nep-his New Economics Papers
on Business, Economic and Financial History
Issue of 2019‒01‒21
39 papers chosen by
Bernardo Bátiz-Lazo
Bangor University

  2. Fossil Fuels in Economic Theory - Back to the 19th century British Debates By Antoine Missemer
  3. Technological Diversification of U.S. Cities during the Great Historical Crises By Mathieu Steijn; Pierre-Alexandre Balland; Ron Boschma; David Rigby
  4. Capital Destruction and Economic Growth: The Effects of Sherman's March, 1850-1920 By James J. Feigenbaum; James Lee; Filippo Mezzanotti
  5. Great Depression and the Rise of Female Employment: A New Hypothesis By Bellou, Andriana; Cardia, Emanuela
  7. “From Each according to Ability; To Each according to Needs” Origin, Meaning, and Development of Socialist Slogans By Luc Boven; Adrien Lutz
  8. Piero Sraffa and the project to publish Saint-Simon’s works By Michel Bellet; Adrien Lutz
  9. The Monetary and Fiscal History of Brazil, 1960-2016 By Joao Ayres; Marcio Garcia; Diogo Guillen; Patrick Kehoe
  10. Interbank Connections, Contagion and Bank Distress in the Great Depression By Calomiris, Charles W.; Jaremski, Matthew; Wheelock, David C.
  11. Immigrants' Contribution to Innovativeness: Evidence from a Non-Selective Immigration Country By Katharina Candel-Haug; Alexander Cuntz; Oliver Falck
  12. The Slaughter of the Bison and Reversal of Fortunes on the Great Plains By Feir, Donna; Gillezeau, Rob; Jones, Maggie E.C.
  13. The Origins of Common Identity: Evidence from Alsace-Lorraine By Sirus Dehdari; Kai Gehring
  14. Teaching entrepreneurial families and family business history in Latin America, 1870s-2017 By Andrea Lluch; Paloma Fernández Pérez
  15. Social Policy or Crowding-Out? Tenant Protection in Comparative Long-Run Perspective By Konstantin A. Kholodilin; Sebastian Kohl; Yulia Prozorova; Julien Licheron
  16. Money growth and inflation : International historical evidence on high inflation episodes for developed countries By Gallegati, Marco; Giri, Federico; Fratianni, Michele
  17. Rise and Fall of Calendar Anomalies over a Century By Alex Plastun; Xolani Sibande; Rangan Gupta; Mark E. Wohar
  18. Wars, Local Political Institutions, and Fiscal Capacity : Evidence from Six Centuries of German History By Becker, Sascha O.; Ferrara, Andreas; Melander, Eric; Pascali, Luigi
  19. Introduction: British Civilization Studies and the “Woman Question” By Marc Calvini-Lefebvre; Laura Schwartz
  20. The Saint-Simonians and the birth of social justice in France By Adrien Lutz
  22. Women in Economics: Stalled Progress By Lundberg, Shelly; Stearns, Jenna
  23. THE SHADOW OF THE FAMILY: HISTORICAL ROOTS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN EUROPE By Maria Kravtsova; Aleksey Oshchepkov; Christian Welzel
  24. The Intergenerational Behavioural Consequences of a Socio-Political Upheaval By Booth, Alison L.; Meng, Xin; Fan, Elliott; Zhang, Dandan
  25. Long-run Impacts of Agricultural Shocks on Educational Attainment: Evidence from the Boll Weevil By Richard B. Baker; John Blanchette; Katherine Eriksson
  26. A New Analysis of Population History in Sabah and Sarawak By Hashom Mohd Hakim
  27. Modern Chinese Banking Networks during the Republican Era By Lingyu Kong; Florian Ploeckl
  28. Geographical Roots of the Coevolution of Cultural and Linguistic Traits By Galor, Oded; Özak, Ömer; Sarid, Assaf
  30. How Much American Indian Land Did the Federal Government Supervise? Indian Land Tenure in an Incongruous Land System, 1880-1940 By Leonard A. Carlson
  31. Invisible Geniuses: Could the Knowledge Frontier Advance Faster? By Ruchir Agarwal; Patrick Gaulé
  32. Míster Ford en el Océano By Jesús Giráldez Rivero
  33. Econophysics: Still fringe after 30 years? By Jean-Philippe Bouchaud
  34. Análisis de la expansión urbana de Santa Cruz de Tenerife a través de sus liquidaciones de presupuestos de gastos (1959-1972) By María del Pino Ojeda Cabrera; Ruymán Hernández Pacheco
  35. An Enduring Platform for Public and Cooperative Economics Research: a Centennial Perspective By Marini, Marco A.; Thiry, Bernard
  36. From Integrated Capitalism to Disintegrating Capitalism. Scenarios of a Third World War By Hanappi, Gerhard
  37. On the Origins of Piero Sraffa’s Equations. New Evidence Following Pierangelo Garegnani’s Lead By Naldi, Nerio
  38. Top Lights - Bright Cities and their Contribution to Economic Development By Richard Bluhm; Melanie Krause
  39. On the Origin and Composition of the German East-West Population Gap By Eder, Christoph; Halla, Martin

  1. By: Aleksandra V. Chirkova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Daria A. Ageeva (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Evgeny A. Khvalkov (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The present study is devoted to the research into a set of the Venetian lettere ducali to the Marquises d’Este of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries collected by N.P. Likhachev (1862-1936), Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, stored in the Western European section of the Saint Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the preparation of their full-text critical publication. The lettere ducali are an excellent source to study the Serenissima and its continental and overseas domains. The source material of the Venetian lettere ducali have long and not without reason been considered and actively investigated by researchers as one of the most important sources on the economic, social, political, legal, environmental, cultural, and ethnic history of Venice. In addition, Venetian sources often provide researchers with important material on the history of other states of the Italian Peninsula, including, in our case, the domains of d’Este. This explains the exceptional importance of studying lettere ducali as the most important source on the history of the Western European Middle Ages and early modern times. This study revealed historical material on the specific cities and regions of Italy (Venice, Treviso, Ferrara, Verona, Padua, the Po Delta), as well as the Venetian colonies in the Mediterranean (Crete, Cyprus) and the Adriatic (Shkodra, Dalmatian Coast), history of international relations, history of economic relations, history of everyday life, history of state institutions and international law, history of a medieval document, history of Latin writing
    Keywords: History of Italy, 14th – 16th centuries, Venetian Republic, Terraferma, Mediterranean Sea, Treviso, Ferrara, Doges of Venice, chancery, diplomatic, Latin paleography, international relations, trade, diplomacy.
