nep-his New Economics Papers
on Business, Economic and Financial History
Issue of 2022‒05‒09
25 papers chosen by
Bernardo Bátiz-Lazo
Northumbria University

  1. Wealth and its Distribution in Germany, 1895-2018 By Thilo N. H. Albers; Charlotte Bartels; Moritz Schularick
  2. A Cliometric Reading of the Development of Primary Education in France in the Nineteenth Century By Claude Diebolt; Magali Jaoul-Grammare; Faustine Perrin
  3. Harmonious Relations: Quality transmission among composers in the very long run By Karol Jan Borowiecki; Nicholas Ford; Maria Marchenko
  4. Dans les vapeurs de la chimie : la nouvelle industrie de la soie artificielle et sa main-d’oeuvre en France (années 1890-1930) By Hervé Joly
  5. Technology Transfer and Early Industrial Development: Evidence from the Sino-Soviet Alliance By Michela Giorcelli; Bo Li
  6. Understanding the bitterness of Wassily Leontief: Postwar success and failures of input-output techniques By Vincent Carret
  7. Joan Robinson in 1942, an encounter between Marxian Economics and Macroeconomics By Alves, C.
  8. Escrevendo a história do pensamento econômico-ecológico: desafios e perspectivas By Marco P. Vianna Franco; Antoine Missemer
  9. A Journey in the History of Sovereign Defaults on Domestic-Law Public Debt By Aitor Erce; Enrico Mallucci; Mattia Picarelli
  10. When Does Money Matter for Elections? By Julia Cage; Edgard Dewitte
  11. Infrastructure killed the electric car By Bakker, Gerben
  12. Anchored or Not: How Much Information Does 21st Century Data Contain on Inflation Dynamics? By Michael T. Kiley
  13. Worlds beyond capitalism: images of uneven and combined development in Kim Stanley Robinson’s Mars trilogy By Cooper, Luke
  14. When Opportunity Knocks: China's Open Door Policy and Declining Educational Attainment By Jiang, Xuan; Kennedy, Kendall; Zhong, Jiatong
  15. The Limits of Hegemony: Banks, Covert Actions, and Foreign Firms By Aldunate, Felipe; Gonzalez, Felipe; Prem, Mounu
  16. Trade Corridors in the Caspian Region: Present and Future By Kalyuzhnova, Yelena; Pomfret, Richard
  17. A distributional analysis of artisanal and industrial wage levels and expenditure in the Congolese mining sector By Radley, Ben
  18. Histoire de peuple Bale By Augustin Bassani; Floribert Rekaba; Janvier Banga; Joseph Dunjekpa; Junior Wokole; Pascal Lodza
  19. Regard rétrospectif et cliométrique sur une étape de la construction européenne. Les activités innovantes : 1981-2001 By Claude Diebolt
  20. The Problem Has Existed over Endless Years: Racialized Difference in Commuting, 1980–2019 By Devin Bunten; Ellen Fu; Lyndsey Rolheiser; Christopher Severen
  21. Political stability and economic growth in developing economies: lessons from Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt ten years after the Arab Spring By Nizar Becheikh
  22. Dinámica territorial del desarrollo y vínculos urbano-rurales en Antioquia (Colombia) By Lotero Contreras, Jorge
  23. The accountability gap: deliberation on monetary policy in Britain and America during the financial crisis By Schonhardt-Bailey, Cheryl; Dann, Christopher; Chapman, Jacob
  24. Comentario a las nuevas regulaciones del alquiler By Benito Arruñada
  25. Accumulation and transmission of inequality of opportunity in the double burden of malnutrition: the case of Mexico By Salas-Ortiz, A.;

  1. By: Thilo N. H. Albers (Humboldt University Berlin; Lund University); Charlotte Bartels (DIW Berlin; UCFS; IZA); Moritz Schularick (University of Bonn, Sciences Po Paris, and CEPR)
    Abstract: German history over the past 125 years has been turbulent. Marked by two world wars, revolutions and major regime changes, as well as a hyperinflation and three currency reforms, expropriations and territorial divisions, it provides unique insights into the role of country-specific shocks in shaping long-run wealth dynamics. This paper presents the first comprehensive study of wealth and its distribution in Germany since the 19th century. We combine tax and archival data, household surveys, historical national accounts, and rich lists to analyze the evolution of the German wealth distribution over the long run. We show that the top 1% wealth share has fallen by half, from close to 50% in 1895 to 27% today. Nearly all of this decline was the result of changes that occurred between 1914 and 1952. The interwar period and the wealth taxation in the aftermath of World War II stand out as the great equalizers in 20th century German history. After unification in 1990, two trends have left their mark on the German wealth distribution. Households at the top made substantial capital gains from rising business wealth while the middle-class had large capital gains in the housing market. The wealth share of the bottom 50% halved since 1990. Our findings speak to the importance of historical shocks to the distribution and valuations of existing wealth in explaining the evolution of the wealth distribution over the long run.
