nep-his New Economics Papers
on Business, Economic and Financial History
Issue of 2020‒01‒06
27 papers chosen by
Bernardo Bátiz-Lazo
Bangor University

  1. Between communism and capitalism: long-term inequality in Poland, 1892-2015 By Bukowski, Pawel; Novokmet, Filip
  2. The uneven transition towards universal literacy in Spain, 1860-1930 By Francisco J. Beltrán Tapia; Alfonso Díez-Minguela; Julio Martínez-Galarraga; Daniel A. Tirado
  3. Cultural memory and cultural complex: reworking our understanding of the past in the Mexican historical television series "Malinche" By MARIA DE LOS ANGELES RODRIGUEZ CADENA
  4. Feinstein Fulfilled: Updated Estimates of UK GDP 1841†1920 By Solomos Solomou; Ryland Thomas
  5. American Precious Metals and their Consequences for Early Modern Europe By Nuno Palma
  6. Top Indian wealth shares and inheritances 1966-1985 By Kumar, Rishabh
  7. From Immigrants to Americans: Race and Assimilation during the Great Migration By Mazumder, Soumyajit
  8. The role of formal norms from an institutionalist perspective: the case of private enterprise regulation in Portugal (1790-1919) By Luis Aguiar Santos
  9. Using long term implied volatilities to assess past and present U.S. stock prices By Miguel Cantillo Simon
  10. The Academic Market And The Rise Of Universities In Medieval And Early Modern Europe (1000-1800) By David De La Croix; Frédéric Docquier; Alice Fabre; Robert Stelter
  11. Romania's Unsustainable Stabilization: 1929-1933 By Raphaël Chiappini; Dominique Torre; Elise Tosi
  12. History from Underneath: Girls Experience in an Era of Economic Change By Jane Humphries
  13. Georges Bataille, François Perroux and French Critiques of the Marshall Plan By Fèvre, Raphaël
  14. Occupying whateverland : journeys to museums in the Baltic By Elizabeth Carnegie; Jerzy Kociatkiewicz
  15. Employment Structure and the Rise of the Modern Tax System By Anders Jensen
  16. Surviving Auschwitz with Pre-Existing Social Ties By Stepan Jurajda; Tomas Jelinek
  17. L’Indochine française du XIXe-XXe siècle – politique et religions By Vuong, Thu-Trang; Ho, Toan Manh
  18. Knowledge spillovers and patent citations: trends in geographic localization, 1976-2015 By Hyuk-Soo Kwon; Jihong Lee; Sokbae (Simon) Lee; Ryungha Oh
  19. Lawrence, 1912: Fake news about real evils By Doyle, Peter
  20. Long-run Effects of a Change in Institutions: Evidence on Tax Compliance By Antonio Acconcia; Marcello D'Amato; Riccardo Martina; Marisa Ratto
  21. The Illegal Economy and the Organised Crime in the Caribbean Basin: Mexico in the Crossroad? By Jaime Aragón Falomir
  22. Is it a Fallacy to Believe in the Hot Hand in the NBA Three-Point Contest? By Miller, Joshua Benjamin; Sanjurjo, Adam
  23. Adaptative ambidexterity and dynamic environment: a longitudinal study of an SME By Caroline Mothe; Jean-Christophe Bogaert
  24. The Effects of Immigration on the Economy: Lessons from the 1920s Border Closure By Ran Abramitzky; Philipp Ager; Leah Platt Boustan; Elior Cohen; Casper W. Hansen
  25. Evaluating the Success of President Johnson’s War on Poverty: Revisiting the Historical Record Using a Full-Income Poverty Measure By Richard V. Burkhauser; Kevin Corinth; James Elwell; Jeff Larrimore
  26. Ease versus noise: long-run changes in the value of transport (dis)amenities By Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.; Nitsch, Volker; Wendland, Nicolai
  27. Driven by Institutions, Shaped by Culture: Human Capital and the Secularization of Marriage in Italy By David de la Croix; Fabio Mariani; Marion Mercier

  1. By: Bukowski, Pawel; Novokmet, Filip
    Abstract: How has Polish inequality evolved between communism and capitalism to reach one of the highest levels in Europe today? To address this question, we construct the first series on the long-term distribution of income in Poland by combining tax, household survey and national accounts data. We document a U-shaped evolution of inequalities from the end of the 19th century until today: (i) inequality was high before WWII; (ii) abruptly fell after the introduction of communism in 1947 and stagnated at low levels during the whole communist period; (iii) experienced a sharp rise with the return to capitalism in 1989. Between 1989 and 2015 the top 10% income share increased from 23% to 35% and the top 1% income share from 4% to 13%. Frequently quoted Poland’s transition success has largely benefited top income groups. We find that inequality was high in the first half of the 20th century due to strong concentration of capital income at the top of the distribution. The secular fall after WW2 was largely to a combination of capital income shocks from war destructions with communist policies both eliminating private ownership and forcing wage compression. The rise of inequality after the return to capitalism in the early 1990s was induced both by the rise of top labour and capital incomes. We attribute this to labour market liberalisation and privatisation. However, the strong rise in inequality in the 2000s was driven solely by the increase in top capital incomes, which is likely related to current globalization forces. Yet overall, the unique Polish inequality history speaks about the central role of policies and institutions in shaping inequality in the long run.