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Antoine Missemer (CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The interest of economists in fossil fuel exhaustion dates back to the mid-19th century, when, in Great Britain, W. Stanley Jevons published his 1865 essay on coal. In the subsequent decades, fossil fuels were considered with ambivalence: sometimes as a new theoretical and practical priority, sometimes as a secondary issue to be studied in standard frameworks. This paper explores, through the example of the mining rent, how fossil fuels were (partially) incorporated into economic theory at the time. It also explains why the original British view was finally relegated to the background in the early 20th century, when American economists took part in the discussions.
    Keywords: marginalism,Jevons,mining rent,history of economic thought,fossil fuels
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Mathieu Steijn; Pierre-Alexandre Balland; Ron Boschma; David Rigby
    Abstract: Regional resilience is high on the scientific and policy agenda. An essential feature of resilience is diversifying into new activities. But, little is known about whether major economic crises accelerate or decelerate regional diversification, and whether the impact differs between specialised and diverse regions. This paper offers systematic evidence on the effects of three of the largest crises in U.S. history (the Long Depression 1873-1879, the Great Depression 1929-1934, and the Oil Crisis 1973-1975) on the development of new technological capabilities within U.S. metropolitan areas. We find that crises reduce the pace of diversification in cities and that they narrow the scope of diversification to more closely related activities. We also find that more diverse cities outperform more specialised cities in diversifying during times of crisis but more diverse cities do not have a stronger focus on less related diversification during these unsettled times.
    Keywords: Technological diversification, regional resilience, major historical crises, related diversification, U.S. cities, entry of technologies, patents
    JEL: R11 D83 O33
    Date: 2019–01
  4. By: James J. Feigenbaum; James Lee; Filippo Mezzanotti
    Abstract: Using General William Sherman’s 1864–65 military march through Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina during the American Civil War, this paper studies the effect of capital destruction on medium and long-run local economic activity, and the role of financial markets in the recovery process. We match an 1865 US War Department map of Sherman’s march to county-level demographic, agricultural, and manufacturing data from the 1850-1920 US Censuses. We show that the capital destruction induced by the March led to a large contraction in agricultural investment, farming asset prices, and manufacturing activity. Elements of the decline in agriculture persisted through 1920. Using information on local banks and access to credit, we argue that the underdevelopment of financial markets played a role in weakening the recovery.
    JEL: N21 N41 N51
    Date: 2018–12
  5. By: Bellou, Andriana (University of Montreal); Cardia, Emanuela (University of Montreal)
    Abstract: The cohorts of women born at the turn of the 20th century increased markedly their participation in the labor market when older. These are the first cohorts who worked after their childbearing years. In this paper, we document a link between their work behavior and the Great Depression. We show that the 1929 Crash attracted young women 15 to 34 years old in 1930 (whom we name D-cohort) into the labor market, possibly via an added-worker effect. Using several years of Census micro data, we further document that the same cohort remained or re-entered the labor market in the 1940s and 1950s and that its entire life cycle labor supply is tightly linked to the conditions dating back to the Great Depression. We argue that these facts are consistent with the hypothesis of a labor supply shift for this cohort triggered by the 1929 Crash.
    Keywords: Great Depression, added worker effect, female labor supply
    JEL: J21 N32 J01
    Date: 2018–12
  6. By: Aleksandra V. Chirkova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Evgeny A. Khvalkov (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The present study is aimed at the research of the set of the Venetian lettere ducali of the fourteenth to mid-sixteenth centuries and the preparation of their full-text publication. Due to their diplomatic and paleographic characteristics, the lettere ducali stored in St. Petersburg are an example of a fairly well-developed chancery production, despite the chancery still being in the process of institutionalization at that point. At the same time, the lettere ducali are among the most widespread varieties of the documents issued by the Venetian Doges at that time. In this regard, the clarification of the criteria of authenticity and attributive features of these letters is the most urgent purpose of the project, given that the systematic publication and sequential study of the lettere ducali of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries are yet to be done in the future. As regards the medieval and early modern chancery activity in the Venetian Republic, only the period up to the thirteenth century has been studied well enough; as for the later times, only minor sets of the authentic lettere ducali have been published. The documents in question from the manuscript collection of N.P. Likhachev (1862-1936), Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, have never been published, and went almost unnoticed in the scholarly discourse. The publication of these documents will allow the medievalists the study of the previously unknown sources. The extensive study of the diplomatic and paleographic peculiarities of the letters, their description and visualization, their attribution and the transcription of the notes of the scribes will provide the researchers of the given period with the tools of the historical criticism of this variety of documents. The preliminary outcomes of the research and the deep analysis of certain case studies found in the manuscripts are to be presented as scholarly articles in double-blind peer-reviewed journals, as well as in conference proceedings
    Keywords: History of Italy, 14th – 16th centuries, Venetian Republic, Terraferma, Mediterranean Sea, Treviso, Ferrara, Doges of Venice, chancery, diplomatic, Latin paleography, international relations, trade, diplomacy.