    Keywords: Wealth inequality; portfolio heterogeneity; saving; wealth taxation.
    JEL: D31 E01 E21 H2 N3
    Date: 2022–05
  2. By: Claude Diebolt (BETA/CNRS (UMR 7522), University of Strasbourg, 61 avenue de la Forêt Noire, France); Magali Jaoul-Grammare (BETA/CNRS (UMR 7522), University of Strasbourg, 61 avenue de la Forêt Noire, France); Faustine Perrin (Department of Economic History, Lund University, Box 7080, 220 07 Lund, Sweden)
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Karol Jan Borowiecki (Department of Economics, University of Southern Denmark); Nicholas Ford (Department of Economic History, Lund University); Maria Marchenko (Department of Economics, Vienna University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: Most creatives acquire professional talents by learning from others, but in most settings it is difficult to estimate the existence of long-term effects. This paper explores the transmission of skills over a period of more than seven centuries by focusing on the case of music composers. We ask the question: how does a composer’s quality influence the quality of the composers he or she teaches? Our analysis builds on a unique dataset of 17,433 composers from around the world since the fourteenth century. By comparing actual teacher–student pairs with plausible counterfactual pairs and by using a two-stage framework, we show a strong effect of quality transmission. Moreover, we find quality transmission persists across multiple generations: from teacher to student, and subsequently to student’s student and so on. Our results provide new insights on drivers of creativity over the very long term, as well as the influence of teachers on students’ achievements.
    Keywords: creativity, transmission of ideas, music history, teacher influence
    JEL: I21 J24 N30 O31 Z11
    Date: 2022–05
  4. By: Hervé Joly (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - IEP Lyon - Sciences Po Lyon - Institut d'études politiques de Lyon - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon)
    Abstract: The artificial textile industry employed during almost one century up to several tens of thousands of workers in France. The production relies on artificial fibres produced through a chemical treatment of natural substances like cotton or wood cellulose. There was talk of "artificial silk" until the prohibition of this designation by a 1934 law and its replacement by the term "rayon". After tracing the dramatic increase of production sites in France during the 1900's-1920's, sometimes ephemeral ones because of the Great Depression, this paper studies the largely feminine and migrant recruitment of the working force between the two wars through the population of working-class cities from two factories. The hard sanitary working conditions in those firms are notably at the origin of several important strikes, even if the level conflict appears to be rather weaker than in the whole textile industry.
    Abstract: L'industrie des textiles artificiels a employé pendant près d'un siècle jusqu'à plusieurs dizaines de milliers de personnes en France. La fabrication repose sur des fibres artificiellement produites à partir d'un traitement chimique de matières naturelles comme le coton ou la cellulose de bois. On a parlé de « soie artificielle » avant que la dénomination ne soit interdite par une loi de 1934 et remplacée par celle de « rayonne ». Après avoir retracé la multiplication spectaculaire des implantations, parfois rendues éphémères par la Grande Crise, de cette industrie en France dans les décennies 1900-1920, cet article étudie le recrutement largement féminin et migrant de la main-d'œuvre dans l'entre-deux-guerres à travers la population des cités ouvrières de deux usines. Les dures conditions sanitaires de travail dans ces entreprises sont notamment à l'origine de plusieurs mouvements de grèves importants, même si la conflictualité apparaît plutôt moins forte que dans l'ensemble de l'industrie textile.
    Keywords: artificial silk,artificial fibers,textile industry,immigration,workforce,fibres artificielles,textiles artificiels,main-d'oeuvre,industrie textile
    Date: 2021–12
  5. By: Michela Giorcelli; Bo Li
    Abstract: This paper studies the causal effect of technology and knowledge transfers on early industrial development. Between 1950 and 1957, the Soviet Union supported the “156 Projects” in China for building technologically advanced industrial facilities. We exploit idiosyncratic delays in project completion and the unexpected end of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, and show that receiving both Soviet technology and know-how had large, persistent effects on plant performance, while the effects of receiving only Soviet capital goods were short-lived. The intervention generated horizontal and vertical spillovers, and production reallocation from state-owned to privately owned companies since the late 1990s.