    Keywords: income inequality; transformation; Poland
    JEL: D31 E01 J30 N34
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Francisco J. Beltrán Tapia (Norwegian University of Science and Technology); Alfonso Díez-Minguela (University of Valencia); Julio Martínez-Galarraga (University of Valencia); Daniel A. Tirado (University of Valencia)
    Abstract: This study provides new evidence on the advance of literacy in Spain during the period 1860-1930. A novel dataset, built with historical information (over 8,000 municipalities) from the Spanish population censuses, enables us to describe this process in detail from the end of the Ancien Régime to the Second Republic. The study thus presents stylized facts at a very low level of geographic aggregation, thereby permitting a closer examination of the main patterns. Overall, spatial differences in literacy were sizeable during the whole nineteenth century. Furthermore, these disparities were only significantly reduced between 1900 and 1930 when the growing demand for these basic skills were met by a stronger government intervention.
    Keywords: Literacy, Regional Disparities, Nineteenth Century, Spain
    JEL: I20 N33 N93
    Date: 2019–12
    Abstract: In this paper, I discuss how a 'cultural memory' text (a narrative that bonds the concepts of history and identity, and that is realized and disseminated through symbolic systems such as visual images and dramatic representation) has the potential to challenge detrimental tenets of a 'cultural complex' (collective emotion-laden memories of past generations with specific historical/regional points of view).The concept ?cultural complex? (Singer and Kimbles), founded on Analytical Psychology (C. G. Jung), proposes to understand expressions of the collective mind in specific groups attitudes and behaviors. "Malinche" (Mexico, 2018) is a historical television series produced and directed by Patricia Arriaga that tells the story of Malinche, an extraordinary indigenous woman during the Spanish Conquest (1511-1550). She has been an important figure represented in history, art, literature and now, historical fiction on television. Malinche played a key role in the fall of the Aztec empire (1519-1521) by acting mainly as translator, negotiator and cultural mediator for the Spanish conqueror Hernán Cortéz. As a result of this collaboration, Malinche in Mexico has been traditionally considered a traitor; she is present in the collective imagination of Mexicans today as a symbol of dishonor and shame. The contemporary term 'malinchismo', o 'malinchista', considered a cultural complex as studied by Jacqueline Gerson, denotes a wound/trauma in the Mexican psyche, and serves to describe a person or an attitude of betrayal to one?s own; in this case, a self-destructive mindset and behavior that leads to a preference for the foreign and despise for what is Mexican. The TV series "Malinche" proposes an interesting and novel venue to re think the highly complicated context of the Conquest, and advocates for Malinche to be seen in a more integrative light, as a wise and brave young woman entangled in deeply personal and external dynamics, and immersed in the most severe conditions of a war and its brutal consequences. It is my contention that by challenging our limited, pre conceived ideas, "Malinche" constitutes an opportunity to examine our deeply rooted, detrimentally condemnatory views and to amend them for an open, realistic, understanding attitude towards Malinche and her historical circumstance.