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2018
  7. By: Luc Boven (UNC at Chapel Hill, Department of Philosophy, Caldwell Hall, CB# 3125, 240 East Cameron, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3125); Adrien Lutz (Univ Lyon, UJM Saint-Etienne, GATE UMR 5824, F-42023 Saint- Etienne, France)
    Abstract: There are three slogans in the history of Socialism that are very close in wording, namely, the famous Cabet-Blanc-Marx slogan: From each according to his ability; To each according to his needs; the earlier Saint-Simon–Pecqueur slogan: To each according to his ability; To each according to his works; and the later slogan in Stalin’s 1936 Soviet Constitution: From each according to his ability; To each according to his work. We trace the earliest occurrences of these slogans and their biblical sources and we show how the progression from one slogan to the next casts light on the development of early socialist thought.
    Keywords: socialism, utopian socialism, bible, Christianity, slogans
    JEL: B14 N00 Z12
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Michel Bellet (Univ Lyon, UJM Saint-Etienne, GATE UMR 5824, F-42023 Saint- Etienne, France); Adrien Lutz (Univ Lyon, UJM Saint-Etienne, GATE UMR 5824, F-42023 Saint- Etienne, France)
    Abstract: There are three slogans in the history of Socialism that are very close in wording, namely, the famous Cabet-Blanc-Marx slogan: From each according to his ability; To each according to his needs; the earlier Saint-Simon–Pecqueur slogan: To each according to his ability; To each according to his works; and the later slogan in Stalin’s 1936 Soviet Constitution: From each according to his ability; To each according to his work. We trace the earliest occurrences of these slogans and their biblical sources and we show how the progression from one slogan to the next casts light on the development of early socialist thought.
    Keywords: socialism, utopian socialism, bible, Christianity, slogans
    JEL: B14 N00 Z12
    Date: 2018
  9. By: Joao Ayres (Inter-American Development Bank); Marcio Garcia (CNPq; FAPERJ; Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro); Diogo Guillen (Itau-Unibanco Asset Management; ); Patrick Kehoe (Centre for Macroeconomics (CFM); Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis; Stanford University; Unbiversity College London (UCL))
    Abstract: Brazil has had a long period of high inflation. It peaked around 100 percent per year in 1964, decreased until the first oil shock (1973), but accelerated again afterward, reaching levels above 100 percent on average between 1980 and 1994. This last period coincided with severe balance of payments problems and economic stagnation that followed the external debt crisis in the early 1980s. We show that the high-inflation period (1960–1994) was characterized by a combination of fiscal deficits, passive monetary policy, and constraints on debt financing. The transition to the low-inflation period (1995–2016) was characterized by improvements in all of these features, but it did not lead to significant improvements in economic growth. In addition, we document a strong positive correlation between inflation rates and seigniorage revenues, although inflation rates are relatively high for modest levels of seigniorage revenues. Finally, we discuss the role of the weak institutional framework surrounding the fiscal and monetary authorities and the role of monetary passiveness and inflation indexation in accounting for the unique features of inflation dynamics in Brazil.
    Date: 2018–12
  10. By: Calomiris, Charles W. (Columbia University); Jaremski, Matthew (Utah State University); Wheelock, David C. (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis)
    Abstract: Liquidity shocks transmitted through interbank connections contributed to bank distress during the Great Depression. New data on interbank connections reveal that banks were much more likely to close when their correspondents closed. Further, after the Federal Reserve was established, banks’ management of cash and capital buffers was less responsive to network risk, suggesting that banks expected the Fed to reduce network risk. Because the Fed’s presence removed the incentives for the most systemically important banks to maintain capital and cash buffers that had protected against liquidity risk, it likely contributed to the banking system’s vulnerability to contagion during the Depression.
    Keywords: Bank Contagion; Great Depression; Interbank Networks; Liquidity Risk; Federal Reserve System
    JEL: G21 L14 N22
    Date: 2019–01–01
  11. By: Katharina Candel-Haug; Alexander Cuntz; Oliver Falck
    Abstract: The economic consequences of migration are hotly debated and a main topic of recent populist movements across Europe. We analyze Polish immigration in the context of the 2004 enlargement of the European Union and find a positive and significant spillover effect of the immigrants on the number of local inventors in German counties in 2001-2010. For causal identification, we exploit a historical episode in the Polish migration history to Germany before the fall of the Iron Curtain and construct a shift-share instrument. Our results differ from findings for high-skilled migration to the United States, which is particularly interesting as Polish immigration to Germany was not based on selection by qualification in our period of analysis.