    Keywords: industrialization, technology transfer, knowledge diffusion, China
    JEL: L20 M20 N34 N64 O32 O33
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Vincent Carret (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - IEP Lyon - Sciences Po Lyon - Institut d'études politiques de Lyon - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon)
    Abstract: Although Leontief was and still is one of the most recognized names in economics, inextricably linked to the development of input-output techniques, he remained fiercely critical of other economists' works and of the state of economic science during his whole life. To understand his bitterness, we go back to the root of the split between Leontief and the rest of the economics profession, through an examination of the debates that took place in the late 1940s. From his input-output model, conceived as an operational theory of economic interdependencies, Leontief drew a specific approach to economic policy and planning which had a lot of success with government agencies, explaining how he could durably sustain his split from the profession.
    Date: 2022–03–09
  7. By: Alves, C.
    Abstract: This paper revisits why Joan Robinson turned to Karl Marx in 1942 and which insights from Marxian economics she sought to incorporate into her later works, while commenting on the legacies of this encounter and how was received by some her of contemporaries. By the end of the 1930s, Robinson wanted to bring academic and Marxian economics together in a search for a more realist theory of the rate of profit and income distribution, and clarifications on Keynes’s concept of full employment, the nature of technical progress and a long-period theory within the Keynesian framework. The result, An Essay on Marxian Economics (1942), was her most important work in terms of laying the foundations of her enduring challenge to the orthodox economics. Here she relied on Marxian insights to escape Marshallian orthodoxy. It is the story of how the originator of imperfect competition pushed further into a theory of exploitation.
    Keywords: Joan Robinson, Marxian Economics, Rate of Profit, Exploitation
    JEL: B2 B22 B24 B31 B40
    Date: 2022–04–11
  8. By: Marco P. Vianna Franco (Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research - Partenaires INRAE); Antoine Missemer (CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The history of ecological economic thought (EET) has been addressed in different ways and according to multifarious foundations, given the evolving character of conceptions of natural processes and economic phenomena. This article proposes a theoretical framework for understanding EET as the set of ideas bridging the social and the natural worlds by means of shared ontologies and epistemologies. These ideas stand against the human-nature divide which characterizes modern Western thought, contribute to thinking about contemporary sustainability challenges, and offer a more structured intellectual history of the roots of ecological economics. The article argues that writing the history of EET calls for an appraisal of historiographical challenges, in particular the risks posed by presentism and anachronism. It also reviews the literature engaging with the history of EET and, finally, identifies new lines of research, especially in terms of global narratives.
    Abstract: A história do pensamento econômico-ecológico (PEE) tem sido construída de diversas formas e de acordo com diferentes fundamentos, dado o caráter evolutivo de conceitos relacionados a processos naturais e econômicos. Este artigo propõe um arcabouço teórico para se entender o PEE como um conjunto de ideias interligando as esferas social e natural por meio de ontologias e epistemologias compartilhadas. Essas ideias se opõem a dicotomias entre o humano e o natural que caracterizam o pensamento ocidental moderno, contribuindo para a elucidação de desafios contemporâneos no contexto da sustentabilidade e oferecendo uma história intelectual estruturada das raízes da economia ecológica. O artigo defende que escrever a história do PEE requer o escrutínio dos desafios historiográficos, em particular dos riscos associados ao presentismo e ao anacronismo; além disso, ele traz uma revisão da literatura sobre PEE e, finalmente, identifica novas linhas de pesquisa com destaque para narrativas globais.
    Keywords: intellectual history,strong interdisciplinarity,historiography,ecological economics,longue durée,economia ecológica,história intelectual,interdisciplinaridade forte,historiografia
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Aitor Erce; Enrico Mallucci; Mattia Picarelli
    Abstract: We introduce a novel database on sovereign defaults that involve public debt instruments governed by domestic law. By systematically reviewing a large number of sources, we identify 134 default and restructuring events of domestic debt instruments, in 52 countries from 1980 to 2018. Domestic-law defaults are a global phenomenon. Over time, they have become larger and more frequent than foreign-law defaults. Domestic-law debt restructurings proceed faster than foreign ones, often through extensions of maturities and amendments to the coupon structure. While face value reductions are rare, net-present-value losses for creditors are still large. Unilateral amendments and post-default restructuring are the norm, but negotiated pre-default restructurings are becoming increasingly frequent. We also document that domestic-law defaults typically involve debt denominated in local currency and held by resident investors. We complement our analysis with a collection "sovereign histories", which provide the fine details about each episode.
