Temps" by Renée Laloux and Mœbius in (1981) and "Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind 風の谷のナウシカ» (1984) on a formal and screenplay level (and Arzach as an addendum). The path of the author of science fiction comics is a quest to enter a process of improvement of his being, of men and by derivative of the Planet. Ecology is not treated as a ground swell or an imperative to safeguard the planet in these albums, but as a citizen the one who questions nuclear power, pollution and scandals in France in the 1970s and sometimes the support for NGOs like Greenpeace. We very often find beautiful landscapes and an ode to the importance of nature in the face of technology. The Wilderness or wild nature is an element that stands out in the World of Edena, the evolutions of the landscape are multiple. By way of an opening, there are still elements to highlight such as the care given to flowers and vehicles of all kinds that move with a mode of locomotion that could be described as ecological, Mœbius enjoying drawing vessels, cars and other means of transport. In short, a protean, visionary artist with polymorphic and anticipatory universes.
    Abstract: Mœbius, écologiste ? Mœbius - Jean Giraud : un artiste devenu une référence mondiale, un modèle et une source d'inspiration pour les artistes contemporains, un écologiste par le paysage et la pensée souveraine, souvent inédite, ésotérique parfois. Jean Giraud, alias Mœbius ou encore Gir, est un auteur et dessinateur majeur de la bande dessinée, ceci à l'échelle mondiale. Né en 1938 à Nogent-sur-Marne, il entre aux Arts Appliqués à Paris en 1954. En 1963, il crée avec Jean-Michel Charlier – à l'époque directeur de la revue Pilote – la série Blueberry, qu'il poursuit après sa disparition et qui compte aujourd'hui une trentaine d'albums, sans compter un nombre équivalent d'œuvres réalisées en collaboration avec d'autres artistes, scénaristes et dessinateurs. Parallèlement sous la signature de MŒBIUS, il inaugure dès 1962 une nouvelle source d'inspiration tournée vers l'humour, le fantastique et la science-fiction. Il est aussi l'auteur de nombreuses illustrations, peintures et travaux publicitaires. Cofondateur en 1975 de la revue Métal Hurlant et de la maison d'édition Les Humanoïdes Associés, Jean Giraud y développe un style unique signé Mœbius. Il révolutionne l'aspect créatif de la bande dessinée sur un scénario d'Alejandro Jodorowsky, il entame ensuite le récit des aventures de John Difool dans L'Incal (1980), série dont le succès le place parmi les dessinateurs les plus innovants en matière de science-fiction. Il débute aussi la série Le Monde d'Edena dans les années 1980, aux propos et réflexions plus personnelles. Il collabore pour le cinéma, ses dessins retiennent l'attention de grands réalisateurs avec Alien de Ridley Scott (costumes), Blade Runner, Les Maîtres du temps de René Laloux (story-board complet), Tron de Steven Lisberger (costumes), Abyss de James Cameron (créatures sous-marines), Willow de George Lucas & Ron Howard. Il incorpore l'Équipe d'Alejandro Jodorowsky pour le film Dune et son célèbre story-board qui reste encore non publié. Il collabore aussi avec Marvel Comics en dessinant un album avec Stan Lee (Galactus et le Silver Surfer). À partir des années 2000, c'est le temps des grandes expositions et d'une reconnaissance internationale, Japon, Amérique… L'exposition Mœbius – Myazaki (2004 – 2005) est une révélation et confirmation pour les deux artistes concernant leur influence mutuelle. Une grande exposition lui est consacrée à la Fondation Cartier à Paris, intitulée MŒBIUS-TRANSE-FORME d'octobre 2010 à mars 2011. Il décède à Paris, le 10 mars 2012. Nous abordons notre réflexion sur cet auteur majeur de la BD mondiale à travers quatre étapes : la Déviation – un tournant majeur pour l'auteur et sa façon de décrire, de dessiner et de décomposer ses histoires. Des engagements comme Greenpeace sont présents dans sa façon de concevoir le monde. Nous analysons aussi l'œuvre la