    Keywords: migration, innovation
    JEL: J61 O31
    Date: 2018
  12. By: Feir, Donna (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis); Gillezeau, Rob (University of Victoria); Jones, Maggie E.C. (University of Victoria)
    Abstract: In the late 19th century, the North American bison was brought to the brink of extinction in just over a decade. We show that the bison’s slaughter led to a reversal of fortunes for the Native Americans who relied on them. Once the tallest people in the world, the generations of bison-reliant people born after the slaughter were among the shortest. Today, formerly bison-reliant societies have between 20-40% less income per capita than the average Native American nation. We argue that federal Indian policy that limited out-migration from reservations and restricted employment opportunities to crop based agriculture hampered the ability of bison-reliant societies to adjust in the long-run, generating lasting regional disparities associated with other indicators of social dislocation, such as suicide and unrest.
    Keywords: North American Bison; Buffalo; Extinction; Economic History; Development; Displacement; Native Americans; Indigenous; Income Shock; Intergenerational Mobility
    JEL: I15 J15 J24 N31 N32
    Date: 2019–01–14
  13. By: Sirus Dehdari; Kai Gehring
    Abstract: The quasi-exogenous division of the French regions Alsace and Lorraine after the Franco-Prussian War allows us to provide evidence about group identity formation within historically homogeneous regions. Using several measures of stated and revealed preferences spanning over half a century, we show that being exposed to occupation and repression for many decades caused a persistently stronger regional identity. The geographical RDD results are robust across all specifications. We document two mechanisms using data on regional newspapers and regionalist parties. The differences are strongest for the first two age cohorts after WWII and associated with preferences for more regional decision-making.
    Keywords: group identity, regional identity, identity formation, persistence of preferences, homogenization policies, assimilation, Alsace-Lorraine
    JEL: D91 H70 N40 Z19
    Date: 2018
  14. By: Andrea Lluch (CONICET, Argentina / Universidad de los Andes, Colombia); Paloma Fernández Pérez (Universidad de Barcelona, Spain)
    Abstract: This paper aims to be an instrument for teaching family business history in Latin America in business schools. The focus is the story of the many failures and the few successful histories of Latin American family businesses, from the 1870s until our days. The choice of the dates responds to the willingness of the authors to focus the attention of students in a key historical period in the history of Latin America, with consolidated independent governments, and fast inclusion in the global economy. Those were years in which the region transformed its global position from being a destination of foreign products, labour, and capital, to becoming increasingly the cradle of innovative multinationals, some of which are today key players in global Foreign Direct Investment (Casanova 2016). The paper indicates the major trends in the external environment and the national politics, and the impact of such context in the creation, expansion, disappearance, or transformation, of family businesses, though the focus is in the large diversified family controlled business groups, for which the empirical evidence is more abundant to establish comparisons across borders, despite the diversity.
    Keywords: Latin America, Diversified Business Groups, Family Businesses, Entrepreneurial Family-Controlled Businesses.
    JEL: N01 N16 N86
    Date: 2019–01
  15. By: Konstantin A. Kholodilin; Sebastian Kohl; Yulia Prozorova; Julien Licheron
    Abstract: In the shadow of homeownership and public housing, social policy through the regulation of private rental markets is a neglected and underestimated field of social policy. This paper, therefore, presents unique new data on the development of private tenancy legislation through the binary coding of rent control, the protection of tenants from eviction, and rental housing rationing laws across more than 25 countries and 100 years. This long-run perspective reveals the dynamic effects of rent control on the rise of homeownership as the dominant tenure during the 20th century. We find that both rent regulation and rationing legislation effectively increased homeownership, but only up to a certain threshold. We suggest that the short-term lure of an inexpensive social policy for tenants has led to the long-term marginalization of rental markets in many countries.
    Keywords: Homeownership, rent control, tenure security, housing rationing, dynamic panel data model
    JEL: C23 O18 R38
    Date: 2019
  16. By: Gallegati, Marco; Giri, Federico; Fratianni, Michele
    Abstract: How long is the long run in the relationship between money growth and inflation? How important are high inflation episodes for the unit slope finding in the quantity theory of money? To answer these questions we study the relationship between excess money growth and inflation over time and across frequencies using annual data from 1871 to 2013 for several developed countries. Wavelet-based exploratory analysis shows the existence of a close stable relationship between excess money growth and inflation only over longer time horizons, i.e. periods greater than 16 and 24 years, with money growth mostly leading. When we investigate the sensitivity of the unit slope finding to inflation episodes using a scale-based panel data approach we find that low-frequency regression coefficients estimated over variable-length subsamples before and after WWII are largely affected by high inflation episodes. Taken together the results that inflationary upsurges affect regression coefficients but not the closeness of the long-run relationship call for a qualification of the Quantity Theory of Money and suggests that policymakers should not lose interest on monetary developments.
    JEL: C22 E40 E50 N10
    Date: 2019–01–09
  17. By: Alex Plastun (Faculty of Economics and Management, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine); Xolani Sibande (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa); Rangan Gupta (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa); Mark E. Wohar (College of Business Administration, University of Nebraska, USA and School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK.)