    Keywords: Public debt; Sovereign default; Domestic law; Database
    JEL: E62 E65 F34 G01 H12 H63 K00 K41
    Date: 2022–03–18
  10. By: Julia Cage (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LIEPP - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Edgard Dewitte (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LIEPP - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: This paper studies electoral campaigns over the long run, through the lens of their spending. In particular, we ask whether changing media technologies and electoral environments have impacted patterns of campaign spending, and their correlation with electoral results. To do so, we build a novel exhaustive dataset on general elections in the United Kingdom from 1857 to 2017, which in­cludes information on campaign spending (itemized by expense categories), electoral outcomes and socio­demographic characteristics for 69,042 election­-constituency­-candidates. We start by providing new insights on the history of British political campaigns, documenting in particular the growing importance of advertising material (including via digital means), to the detriment of paid staff and electoral meetings. Using a saturated fixed effects model, we then show that there is a strong positive correlation between expenditures and votes, and that overall the magnitude of this relationship has strongly increased since the 1880s, peaking in the last quarter of the 20th century. We link these transformations to changes in the conduct of campaigns, and to the introduction of new information technologies. We show in particular that the expansion of local radio and broadband Internet increased the sensitivity of the electoral results to differences in campaign spending.
    Abstract: Cet article étudie les campagnes électorales sur le long terme, à travers le prisme de leurs dépenses. En particulier, nous investiguons l'impact des évolutions majeures dans les technologies de l'information et les contextes électoraux sur les niveaux, allocations et influences des dépenses des candidats. Pour ce faire, nous construisons un nouvel ensemble de données exhaustif sur les élections générales au Royaume­Uni de 1857 à 2017, qui comprend des informations sur les dépenses de campagne (détaillées par catégories de dépenses), les résultats électoraux et les caractéristiques socio­démographiques de 69042 candidats­-élections­-circonscriptions. Nous commençons par apporter de nouveaux éclairages sur l'histoire des campagnes politiques britanniques, en documentant notamment l'importance croissante du matériel publicitaire (y compris via des moyens numériques), au détriment du personnel rémunéré et des meetings électoraux. À l'aide d'un modèle à effets fixes, nous montrons ensuite qu'il existe une forte corrélation positive entre les dépenses des candidats et les résultats électoraux de ceux­ci, et que, dans l'ensemble, la magnitude de cette relation a fortement augmenté depuis les années 1880, pour atteindre un pic dans le dernier quart du XXe siècle. Nous lions ces transformations à des changements dans les stratégies de campagne et à l'introduction de nouvelles technologies de l'information. Nous montrons en particulier que l'expansion de la radio locale et de l'ADSL a augmenté la sensibilité des résultats électoraux aux différences de dépenses de campagne.
    Keywords: Electoral campaigns,Campaign spending,Elections
    Date: 2022–03–10
  11. By: Bakker, Gerben
    Abstract: When prices are adjusted for quality, electric vehicles stood their ground to petrol cars in the early twentieth century United States. If the electricity grid had developed twenty years earlier, they might have reached a 68–79% market share and CO2 emissions per car could have declined by 60%, a new study finds.
    JEL: N71 N72
    Date: 2021–10–07
  12. By: Michael T. Kiley
    Abstract: Inflation was low and stable in the United States during the first two decades of the 21st century and broke out of its stable range in 2021. Experience in the early 21st century differed from that of the second half of the 20th century, when inflation showed persistent movements including the "Great Inflation" of the 1970s. This analysis examines the extent to which the experience from 2000-2019 should lead a Bayesian decisionmaker to update their assessment of inflation dynamics. Given a prior for inflation dynamics consistent with 1960-1999 data, a Bayesian decisionmaker would not update their view of inflation persistence in light of 2000-2019 data unless they placed very low weight on their prior information. In other words, 21st century data contains very little information to dissuade a Bayesian decisionmaker of the view that inflation fluctuations are persistent, or "unanchored" . The intuition for, and implications of, this finding are discussed.