plus personnelle de l'artiste avec « Le monde d'Edena », une réflexion poétique et écologique. Enfin, dans un essai, nous montrons les liens importants entre deux œuvres cinématographiques d'animation, « Les Maîtres du Temps » de Renée Laloux et Mœbius en (1981) et « Nausicaä de la Vallée du Vent Nausicaä de la Vallée du Vent 風の谷のナウシカ» (1984) au plan formel et scénaristique (et Arzach en additif). Le parcours de l'auteur de BD de science-fiction est une quête pour rentrer dans un processus d'amélioration de son être, des hommes et par dérivé de la Planète. L'écologie n'est pas traitée comme lame de fond ou un impératif de sauvegarde de la planète dans ces albums, mais en tant que citoyen celui ce questionne, le nucléaire, les pollutions et les scandales en France dans les années 1970 et parfois le soutien à des ONG comme Greenpeace. On retrouve très souvent de beaux paysages et une ode de l'importance de la nature face à la technologie. Le Wilderness ou la nature sauvage est un élément qui ressort dans le Monde d'Edena, les évolutions du paysage sont multiples. En guise d'ouverture, il reste des éléments à mettre en lumière comme le soin apporté aux fleurs et les véhicules de toute sorte que se déplacent avec un mode de locomotion que l'on pourrait qualifier d'écologique, Mœbius appréciant dessiner les vaisseaux, voitures et autres moyens de locomotion. En somme, un artiste protéiforme, visionnaire et aux univers polymorphes et anticipateurs.
    Keywords: Mœbius, Jean Giraud, Hayao Miyazaki, ecology, landscape, nature, comics, animation, economics of culture, science-fiction, écologie, paysage, bande dessinée, économie de la culture
    Date: 2022–12–02
  8. By: Tyler Giles; Daniel M. Hungerman; Tamar Oostrom
    Abstract: In recent decades, death rates from poisonings, suicides, and alcoholic liver disease have dramatically increased in the United States. We show that these "deaths of despair" began to increase relative to trend in the early 1990s, that this increase was preceded by a decline in religious participation, and that both trends were driven by middle-aged white Americans. Using repeals of blue laws as a shock to religiosity, we confirm that religious practice has significant effects on these mortality rates. Our findings show that social factors such as organized religion can play an important role in understanding deaths of despair.
    JEL: I18 J11 Z12
    Date: 2023–01
  9. By: Fabian Eckert; John Juneau; Michael Peters
    Abstract: We study the joint process of urbanization and industrialization in the US economy between 1880 and 1940. We show that only a small share of aggregate industrialization is accounted for by the relocation of workers from remote rural areas to industrial hubs like Chicago or New York City. Instead, most sectoral shifts occurred within rural counties, dramatically transforming their sectoral structure. Most industrialization within counties occurred through the emergence of new "factory" cities with notably higher manufacturing shares rather than the expansion of incumbent cities. In contrast, today's shift towards services seems to benefit large incumbent cities the most.
    JEL: E0 R11
    Date: 2023–01
  10. By: Alfred Galichon (NYU - New York University [New York] - NYU - NYU System, CIMS - Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences [New York] - NYU - New York University [New York] - NYU - NYU System, ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We show the role that an important equation first studied by Fritz John plays in mechanism design. Dedicated to Nicholas Yannelis on his 65th birthday.
    Keywords: Implementability, Mechanism design, John's equation, Kevin Roberts' theorem
    Date: 2021–08–24
  11. By: Kent Osband Valerio Filoso (Institute for Studies on the Mediterranean (ISMed), CNR.); Capasso Salvatore (Università di Napoli Parthenope, ISMed-CNR, and CSEF.); Valerio Filoso (University of Naples Federico II, and Institute for Studies on the Mediterranean (ISMed), CNR.)