    Keywords: cultural memory, cultural complex, historical fiction, television, Mexico, Malinche.
    JEL: N96 L82 Z00
    Date: 2019–10
  4. By: Solomos Solomou; Ryland Thomas
    Abstract: This paper attempts to bring together some of the improvements to C19th national income estimates since the publication of Charles Feinstein’s 1972 volume National Income, Expenditure and Output of the United Kingdom, 1855-1965. Most of the improvements and refinements were made by Feinstein himself and this paper makes a start in bringing the different elements together focusing chiefly on reconstructing the income-ased estimates, but also outlining where improvements might be made on the output and expenditure sides. We have also incorporated the improvements of other scholars and provided a new set of benchmark compromise estimates. We compare the productivity puzzle of the late C19th and early C20th with that of a similar puzzle observed since the Great Financial Crisis and show that many similar measurement issues are present in both episodes. In particular, we argue that further investigation of the GDP deflator and its sub- components over the 1841-1920 period is warranted.
    Keywords: Economic History, Economic Growth, Economic Cycles
    JEL: E01 N13 O47
    Date: 2019–08
  5. By: Nuno Palma (Department of Economics, University of Manchester; Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Universidade de Lisboa; CEPR)
    Abstract: Over the early modern period and beyond, massive amounts of silver and gold were found and mined in the Americas. In this paper, I review the consequences for the European economies. Some second-order receiver countries such as England benefited in both the short and long run. First-order receivers such as Spain and Portugal also benefited in the short-run, but their continued exposure to the arrival of massive quantities of precious metals eventually led to loss of competitiveness and an institutional resource curse.
    Keywords: American Precious Metals, Early Modern Period, Dutch Disease, Political Institutions, Economic growth, comparative development
    JEL: E02 E4 N14 O11
    Date: 2019–12
  6. By: Kumar, Rishabh (California State University (San Bernardino))
    Abstract: Between 1953 and 1985 India implemented various progressive taxes on personal wealth. I use estate tax returns to compute top wealth shares (top 1%, top 0.1% and top 0.01%) over 1966-1985; a period marked explicitly by a dirigiste policy environment. These new series suggest that wealth concentration in India reduced substantially during the 1970s. Although the decline affected the entire top 1%, the losses faced by the top 0.01% were especially large. Combined with identical trends in top income shares, it appears that the 1950-80 expropriations of India’s rich had similarities to institutional transitions and shocks faced by European elites in the early to mid twentieth century.
    Date: 2019–02–02
  7. By: Mazumder, Soumyajit
    Abstract: How does the appearance of a new immigrant group affect the integration of earlier generations of migrants? We study this question in the context of the first Great Migration (1915-1930), when 1.5 million African Americans moved from the US South to northern urban centers, where 30 million Europeans had arrived since 1850. We exploit plausibly exogenous variation induced by the interaction between 1900 settlements of southern-born blacks in northern cities and state-level outmigration from the US South after 1910. Black arrivals increased both the effort exerted by immigrants to assimilate and their eventual Americanization. These average effects mask substantial heterogeneity: while initially less integrated groups (i.e. Southern and Eastern Europeans) exerted more assimilation effort, assimilation success was larger for those culturally closer to native whites (i.e. Western and Northern Europeans). Labor market outcomes do not display similar heterogeneity, suggesting that these patterns cannot be entirely explained by economic forces. Our findings are instead more consistent with a framework in which changing perceptions of outgroup distance among native whites lowered the barriers to the assimilation of white immigrants.
    Date: 2019–07–03
  8. By: Luis Aguiar Santos
    Abstract: Regulation, considered in the context of economic phenomena, has been treated by economists and jurists in a chronological context that, at best, recedes into the early twentieth century. This short time span of the study of regulation is due, on the one hand, to the fact that it is understood by many as a historically recent phenomenon and, on the other, to the difficulty that a clear, operational concept of regulation has been used. The starting point of this paper is that the focus on formal and state-sanctioned normativity is fundamental to empirically clarify the scope of the study of the regulation of economic activities over historical time, since institutions (including economic ones) have indisputably also a normative nature. This problem is introduced here with a case study which purports to have more general relevance. This paper is based on a comprehensive and exhaustive empirical research of all the formal economic norms published by the Portuguese state between 1790 and 1919. The purpose is twofold: to present a first normative mapping of this national regulatory system and to demonstrate the relevance of state-issued formal norms as primary sources for the study of economic regulation from a historical perspective.