    Keywords: Inflation; Phillips Curve; Econometric Modeling
    JEL: E31 C11 E50
    Date: 2022–03–30
  13. By: Cooper, Luke
    Abstract: This article explores the implications of uneven and combined development for how system-change is conceptualised. The current moment has featured extensive discussions of how technological transformation is altering the nature of our economy, labour force and environment. Postcapitalists argue that zero cost production undermines the price mechanism in capitalism and opens up new emancipatory possibilities for the construction of the commons. This powerful critique and political vision is let down, however, by a failure to incorporate ‘the international’ dimension into the theory of change. U&CD provides a vitally needed correction to this unilinear thinking. To recover an understanding of how societal multiplicity affects the nature of system-change, this article makes the until-recently unusual step of turning to fictional literature. Specifically, it investigates the dynamics of uneven and combined development within the imagined universe brought to life by Kim Stanley Robinson’s science fiction odyssey the Marstrilogy. Despite the events Robinson describes existing wholly in the realm of imagined fantasy, I argue the three books contain five images of uneven and combined development relevant to real world social struggles. Drawing these out can start to develop a normative, political conception of uneven and combined development for the twenty-first century.
    Keywords: uneven and combined development; historical sociology; postcapitalism Marxism; science fiction
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2020–10–07
  14. By: Jiang, Xuan (Ohio State University); Kennedy, Kendall (Mississippi State University); Zhong, Jiatong (University of Alberta, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In 1978, China opened its door to the outside world. This study investigates how the Open Door Policy affected the educational choices of workers born 1960-1970. Using measures of local labor markets' export exposure, we find the Open Door Policy decreased educational attainment; youths born from 1965-70 facing the mean export exposure were 5.6-13.3 p.p. less likely to complete high school than those born in 1960. Our findings suggest a complicated relationship between Chinese human capital accumulation and economic growth during the industrialization of the 1980s and 1990s, as the Open Door Policy reduced skilled labor in the most export-exposed regions.
    Keywords: Open Door Policy; educational attainment; high school completion
    JEL: F16 I20 J20 O15
    Date: 2022–03–24
  15. By: Aldunate, Felipe; Gonzalez, Felipe; Prem, Mounu
    Abstract: Economic sanctions and covert actions from hegemonic states are common tools used to in-fluence other countries. Less is known about non-state actors such as banks and their impact across borders. We use new firm-level data from Chile to document a substantial decrease in financial relations with U.S. banks after socialist Salvador Allende took office in 1970. An analysis of links with banks from other countries reveals that part of the decrease was specific to the U.S. banking sector. Business reports and stock prices suggest that firms were mostly unaffected by the destruction of links with U.S. banks. Substitution of financial relations to-wards state-owned banks appears to be the key mechanism to explain these findings.
    Date: 2022–04–20
  16. By: Kalyuzhnova, Yelena (Asian Development Bank Institute); Pomfret, Richard (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: The historical routes from the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and India to the Middle East or Europe ran north of, south of, and across the Caspian Sea. Since 1500, maritime transport has dominated trade between Europe and East Asia. Central Asia became an economic backwater, incorporated into the Russian Empire and later forming part of the Soviet Union from 1917 to 1991. Practically all the trade links ran north to the Russian Federation. In the 21st century, with the increasing significance of Central Asia as an energy producer, countries have constructed several oil and gas pipelines. However, for trade in other goods, new transport corridors opened up more slowly until, in the 2010s, the PRC–EU rail links began operating through Kazakhstan. We examine the establishment of new trade corridors in the form of pipelines and railway lines, focusing on trans-Caspian links. We also discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on international trade. The disruption resulting from lockdowns and quarantine requirements has negatively affected maritime, air, and other types of transportation. The COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with substantially depressed energy prices, is putting additional financial pressure on the Caspian governments, which are struggling with the major medical challenges that the pandemic has created.