    Abstract: In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive investigation of calendar anomaly evolution in the US stock market (given by the Dow Jones Industrial Average) for the 1900 to 2018 period. We employ various statistical techniques (average analysis, Student’s t-test, ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests) and the trading simulation approach to analyse the evolution of the following calendar anomalies: day of the week effect, turn of the month effect, turn of the year effect, and the holiday effect. The results revealed that ‘golden age’ of calendar anomalies was in the middle of the 20th century. However, since the 1980s all calendar anomalies disappeared. This is consistent with the Efficient Market Hypothesis.
    Keywords: Calendar Anomalies, Day of the Week Effect, Turn of the Month Effect, Turn of the Year Effect, Holiday Effect, Stock Market, Dow Jones Industrial Average Index
    JEL: G12 C63
    Date: 2019–01
  18. By: Becker, Sascha O. (Department of Economics, and CAGE (Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy), University of Warwick, CEPR, CESifo, ifo, IZA and ROA); Ferrara, Andreas (Department of Economics, and CAGE (Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy), University of Warwick); Melander, Eric (Department of Economics, and CAGE (Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy), University of Warwick); Pascali, Luigi (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, and CAGE (Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy), University of Warwick)
    Abstract: We study the effect of warfare on the development of state capacity and representative institutions using novel data on cities and territories in the German lands between 1200 and 1750. More specifically, we show that cities with a higher conflict exposure establish more sophisticated tax systems, but also develop larger councils, councils that are more likely to be elected by citizens, and more likely to be independent of other local institutions. These results are consistent with the idea of a trade-off between more efficient taxation and powersharing proposed in earlierwork. We make head way on establishing a causal role of war sby using changes to Germannobles’ positions within the European nobility network to instrument for conflict.
    JEL: D72
    Date: 2018
  19. By: Marc Calvini-Lefebvre (LERMA - Laboratoire d'Etudes et de Recherche sur le Monde Anglophone - AMU - Aix Marseille Université); Laura Schwartz
    Abstract: This is the first themed issue in the Revue Française de Civilisation Britannique's twenty-eight-year history to be entirely devoted to what was once called "the woman question". At its heart lies a simple yet puzzling question: why is it that, after over two centuries of campaigning for "women's rights", women remain concentrated in the lowest paid forms of work, sex and gender-based violence persists, and women's bodies and identities remain the grounds upon which racist, imperialist and religious ideologies are frequently played out? In providing detailed case-studies through which to reflect on this question, our contributors reveal the plurality of objects and methods that characterise the rich fields of women's and gender studies research. We hope therefore that they will contribute to furthering the dissemination of interest in women and gender studies amongst the next generation of British civilisation scholars.
    Abstract: En vingt-huit années d'existence, ceci est le premier numéro thématique de la Revue Française de Civilisation Britannique à être entièrement consacré à ce que l'on appelait autrefois « La Questionde la Femme ». Il pose une question à la fois simple et profondément déroutante : comment se fait-il qu'après deux siècles de militantisme en faveur des droits des femmes, celles-ci se retrouvent encore concentrées dans les occupations les moins bien rémunérées, les violences sexuelles et genrées persistent, et les corps et identités des femmes continuent régulièrement à être les terrains de déploiement privilégiés d'idéologies racistes, impérialistes et religieuses ? Les études de cas détaillées de nos contributrices montrent la pluralité des objets et méthodes caractéristiques de ces deux champs très riches que sont les études sur les femmes et les études genre. Nous espérons donc qu'ils contribueront à prolonger la dissémination croissante d'intérêt pour ces champs au sein de la prochaine génération de civilisationistes.
    Keywords: Gendered social change,Women’s roles,Woman condition,British Civilization,Women’s studies,Gender,Civilisation studies,Feminism,Études sur les femmes,Genre,SAGEF,Études de civilisation,Féminisme
    Date: 2018–03–15
  20. By: Adrien Lutz (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper concerns the birth of the idea of social justice, which in France dates to the 19th century. It argues that the idea of social justice was able to emerge in France due to particular conditions, which were met for the first time by the Saint-Simonians. We first shed light on the transition in France from a commercial system to one marked by increasing industrialization, which raised new questions regarding economic justice and the composition of ownership. The Saint-Simonians were among the first to criticize this new composition, and to seek a means to organize society on a fair basis. We then explain how the Saint-Simonians came to theorize this new organization: according to them, the value of things lies in work. The difference from the classical framework, which is also utilitarian, is that they posit an opposition between workers and idlers: each and every individual must be useful to society. Finally, we analyse how the Saint-Simonians identify this opposition as existing throughout history, on which basis they not only justify their innovative views on social justice, but legitimize their project as a whole.