    Keywords: State; Private enterprise; Norms; Regulation; Portugal. JEL classification: K20; K40; K41; L51; N43
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Miguel Cantillo Simon (Universidad de Costa Rica)
    Abstract: This paper empirically analyzes a model that relates earnings price ratios to long term risk free rates and implied volatilities. The two periods with sufficient available data are 1890-1933, and 2007-2019. I estimate that modern investors have relative risk aversion of 1.34 and a time preference discount of 2.77%,while their historical counterparts have a relative risk aversion of 1.50 and a 6.42% discount. The paper studies if prices were efficient in Black’s (1986) sense, and finds that while an error correction model works well for the modern period, and for 1890 to 1927, coherence breaks down completely from 1928 to 1933.
    Date: 2019–12
  10. By: David De La Croix (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES)); Frédéric Docquier (LISER, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg); Alice Fabre (AMSE, Université Aix-Marseille, France); Robert Stelter (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: Medieval universities are one of the most original creations of Western civilization. Students were educated by a plurality of masters, and scholars came from all parts of Europe. In this paper, we build an original database of thousands of scholars from university sources, and map the academic market in the medieval and early modern periods. Using a random utility model, we show that scholars tend to agglomerate in the best universities, and that this phenomenon is more pronounced within the upper tail of the talent distribution (positive sorting). The quality of scholars is measured by their publications. Agglomeration and sorting patterns testify to a functioning academic market, made possible by political fragmentation and the use of a common language (Latin). Using counterfactual simulations, we show that market forces shaped the geographic distribution of upper-tail human capital across Europe, and contributed to bolstering European universities at the dawn of the Humanistic and Scientific Revolutions.
    Keywords: Upper-Tail Human Capital, Universities, Discrete choice model, Scholars, Publications, Agglomeration.
    JEL: N33 O15 I25
    Date: 2019–11
  11. By: Raphaël Chiappini (Université Côte d'Azur; GREDEG CNRS); Dominique Torre (Université Côte d'Azur, France; GREDEG CNRS); Elise Tosi (Skema Business School)
    Abstract: The Banque de France's (BDF's) conducted a mission to the National Bank of Romania (NBR) and the National Romanian Government between 1929 and 1933 to advise Romanian monetary and financial authorities. It took place in complement to two loans respectively provided in 1929 and 1931 to stabilize the leu and to develop the economy. After 4 years of cooperation, Romanian authorities were obliged to restrict convertibility to defend the leu. The Romanian Government was also unable to follow French's advice and finally defaulted. After the contributions of Mouré (2003), Cotrell (2006), Torre and Tosi (2010), and Raceanu (2012), this paper contributes to the analysis of this sequence: it supports the thesis that the Great Depression and its effects were not the primary causes of the failure of this cooperation episode. Two other reasons were indeed both sufficient to cause a default of the Romanian part and a failure of the cooperation sequence, unexpected by the French part: (i) a change of repudiation costs of the loans between 1929 and 1933, (ii) unadapted advices from the French mission / excessive cost for the Romanian part to follow them. To obtain this result, we first use archive documents to determine at which moment the Romanian and French parts agreed or disagreed during the 4-year cooperation. Second, we develop a game theoretic model analyzing on rational basis the motives which could explain a late default of the Romanian part, unexpected by the French part. Third, we apply a cliometric analysis onto original data from the National Bank of Romania, which shows that the advices were probably unadapted / too costly to follow. We conclude that at least one of the sufficient conditions exhibited by the theoretical model is empirically validated, which makes inessential the Great Depression as a cause of the default.