    Keywords: trade; Caspian region; Trans-Caspian International Transport Route; energy; oil
    JEL: F13 P25 P28 Q35
    Date: 2021–05
  17. By: Radley, Ben
    Abstract: Across low–income African countries, a process of foreign–controlled mining (re)industrialisation has been underway since the 1980s, gathering pace during the most recent decade. This paper aims to shed light on the long–term effects of this process on the strength and vibrancy of local mining economies. It does so through the analysis of original empirical data collected during 15 months of fieldwork at and around an industrial gold mine in South Kivu Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, centred on how the entry of industrial mining into pre-existing artisanal mining economies has affected the total volume of mining wages earned, consumed and invested locally. It is demonstrated that, despite generating a 25–fold increase in productivity, mining reindustrialisation in South Kivu has not resulted in significant wage growth for most industrial workers, compared to the wages earned in artisanal mining. In addition, as a result of the displacement of artisanal mining to more marginal deposits (and the inability of new industrial jobs or wages to compensate), seven years on, the local availability of mining employment has halved and the volume of locally consumed and invested mining wages has decreased by around 40 per cent. Drawing on the findings, the wisdom of current World Bank and African government mining policy is questioned.
    Keywords: Study Abroad Studentship SAS-2016-047/7
    JEL: R14 J01 N0
    Date: 2020–10–02
  18. By: Augustin Bassani (Université de Kisangani - Université de Kisangani); Floribert Rekaba; Janvier Banga; Joseph Dunjekpa; Junior Wokole; Pascal Lodza
    Abstract: Le peuple Bale comme tout autre peuple a une histoire. Son récit, ici retracé, ne présente qu'une vue plus au moins générale de son histoire, afin d'apporter aux lecteurs de tout bord une connaissance pouvant lui permettre de se faire une idée concise sur l'homme bale. Nous avons donc identifié le Bale de par son histoire, le situant dans son emplacement géographique dans le temps ancien et actuel, distinguant les différentes variations dialectiques qu'a subi sa langue, le « baledha », suite aux mouvements migratoires intenses, présenté l'organisation politico-administrative de sa société antique et les changements qu'elle a connus sous l'influence du régime colonial ainsi qu'au lendemain de l'indépendance des Etats africains, circonscrit le social dans lequel s'est encré sa culture, l'impact économique de ses activités ainsi que ses croyances et sa religion. Sans avoir la prétention d'avoir épuisé le contenu de l'histoire Bale, nous croyons que l'homme Bale a un passé profond dont le détail est susceptible d'être l'objet d'une étude plus élaborée et thématique à entreprendre, afin d'en constituer une encyclopédie. Enfin, nous avons l'assurance d'avoir donné un outil d'intérêt pédagogique, de recherche et d'information générale et croyons avoir répondu à la préoccupation de ceux qui en feront bon usage.
    Keywords: histoire,peuple,Bale
    Date: 2022–03–15
  19. By: Claude Diebolt (BETA/CNRS (UMR 7522), University of Strasbourg, 61 avenue de la Forêt Noire, France)
    Date: 2022
  20. By: Devin Bunten; Ellen Fu; Lyndsey Rolheiser; Christopher Severen
    Abstract: How have the longer journeys to work faced by Black commuters evolved in the United States over the last four decades? Black commuters spent 50.3 more minutes commuting per week in 1980 than White commuters; this difference declined to 22.4 minutes per week in 2019. Two factors account for the majority of the difference: Black workers are more likely to commute by transit, and Black workers make up a larger share of the population in cities with long average commutes. Increases in car commuting by Black workers account for nearly one-quarter of the decline in the racialized difference in commute times between 1980 and 2019. Today, commute times have mostly converged (conditional on observables) for car commuters in small- and midsized cities. In contrast, persistent differences in commute times today arise in large, segregated, congested, and — especially — expensive cities, revealing the limits of cars in overcoming entrenched racialization of other factors of commuting.
    Date: 2022–04–18
  21. By: Nizar Becheikh (American University in Cairo)
    Abstract: In 2011, the Arab region has seen an unprecedented popular uprising commonly referred to as the "Arab Spring". The objective of this paper is to analyze the economic performance and institutional changes that have taken place in Egypt, Tunisia, and Morocco following the Arab Spring, and understand the interconnect between the socio-political context on the one side, and economic performance and growth on the other side, in a period marked by severe turbulences, especially in Tunisia and Egypt. The analysis covers the economic, institutional, competitiveness, business environment, infrastructural, and human capital aspects in the three countries. It is based on the author's own research and knowledge of the region, the recent emerging literature on the topic, newspaper archives, and the publicly available economic and business data and reports provided by international organizations. Our analysis shows that Tunisia, the country that has ignited the Arab Spring, was the one most hit by its aftermath on the economic, social, and institutional levels. We argue that, although pure authoritarian regimes were historically a failure in the region, "Western" democracy has so far shown several limits when applied into the Arab region context as it led to neither socio-political stability nor economic growth.