    Keywords: Saint-Simonianism,Social justice,Ability,Industrialism
    Date: 2018–12–21
  21. By: Kira Ilina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Alexandra A. Koroleva (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The present study focuses on practices of self-representation in the virtual space that are specific to university history museums. The object of the study includes six museums: the Academic Historical Museum of Leiden University, the Helsinki University Museum, the National Cheng Kung University Museum, the University Museum of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, the University of the West Indies Museum. The research is based on analysis of websites and homepages on social networks of these university history museums. The authors elicit ideas and formulas of the mission of a museum of this kind, examine various ways to provide the objective information about museums (address, opening hours, contacts), and also analyze various ways of virtual representation of the university history
    Keywords: history of universities, museum studies, University museums, virtual space, representations of the past
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2018
  22. By: Lundberg, Shelly (University of California, Santa Barbara); Stearns, Jenna (University of California, Davis)
    Abstract: In this paper, we first document trends in the gender composition of academic economists over the past 25 years, the extent to which these trends encompass the most elite departments, and how women's representation across fields of study within economics has changed. We then review the recent literature on other dimensions of women's relative position in the discipline, including research productivity and income, and assess evidence on the barriers that female economists face in publishing, promotion, and tenure. While underlying gender differences can directly affect the relative productivity of men and women, due to either differential constraints or preferences, productivity gaps do not fully explain the gender disparity in promotion rates in economics. Furthermore, the progress of women has stalled relative to that in other disciplines in the past two decades. We propose that differential assessment of men and women is one important factor in explaining this stalled progress, reflected in gendered institutional policies and apparent implicit bias in promotion and editorial review processes.
    Keywords: gender, economics, promotion, tenure, publishing
    JEL: J16 J71 J21
    Date: 2018–11
  23. By: Maria Kravtsova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Aleksey Oshchepkov (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Christian Welzel (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This study provides new evidence on the impact of historic household formation patterns on present day levels of social capital (SC). We distinguish effects on bonding and bridging social capital, of which only the latter is beneficial for a society as a whole. Our results challenge the view that large household size in the past per se was responsible for institutional drawbacks of contemporary societies restricting social capital. We unveil the true processes lying behind the idea that prevalence of nuclear households fostered institutional development, testing three mechanisms through which household size may influence social capital: (a) family size in terms of the number of household members; (b) the strength of loyalty bonds within the family, and (c) generational and gendered power hierarchies within the family. Our hypotheses are explored on the basis of 26 European countries covered by the Life in Transition Survey (LiTs) in 2010. The contrast between Western and Eastern European countries in the LiTs provides a controlled environment that is free from the potentially confounding influence of European colonialism. We generate a new historical database using historical census data for 429 sub-national regions in 5 West European and 21 East European countries. Individual responses from the LiTs are attributed to the sub-national region in which the respondent lives. We find that power relations within the family have more essential consequences for contemporary values and attitudes than nuclearity/extendedness dimension. Within-family hierarchies revealed to be the strongest predictor of social capital today, indicating lower levels of bridging SC and higher level of corruption in form of monetary transfers or exchange of favors. We suggest that within-family hierarchies in the past might have affected the contemporary level of SC provoking a longstanding commitment to authority within the society. This evidence is illustrated by the significant positive correlation between the historical index of within-family hierarchy and autocracy preference as measured on LiTs data. Societal commitment to authority rooted in historical family pattern might have prevented generalized trust formation and fostered vertical patron-client relations, favoritism and corruption. Our results may drive further research from concentrating on family extendedness (nuclearity) as a predictor of the current state of modernization towards using more meaningful indicators of within-family hierarchies.
    Keywords: historical family structure, social capital, bridging social capital, bonding social capital, corruption, modernization
    JEL: N33 J12
    Date: 2018
  24. By: Booth, Alison L. (Australian National University); Meng, Xin (Australian National University); Fan, Elliott (National Taiwan University); Zhang, Dandan (Peking University)
    Abstract: Social scientists have long been interested in the effects of social-political upheavals on a society subsequently. A priori, we would expect that, when traumas are brought about by outsiders, within-group behaviour would become more collaborative, as society unites against the common foe. Conversely, we would expect the reverse when the conflict is generated within-group. In our paper we are looking at this second form of upheaval, and our measure of within-group conflict is the 1966-1976 Cultural Revolution (CR) that seriously disrupted many aspects of Chinese society. In particular, we explore how individuals' behavioural preferences are affected by within-group traumatic events experienced by their parents or grandparents. Using data from a laboratory experiment in conjunction with survey data, we find that individuals with parents or grandparents affected by the CR are less trusting, less trustworthy, and less likely to choose to compete than their counterparts whose predecessors were not direct victims of the CR.
    Keywords: preferences, behavioural economics, cultural revolution
    JEL: C91 N4
    Date: 2018–11
  25. By: Richard B. Baker; John Blanchette; Katherine Eriksson
    Abstract: The boll weevil spread across the Southern United States from 1892 to 1922 having a devastating impact on cotton cultivation. The resulting shift away from this child labor–intensive crop lowered the opportunity cost of attending school, and thus the pest increased school enrollment and attendance. We investigate the insect’s long run affect on educational attainment using a sample of adults in 1940 linked back to themselves in childhood in the county in which they were likely educated. Both whites and blacks who were young (ages 4 to 9) when the boll weevil arrived saw increased educational attainment by 0.25 to 0.35 years. These findings are not driven by concurrent shocks and are not sensitive to linking method or sample selection. Our results demonstrate the potential for conflict between child labor in agriculture and educational attainment.