    Keywords: Nominal stabilization, Financial stabilisation, Central Banks cooperation, National Bank of Romania, Charles Rist, sovereign default, cliometrics
    Date: 2019–12
  12. By: Jane Humphries
    Abstract: The paper uses autobiographical accounts by 227 working women alongside a larger sample of men’s life stories to compare girl and boys’ experiences of first jobs, schooling and family life in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It asks whether girls were disadvantaged in seizing the opportunities and fending off the threats to wellbeing occasioned by economic change. Girls were more likely than boys to experience sexual harassment and this constrained the ways in which they could earn a living and live their lives. Fathers as breadwinners merited respect and often affection, but it was mothers with whom girls identified.
    Date: 2019–12–12
  13. By: Fèvre, Raphaël
    Abstract: This paper assesses French intellectuals’ early reception of the Marshall Plan in the light of the discussion Georges Bataille (1897-1962) and François Perroux (1903-1987) had in the journal Critique, by the second-half of 1948. I argue that Bataille and Perroux parallel efforts to go beyond what they perceive as the narrow boundaries of economics is mainly responsible for their unexpectedly optimistic reception of the American aid. The paper shows that the Perroux-Bataille discussion involved additional participants (as Jean Piel, and through him foreign economists like Colin Clark and Alvin Hansen). Those will help us grasping in more depth Bataille’s original account of the Marshall Plan, as well as assessing his disagreement with Perroux.
    Date: 2019–07–06
  14. By: Elizabeth Carnegie (Management School - University of Sheffield [Sheffield]); Jerzy Kociatkiewicz (Management School - University of Sheffield [Sheffield], MMS - Département Management, Marketing et Stratégie - TEM - Télécom Ecole de Management - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - IMT-BS - Institut Mines-Télécom Business School)
    Abstract: Recent history of Central and Eastern Europe charts multiple occupations, liberations and reoccupations by a variety of states and regimes. Museums of recent history, located across the region, strive to both constitute a memorial shaping narratives of national identity, and to represent the past in a way both recognizable and persuasive for their predominantly international tourist visitors. These visitors come with their own preconceptions and aims towards building both a historical narrative of the past and a personal identity narrative of a cultured, engaged tourist. In this paper, we chart how the historical past is used in contemporary sensemaking processes in the museums, and how tourist interpretations cross organizational and national barriers that the museum-curated historical narratives attempt to create.
    Keywords: Tourists as community of practice,Museums,Baltic history,Memorylands,Whateverland
    Date: 2019–03
  15. By: Anders Jensen
    Abstract: This paper shows how the increase in information trails through the long-run transition from self-employment to employee-jobs explains the rise of the modern income tax system. I construct a new database which covers 100 household surveys across countries at different income levels and 140 years of historical data within the US (1870-2010). Using these data, I first establish four new stylized facts: 1) within country, the share of employees increases over the income distribution, and increases at all levels of income as a country develops; 2) the income tax exemption threshold moves down the income distribution as a country develops, tracking employee growth; 3) the employee share above the exemption threshold is maximized and remains constantly high; 4) decreases in the exemption threshold are strongly associated with increases in tax collection. These findings are consistent with a model where a high employee share is a necessary condition for effective taxation and where the rise in income covered by information trails through increases in employee share drives expansion of the income tax base. To provide a causal estimate of employee share on income tax systems, I study a state-led US development program implemented in the 1950s-60s which increased the level of employee share. The identification strategy exploits within-state changes in court-litigation status which generate quasi-experimental variation in the effective implementation date of the program. I find that the exogenous increase in employee share is associated with an expansion of the state income tax base and an increase in state income tax revenue.
    Keywords: Economic Growth
    Date: 2019–10
  16. By: Stepan Jurajda; Tomas Jelinek
    Abstract: Survivor testimonies link survival in deadly POW camps, Gulags, and Nazi concentration camps to the ability of prisoners to get help from friends present in the camp. We study the case of several hundred prisoners of a small, low-security Nazi agricultural labor camp located in today's Czech Republic, who were ultimately on transports to Auschwitz, a deadly extermination and labor camp. We ask whether their chances of surviving the Holocaust depended on how many of their former co-laborers from the agricultural camp were present on their transports to Auschwitz, which included another 9 thousand Czech male prisoners. We uncover a large, 10 percentage point survival advantage to having arrived in Auschwitz with at least 50 former co-laborers from the agricultural labor camp. This evidence is similar to that provided by Costa and Kahn (2007) for a US Civil War POW camp, and consistent with the fundamentally selective accounts provided by survivors.