    Keywords: economic growth,institutions,political stability,Arab Spring,Egypt,Morocco,Tunisia,Political Economy
    Date: 2021–06–30
  22. By: Lotero Contreras, Jorge
    Abstract: En este documento se examina el desarrollo territorial de Antioquia como un proceso centro-periferia dependiente de la trayectoria (path dependence) y condicionado por la geografía. La trayectoria seguida y las tendencias del desarrollo territorial se encuentran relacionadas, principalmente, con un conjunto de hechos históricos que le han dado forma al “epicentrismo” territorial en Medellín, que se originaron hacia finales del siglo XVIII durante la época de la colonia, y van hasta finales del siglo XX. La posterior dinámica económica y la configuración territorial en una gran región metropolitana y una periferia rural donde solo dos aglomeraciones que superan los 100.000 habitantes, explican el desarrollo, la densidad y la intensidad de los vínculos rurales urbanos y los tejidos territoriales. La elevada concentración geográfica de los mercados, de los flujos de transporte de mercancías y población, de los bienes públicos y de las capacidades, conjuntamente con el patrón actual de división territorial del trabajo, explican la débil conexión que han mantenido esta gran región metropolitana como el estado con la periferia rural, especialmente con las zonas más lejanas y dispersas.
    Date: 2022–03–10
  23. By: Schonhardt-Bailey, Cheryl; Dann, Christopher; Chapman, Jacob
    Abstract: We employ multiple methods to gauge empirically the quality of the deliberative process whereby central bankers are held to account for their policy decisions. We use quantitative text analysis on the monetary policy legislative oversight hearing transcripts in the UK and US during the financial crisis. We find that the UK performs significantly better than the US in holding the central bank head to account on monetary policy, namely by engaging in a reciprocal dialogue between the legislative committee and the central banker. We then manually code selected exchanges from these transcripts, according to four criteria of deliberation: partisanship, accountability, narrative and response quality. We find that British MPs invoke almost no partisan rhetoric and target their questions more to relevant aspects of monetary policy; by comparison, their American counterparts seek to appeal more to their constituents and tend to veer away from discussing the details of monetary policy.
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2022–03–21
  24. By: Benito Arruñada
    Abstract: El presente trabajo analiza en primera lugar esta norma limitativa de la actualización de rentaspara, tras comentar los efectos y la historia del control de alquileres, analizar la involución quese ha producido en nuestras leyes desde la liberalización acometida por el Decreto Boyer en1985. Critica, en especial, el que desde 1994 la ley imponga a las partes una duración mínimadel contrato que es de la más extensas de la OCDE; y dos de las propuestas que contiene elProyecto de ley actualmente en discusión en las Cortes, relacionadas con la fijaciónadministrativa de precios máximos y el tratamiento discriminatorio de los arrendadores demayor tamaño y, por tanto, más profesionales.
    Date: 2022–04
  25. By: Salas-Ortiz, A.;
    Abstract: Using a life-course perspective and based on Roemer’s inequality of opportunity framework, the hypothesis of an accumulation and intergenerational transmission of ex-ante and ex-post inequality of opportunity in malnutrition is tested. This paper measures the evolution of inequalities in the light of the socioeconomic changes and the evolution of circumstances and efforts experienced by people born between 1983 and 1988 in Mexico. Using a combination of matching and re-weighting methods, a pseudo-birth-cohort is constructed and the effect of circumstances and efforts on inequality of opportunity is disentangled and measured across nutrition-related health outcomes. Results indicate that inequality of opportunity in malnutrition has been a persistent issue across the life course of the birth cohort and that lack of opportunities have been transmitted from parents to children. When disentangling the contribution of circumstances and efforts to inequality in malnutrition, we find that, on average, people’s circumstances explain 72% of the explained variation, whereas efforts account for only 28%. We find that circumstances are the main driver of inequality in undernutrition and no consistent evidence that efforts play a significant role in explaining variation in outcomes associated with overnutrition. The empirical results are relevant for reconsidering the classical assumptions behind the “economics of obesity†.
    Keywords: double burden of malnutrition; inequality of opportunity; matching and re-weighting; Mexico;
    Date: 2022–04

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