    JEL: N32 O13
    Date: 2018–12
  26. By: Hashom Mohd Hakim (Universiti Sains Malaysia and Royal Malaysia Police, Malaysia. Author-2-Name: Japareng Lalung Author-2-Workplace-Name: School of Industrial Technologies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang Author-3-Name: Suresh Narayanen Author-3-Workplace-Name: Centre for Global Archaeological Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang Author-4-Name: Nasha Rodziadi Khaw Author-4-Workplace-Name: Centre for Global Archaeological Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Geoffrey Keith Chambers Author-6-Workplace-Name: School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand Author-7-Name: Hisham Atan Edinur Author-7-Workplace-Name: School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan. Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - This study is a comprehensive account of contemporary knowledge concerning pre-historic communities in Sabah and Sarawak based on newly available evidence from genomic and archaeological research. Methodology/Technique - The data presented in this review was obtained from primary literature including recent reports on several Neolithic excavation sites including Gua Sireh, Bukit Tengkorak, Melanta Tutup, and Bukit Kamiri. Findings - Pre-neolithic populations existed in Borneo long before the arrival of Austronesians as is evident from Niah Cave remains. These considerably pre-date the arrival of the latter new immigrants around 3,500 years ago. Further genetic research is needed, as the current view of the history of the population is based on a limited number of ethnic groups among those currently living in Borneo and to date, no trace has been found of any surviving genetic lineages from the earliest settlers. Novelty - This review paints a contemporary picture from existing information. In particular, it highlights the need for further research on the topic, as the current view of the genetic history of the population in Sabah and Sarawak is only available on a limited number of ethnic groups currently living in Borneo. Developing a conclusive and composite view on this topic will require widespread genetic surveys of many more ethnic groups scattered throughout the Sabah and Sarawak areas. This will require large-scale next-generation techniques (such as genome-wide SNP surveys and whole genome sequencing etc.). These methods should be enhanced by examination of ancient materials including human remains and their associated artefacts. These initiatives will require a number of well-planned excavations of recent settlements (last 10,000 years) and the application of trace and ancient DNA methodology.
    Keywords: Population Genetics; Archaeology; Borneo; Sabah and Sarawak; Malaysia; Population History.
    JEL: N90 Z10
    Date: 2018–12–03
  27. By: Lingyu Kong (School of Economics, University of Adelaide); Florian Ploeckl (School of Economics, University of Adelaide)
    Abstract: Domestic western-style banks emerged as China’s leading financial sector during the Republican era, an environment characterized by economic and political uncertainty and weak property rights. We document that these modern banks nevertheless flourished, especially during the Nanjing decade in the 1930s, with strong social and commercial relationships throughout the sector. Focusing on interlocking directorates we trace the shape, structure and development of the network of cooperation between these banks. This network shows a dominating central cluster, indicating that the sector was characterized by internal cooperation rather than competition. Similarly, new entrants were strongly linked to existing banks, indicating that entry was driven by the expansion of existing banks rather than the rise of new competition. Finally, central locations of public banks within the cluster indicate that the government gained influence over the sector through direct bank ownership. This paper shows that the domestic financial sector reacted successfully to the threats of the external environment by weaving a close web of interdependence, including with the government.
    Keywords: Domestic western-style banks, Chinese banking networks, chinas leading financial sector, economic and political uncertainty, republican era
    Date: 2018–09
  28. By: Galor, Oded (Brown University); Özak, Ömer (Southern Methodist University); Sarid, Assaf (University of Haifa)
    Abstract: This research explores the geographical origins of the coevolution of cultural and linguistic traits in the course of human history, relating the geographical roots of long-term orientation to the structure of the future tense, the agricultural determinants of gender bias to the presence of sex-based grammatical gender, and the ecological origins of hierarchical orientation to the existence of politeness distinctions. The study advances the hypothesis and establishes empirically that: (i) geographical characteristics that were conducive to higher natural return to agricultural investment contributed to the existing cross-language variations in the structure of the future tense, (ii) the agricultural determinants of gender gap in agricultural productivity fostered the existence of sex-based grammatical gender, and (iii) the ecological origins of hierarchical societies triggered the emergence of politeness distinctions.
    Keywords: comparative development, cultural evolution, language structures, future tense, politeness distinctions, long-term orientation, grammatical gender, gender bias, hierarchy, emergence of states
    JEL: O10 Z10 Z13
    Date: 2018–11
  29. By: Aleksandr V. Rusanov (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Ksenia V. Komoza (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is detection of different possibilities for the representation of a university corporation in the UK realized through various museum practices. This research focuses on two groups of university museums selected on the principle whether they form some kind of a narrative or they can be examined as a anarrative. The presence or absence of the physical space of the museum was also taken into account. Various approaches were used during the research: analysis of representations and visual studies of museums; museum audience research, analysis of the interaction between museum spaces and urban community. As a result, the cases presented in the article bring us closer to understanding of how a museum changes, and what public and museum workers themselves invest in this concept, and how museum practices are used by British universities for accumulating their history
    Keywords: history of universities, museum studies, University museums, United Kingdom, representations of the past
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2018
  30. By: Leonard A. Carlson
    Abstract: This paper explores the complex history of the relationship of tribes and individual Indians with the federal government by examining Indian land holdings between 1880 and 1940.
    Date: 2018–11
  31. By: Ruchir Agarwal; Patrick Gaulé
    Abstract: The advancement of the knowledge frontier is crucial for technological innovation and human progress. Using novel data from the setting of mathematics, this paper establishes two results. First, we document that individuals who demonstrate exceptional talent in their teenage years have an irreplaceable ability to create new ideas over their lifetime, suggesting that talent is a central ingredient in the production of knowledge. Second, such talented individuals born in low- or middle-incomecountries are systematically less likely to become knowledge producers. Our findings suggest that policies to encourage exceptionally-talented youth to pursue scientific careers–especially those from lower income countries–could accelerate the advancement of the knowledge frontier.