    Abstract: How worrisome are mounting sovereign debt-to-GDP ratios? Many economists profess little concern. Debt stocks are irrelevant to sustainability in standard macro models, while low real interest rates testify to lender optimism. Furthermore, the debt is mostly in fiat currency, which eases rollover. Yet historical evidence (Reinhart and Rogoff, 2009) shows that high sovereign debt is prone to default and that credit spreads are often trailing indicators. This paper offers a simple way to model the trade-offs. On the one hand, it acknowledges that large debt overhangs tend to raise default risks. On the other hand, it allows sovereigns to roll over debt regardless of long-term fiscal solvency. The combination allows credit spreads to stay very low for decades yet eventually spiral out of control and trigger default. Hence, neither the reassurance of low spreads nor the alarm from growing overhang should automatically prevail. To illustrate the trade-offs, we review the ebb and flow of US sovereign debt burdens since World War II. Between record peacetime debt-to-GDP ratios and weakened fiscal discipline, an exemplary double-or-triple-A credit rating for the US no longer seem justified.
    Keywords: bond market, bond interest rate, credit spreads, sovereign debt, sovereign debt default, debt management surprise
    JEL: D84 G12 H63
  12. By: Hoang, Giang
    Abstract: Zaibatsu, which means “wealthy clique” in Japanese, is any of the large capitalist enterprises of Japan whose influence and control were pervasive from the Meiji period until the end of WWII
    Date: 2023–01–19
  13. By: Nadir ALTINOK; Claude DIEBOLT
    Abstract: Cette contribution vise à retracer l’évolution de longue période des compétences scolaires des élèves français de 1970 à 2020. Partant des résultats fournis par les enquêtes internationales sur les acquis des élèves, nous présentons, à partir d’une base de données inédite, l’originalité de la trajectoire nationale vis-à-vis des autres pays de l’OCDE. Au cours des 50 dernières années, nous montrons que, pour le cas de la France, les performances en lecture et en mathématiques diminuent, les scores moyens étant significativement faibles. Par ailleurs, nous nous interrogeons sur la trajectoire française en termes d’acquis scolaires qui, pas à pas, tend à diverger de celle des autres pays de l’OCDE. Ce faisant, nos résultats enrichissent les conclusions des travaux issus des enquêtes nationales tout en livrant de nouveaux éléments de preuve associés à des éclairages historiques et comparatifs renouvelés.
    Keywords: Qualité de l’éducation, Enquêtes internationales sur les acquis des élèves, Cliométrie, PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS.
    JEL: I2 J24 N3 O15
    Date: 2023
  14. By: Gerard J. van den Berg; Stephanie von Hinke; R. Adele H. Wang
    Abstract: Maternal sugar consumption in utero may have a variety of effects on offspring. We exploit the abolishment of the rationing of sweet confectionery in the UK on April 24, 1949, and its subsequent reintroduction some months later, in an era of otherwise uninterrupted rationing of confectionery (1942-1953), sugar (1940-1953) and many other foods, and we consider effects on late-life cardiovascular disease, BMI, height, type-2 diabetes and the intake of sugar, fat and carbohydrates, as well as cognitive outcomes and birth weight. We use individual-level data from the UK Biobank for cohorts born between April 1947-May 1952. We also explore whether one's genetic "predisposition" to the outcome can moderate the effects of prenatal sugar exposure. We find that prenatal exposure to derationing increases education and reduces BMI and sugar consumption at higher ages, in line with the "developmental origins" explanatory framework, and that the sugar effects are stronger for those who are genetically "predisposed" to sugar consumption.
    Date: 2023–01
  15. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: This conference entitled "The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP): history and stakes of the successive reforms" was held as part of a day organized by the Institut de l'Elevage (IDELE): "the CAP in all its states". It was structured around the following four parts: 1) The objectives and principles of the CAP: has been or not? 2) The first steps of the CAP (1962-1992): between successes and dysfunctions; 3) The reforms of the CAP since 1992: a transformation in small steps; 4) The CAP 2023-2027: continuity or rupture?