    Keywords: Nazi concentration camp; survival; social structure; Theresienstadt/Terezín;
    Date: 2019–12
  17. By: Vuong, Thu-Trang; Ho, Toan Manh (Thanh Tay University Hanoi)
    Abstract: La colonisation suivie du règne communiste a laissé sa marque sur l’ancienne Indochine française, constituée des trois pays Vietnam, Laos et Cambodge. Cet article vise à analyser la relation étroite entre des bouleversements politiques de la fin XIXe-début XXe siècle et l’évolution des institutions religieuses en Indochine, pour conclure sur l’interaction et l’influence réciproque entre politique et religieux.
    Date: 2018–01–07
  18. By: Hyuk-Soo Kwon (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Jihong Lee (Institute for Fiscal Studies); Sokbae (Simon) Lee (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Columbia University and IFS); Ryungha Oh (Institute for Fiscal Studies)
    Abstract: This paper examines the trends in geographic localization of knowledge spillovers via patent citations, extracting multiple cohorts of new sample US patents from the period of 1976-2015. Despite accelerating globalization and widespread per-ception of the “death of distance,” our matched-sample study reveals signi?cant and growing localization e?ects of knowledge spillovers at both intra- and international levels after the 1980s. Increased localization e?ects have been accompanied by greater heterogeneity across states and industries. The results are robust to various methods of proxying the existing geography of knowledge production.
    Date: 2019–10–30
  19. By: Doyle, Peter (Dartmouth College)
    Abstract: In a speech in Lawrence, Massachusetts on 9 February 2019, Elizabeth Warren stated that at the time of the 1912 Lawrence millworkers' strike, `One out of every three adult mill workers died by the time they were 25.' Where did this statistic come from?
    Date: 2019–07–29
  20. By: Antonio Acconcia (Università di Napoli Federico II and CSEF); Marcello D'Amato (Università di Salerno, CELPE and CSEF); Riccardo Martina (Università di Napoli Federico II and CSEF); Marisa Ratto (Universitè Paris-Dauphine)
    Abstract: The unification of Italy in 1861 determined that all institutions of the pre-unitary states were replaced by those of the new-born Kingdom of Italy, thus implying common rules for agents formerly obeying to different ones. Moreover, a major tax reform was also set in that determined differential increments of the tax burden across provinces. We investigate the potential implications of these events for tax compliance. By comparing a province-level measure of tax evasion just after the reform with a corresponding recent one, we show a strong process of convergence in compliance. Non-negligible spatial differences in tax evasion, however, still persist nowadays. Further empirical evidence suggests that such differences can be at least in part traced back to the tax reform.
    Keywords: tax evasion dynamics, decentralization, local enforcement externality, learning.
    JEL: D62 D81 H26 K41 K42
    Date: 2019–12–18
  21. By: Jaime Aragón Falomir (Université des Antilles (Pôle Martinique) - UA - Université des Antilles, CRILLASH - Centre de Recherches Interdisciplinaires en Lettres, Langues, Arts et Sciences Humaines - UA - Université des Antilles)
    Abstract: Recognizing that globalization started when European colonizers arrived in América (establishing the first transatlantic commercial networks), this article discusses how and to what extent this phenomenon is witnessing an important breakpoint, under influence the current battlegrounds of globalization (drugs, weapons, capital and persons). In fact, we will discuss, with the scientific literature in hand, how the weak links between Mexico and the Caribbean during the XIXth century, affected the Caribbean Basin during the XXth century. In particular we will look at how illicit commercial flows lead to a situation of marginality, of opulence and of violence in the Caribbean, with Mexico finding itself in the crossroads of this new global context.
    Abstract: Reconociendo que la globalización inicia con la llegada de los colonizadores europeos en América (estableciendo las primeras redes comerciales transatlánticas), el presente artículo discute en qué medida este fenómeno vive una ruptura profunda, a través de las llamadas guerras actuales de la globalización (drogas, armas, capitales, personas). En efecto, se discute con la literatura especializada acerca de la débil relación de México vis-à-vis el Caribe durante el siglo XIX, y cómo esto pudo ser el parteaguas para que en la Cuenca del Caribe durante el siglo XX exista un movimiento de comercio ilegal que desemboca en una delicada situación entre la marginalidad, la opulencia y la violencia en el Caribe, que conlleva a ubicar a México en la encrucijada de este nuevo contexto global.
    Abstract: Reconnaissant que la globalization commence lorsque les colonisateurs européens arrivent en Amérique (en construisant les premiers réseaux commerciaux transatlantiques), cet article discute dans quelle mesure ce phénomène vît une rupture profonde à/au travers les/des guerres actuelles de la globalisation (drogues, armes, capitaux, personnes). En effet, la discussion porte notamment sur le faible engagement du Mexique dans l'espace caribéen au XIX e siècle et nous verrons notamment les impacts que cela a produit sur la région pendant le XX e siècle sur le plan du commerce illégal qui débouchera sur une situation délicate faite de contrastes entre la marginalité, l'opulence et la violence dans la Caraïbe ; cela qui conduit à placer le Mexique au carrefour de ce nouveau contexte global.
    Date: 2019–11–25
  22. By: Miller, Joshua Benjamin (The University of Melbourne); Sanjurjo, Adam
    Abstract: The NBA Three-Point Contest has been considered an ideal setting to study the hot hand, as it showcases the elite professional shooters that hot hand beliefs are typically directed towards, but in an environment that eliminates many of the confounds present in game action. We collect 29 years of NBA Three-Point Contest television broadcast data (1986-2015), apply a statistical approach that improves on those of previous studies, and find considerable evidence of hot hand shooting in and across individuals. Our results support fans' and experts' widely held belief in the hot hand among NBA shooters.
    Date: 2018–10–30
  23. By: Caroline Mothe (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Jean-Christophe Bogaert
    Abstract: The temporal effect of organizational ambidexterity on the longevity of organizations remains little studied, especially in a context of a dynamic environment. Our longitudinal research covering the 25 years of existence of a SME in industrial biotechnology is based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. The results show that the company has succeeded all along its history to maintain high intensities of exploration and exploitation and to adapt them to multiple changes in its environment thanks to network elements essentially. We show that an adaptive organizational ambidexterity can be sustained dynamically by combining different types of ambidexterity through organizational plasticity and a combination of fundamentally different approaches on the short and long term.
    Abstract: El efecto temporal de la ambidexteridad organizacional sobre la longevidad de las organizaciones sigue siendo poco estudiado, especialmente en un contexto de un entorno dinámico. Nuestra investigación longitudinal que cubre los 25 años de existencia de una PYME en biotecnología industrial se basa en una combinación de métodos cuantitativos y cualitativos. Los resultados muestran que la compañía ha tenido éxito a lo largo de su historia para mantener altas intensidades de exploración y explotación y para adaptarlas a múltiples cambios en su entorno gracias a los elementos de la red en esencia. Mostramos que una ambidexteridad organizacional adaptativa puede ser sostenida dinámicamente combinando diferentes tipos de ambidexteridad a través de la plasticidad organizacional y una combinación de enfoques fundamentalmente diferentes a corto y largo plazo.