    Abstract: Cette conférence ayant pour titre « La Politique Agricole Commune (PAC) : historique et enjeux des réformes successives » a été réalisée dans le cadre d'une journée organisée par l'Institut de l'Elevage (IDELE) : « la PAC dans tous ses Etats ». Elle a été structurée autour des quatre parties suivantes : 1) Les objectifs et les principes de la PAC : has been or not ? 2) Les premiers pas de la PAC (1962-1992) : entre succès et dysfonctionnements ; 3) Les réformes de la PAC depuis 1992 : une transformation à petits pas ; 4) La PAC 2023-2027 : continuité ou rupture ?
    Keywords: CAP, Livestock, Subsidiarity, PAC, Green deal, Elevage, Subsidiairité
    Date: 2022–11–16
  16. By: Wilko Bolt; Jon Frost; Hyun Song Shin; Peter Wierts
    Abstract: Central banks can operate with negative equity, and many have done so in history without undermining trust in fiat money. However, there are limits. How negative can central bank equity be before fiat money loses credibility? We address this question using a global games approach motivated by the fall of the Bank of Amsterdam (1609–1820). We solve for the unique break point where negative equity and asset illiquidity renders fiat money worthless. We draw lessons on the role of fiscal support and central bank capital in sustaining trust in fiat money.
    Keywords: central banks; negative equity; fiat money; trust
    JEL: E42 E58 N13
    Date: 2023–02
  17. By: Hervé Dumez (i3-CRG - Centre de recherche en gestion i3 - X - École polytechnique - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Camille Toussaint (i3-CRG - Centre de recherche en gestion i3 - X - École polytechnique - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Herbert Blumer est un membre central de l'École de Chicago, dont il formera les héritiers comme Howard Becker et Erving Goffman. À la fin des années 1960-1970, il développe à Berkeley la notion d'interactionnisme symbolique à partir de la pensée de George Herbert Mead dont il était l'élève. En 1969, il publie un ouvrage de référence, intitulé Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method.
    Date: 2022–06–21
  18. By: Lee, Geonwoo (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: As the absolute scale of the Korean economy has rapidly expanded over the past few decades, its industrial structure has also changed at a very rapid pace. However, as growth has stagnated and corporate restructuring delayed in recent years, the pace of change in the industrial structure is slowing down noticeably. This study explores how Korea’s industrial structure has changed since 1970, and examines how the speed and direction of structural change in Korea differ from major advanced countries. The work concludes by describing the implications that such findings carry.
    Keywords: industrial structure; structural change; business cycle; structural change index; Korea
    JEL: L10 L11 L16 L22
    Date: 2021–08–01
  19. By: Cook Lisa D.
    Date: 2023–01–21
  20. By: Larch, Mario (University of Bayreuth); Yotov, Yoto (School of Economics Drexel University)
    Abstract: Starting with Tinbergen (1962), quantifying the effects of regional trade agreements (RTAs) on international trade flows has always been among the most popular topics in the trade literature. Perhaps not surprisingly, to estimate the effects of RTAs, most researchers and policy analysts have relied on the workhorse model of trade—the gravity equation. Over the past 60 years, there have been many important developments in the RTA literature, both in terms of better methods to quantify their effects, and also in terms of more and higher quality data. The objective of this paper is to trace the evolution of the methods and data developments in the RTA literature, from Tinbergen’s very first exploration until today, and to critically evaluate their significance for our ability to measure the impact of RTAs (and other policies) on international trade.
    Keywords: Regional Trade Agreements; Gravity Equation; Estimation; Methods; Data
    JEL: F10 F14 F16
    Date: 2023–01–16
  21. By: Zhou, Haiwen
    Abstract: The mutual dependence between national integration and institution building is established in a formal model. It is shown that a decrease in transportation costs, but not necessarily an increase in population size, reduces the equilibrium number of states and the adoption of rule-based institutions. With endogenous transportation costs or endogenous population size, the unification process can feed on itself. The model is illustrated by the state of Qin’s unification of China in 221 BC. During this process of national integration, transformations from relation-based governance to rule-based governance happened.
    Keywords: National integration, institution building, China, rule-based governance, optimal size of nations
    JEL: H56 N45 R40
    Date: 2023–01–27

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