    Abstract: L'effet temporel de l'ambidextrie organisationnelle sur la longévité des organisations reste peu étudié, en particulier dans un contexte d'environnement dynamique. Notre recherche longitudinale couvrant les 25 années d'existence d'une PME dans la biotechnologie industrielle s'appuie sur une combinaison de méthodes quantitative et qualitative. Les résultats montrent que l'entreprise a su tout au long de son histoire maintenir de fortes intensités d'exploration et d'exploitation et les adapter aux multiples changements de son environnement, essentiellement grâce au réseau. Nous montrons qu'une ambidextrie adaptative peut être maintenue de manière dynamique en combinant différents types d'ambidextrie par le biais d'une plasticité organisationnelle et d'une combinaison d'approches fondamentalement différentes sur le court et le long terme. Mots clés : ambidextrie, archives, développement à long terme, longitudinal Adaptative ambidexterity and dynamic environment: a longitudinal study of an SME Summary The temporal effect of organizational ambidexterity on the longevity of organizations remains
    Keywords: longitudinal,ambidexterity,archives,long-term development,archivos,desarrollo a largo plazo,ambidexteridad,développement à long terme,ambidextrie
    Date: 2019
  24. By: Ran Abramitzky; Philipp Ager; Leah Platt Boustan; Elior Cohen; Casper W. Hansen
    Abstract: In the 1920s, the United States substantially reduced immigrant entry by imposing country-specific quotas. We compare local labor markets with more or less exposure to the national quotas due to differences in initial immigrant settlement. A puzzle emerges: the earnings of existing US-born workers declined after the border closure, despite the loss of immigrant labor supply. We find that more skilled US-born workers – along with unrestricted immigrants from Mexico and Canada – moved into affected urban areas, completely replacing European immigrants. By contrast, the loss of immigrant workers encouraged farmers to shift toward capital-intensive agriculture and discouraged entry from unrestricted workers.
    JEL: J6 J61 N21
    Date: 2019–12
  25. By: Richard V. Burkhauser; Kevin Corinth; James Elwell; Jeff Larrimore
    Abstract: We evaluate progress in President's Johnson's War on Poverty. We do so relative to the scientifically arbitrary but policy relevant 20 percent baseline poverty rate he established for 1963. No existing poverty measure fully captures poverty reductions based on the standard that President Johnson set. To fill this gap, we develop a Full-income Poverty Measure with thresholds set to match the 1963 Official Poverty Rate. We include cash income, taxes, and major in-kind transfers and update poverty thresholds for inflation annually. While the Official Poverty Rate fell from 19.5 percent in 1963 to 12.3 percent in 2017, our Full-income Poverty Rate based on President Johnson’s standards fell from 19.5 percent to 2.3 percent over that period. Today, almost all Americans have income above the inflation-adjusted thresholds established in the 1960s. Although expectations for minimum living standards evolve, this suggests substantial progress combatting absolute poverty since the War on Poverty began.
    JEL: D31 H24 I32 J3
    Date: 2019–12
  26. By: Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.; Nitsch, Volker; Wendland, Nicolai
    Abstract: For a complete cost-benefit analysis of durable infrastructures, it is important to understand how the value of non-market goods such as transit time and environmental quality changes as incomes rise in the longrun. We use difference-in-differences and spatial differencing to estimate the land price capitalization effects of metro rail in Berlin, Germany today and a century ago. Over this period, the negative effect of rail noise tripled in percentage terms. Our results imply long-run income elasticities of the value of noise reduction and transport access of 2.2 and 1.4, substantially exceeding cross-sectional contingent valuation estimates.
    JEL: R12 R14 R41 N73 N74
    Date: 2019–06
  27. By: David de la Croix (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES)); Fabio Mariani (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES)); Marion Mercier (CNRS, Université Paris-Dauphine)
    Abstract: We study the mechanisms behind the process of secularization and how they relate to human capital accumulation. We fist analyze empirically the spread of civil (vs religious) marriages in Italy. Successively using a panel of municipality-level census data and a sample of individuals from a household survey, we document a robust, positive correlation between human capital and secularization in marriage. Moreover, secularization is found to be more responsive to education (i) in the presence of high levels of social capital and/or weak family ties, and (ii) after the legalization of divorce in 1971. To understand the mechanisms behind these results, we develop a theory of religiosity, education, and marriage choices, in which individuals who divorce face a relatively higher return to human capital compared to religious capital. Our theory suggests that a positive association between human capital and secularization can emerge across individuals (and localities) even in the absence of a direct effect of education on religiosity. Consistent with our empirical findings, the legalization of divorce plays a central role in unleashing the forces of secularization in marriage, and different patterns in the education - secularization nexus can be traced back to different systems of incentives, as shaped by civic capital and family ties.
    Keywords: Secularization; Human capital; Marriage; Divorce
    JEL: Z12 J12 I25 N34 O4
    Date: 2019–12–12

This nep-his issue is ©2020 by Bernardo Bátiz-Lazo. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.