    Date: 2018–12
  32. By: Jesús Giráldez Rivero (Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Spain)
    Abstract: Este trabajo busca aproximarse al desarrollo del sistema fordista en la pesca. Dicho sistema, difundido en la industria agroalimentaria en Estados Unidos en los años treinta, por asimilación de los cambios operados en la industria de bienes de consumo duradero, fue replicado por el conjunto de sectores agrícolas occidentales tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Los cambios en el modelo industrial permitieron incrementar sustancialmente la productividad, asentando un sistema de acumulación basado en la producción y el consumo masivo. La nueva naturaleza industrial también afectó a la pesca. La exigencia de recursos abundantes y homogéneos impuesta por la tecnología pesquera de tipo fordista, impulsó la intensificación y la mundialización de la actividad, generando nuevas dinámicas económicas y ecológicas. En las siguientes páginas abordaremos, primero, la difusión del fordismo en la industria agroalimentaria y la incorporación del pescado a las nuevas formas de consumo; a continuación, analizaremos su plasmación en la actividad pesquera, las nuevas formas de aprovechamiento y conservación del pescado; después, estudiaremos los factores que proporcionaron consistencia al sistema en los años sesenta y setenta; sus bases tecnológicas y su excepcional marco institucional y económico.
    Keywords: Historia Económica, Pesca, Recursos naturales
    JEL: Q22 N50 P28
    Date: 2019–01
  33. By: Jean-Philippe Bouchaud
    Abstract: Some personal reflections on the past and future of "econophysics", to appear in Europhysics News
    Date: 2019–01
  34. By: María del Pino Ojeda Cabrera (Universidad de La Laguna, Spain); Ruymán Hernández Pacheco (Universidad de La Laguna, Spain)
    Abstract: La postración socioeconómica que había instaurado la autarquía tuvo matices propios en el caso de la economía insular al haberse cercenado el vínculo que había sido pieza clave en su trayectoria histórica, esto es, el libre acceso al mercado exterior. El Plan de Estabilización y Liberalización de 1959 supuso el comienzo de la alineación del país en el escenario internacional. El modo en que el municipio capitalino de Santa Cruz de Tenerife se benefició del nuevo marco derivó de la puesta en marcha del Plan Canarias, o la versión de los Planes de Desarrollo Económico y Social que se aplicó en Canarias, así como de la participación del municipio en los ingresos del Cabildo Insular mediante la denominada Carta Económica Municipal, que se tradujo en una fuente de financiación excepcional. Pero al resultar insuficientes dichas aportaciones se justificó el recurso al Banco de Crédito Local de España. Para contrastar esto, hemos utilizado los presupuestos de gastos liquidados del municipio, los presupuestos extraordinarios y los especiales de urbanismo. Los efectos de la estrategia inversora fueron significativos al instaurarse servicios asociados a la expansión y mejora del ámbito urbano-portuario, coincidiendo con la nueva inserción de la economía isleña en el mercado internacional.
    Keywords: Santa Cruz de Tenerife, municipal treasury, Development Plans, expenses budgets
    JEL: D60 N00 N34 N94
    Date: 2019–01
  35. By: Marini, Marco A.; Thiry, Bernard
    Abstract: We introduce the special centennial issue of Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics
    Keywords: Public Economics, Cooperative Economics
    JEL: A10 L2 L3 L31 P3 P35 P5
    Date: 2018–03–01
  36. By: Hanappi, Gerhard
    Abstract: In the last decade significant changes in capitalism are appearing, it entered a new stage. After the political breakdown of Feudalism in World War 1 a stage of capitalism that aimed at integration of all parts of society was slowly developing. 15 years later the authoritarian regimes of national socialism, Fascism, intermitted the evolution of Integrated Capitalism. Since 1945 it flourished again, though its political governance on a global level in recent decades ran into more and more contradictions. After the deep economic crisis of 2008 a turning point towards authoritarian governance of capitalism - in particular in the USA - is evident. Since this type of new nationalist authoritarian capitalism destroys global integration it is called Disintegrating Capitalism. An immediate consequence of the global contradiction between worldwide interwoven production processes and rivalries between nationalist regimes is a rapidly rising danger of a third World War. The second, more speculative part of the paper explores possible forms, which this WW3 could take on. A conclusion provides some ideas on possibilities to react to war tensions.
    Keywords: Capitalism, World War
    JEL: B00 P16 P48
    Date: 2019–01–07
  37. By: Naldi, Nerio (La Sapienza University of Rome)
    Abstract: The paper investigates the origins of the equations which form the structure of Piero Sraffa’s Production of Commodities by means of Commodities. Following an interpretation first developed by Pierangelo Garegnani in a paper that highlighted the importance of a manuscript headed ‘Notes Lon-don, Summer 1927 (Physical Real Costs etc.)’, we single out new evidence relevant to the reconstruction of the path which led Sraffa to conceive his equations. In particular, we stress how Sraffa came to pay special attention to the case of a subsistence economy (‘a community that produces just what is sufficient to keep it going’) and how this led him to shift his attention from the idea of reducing heterogeneous physical costs to an ‘absolutely necessary commodity’ to the determination of exchange ratios by the solution of systems of simultaneous equations.
    Keywords: Sraffa; Piero Sraffa Papers; Production of Commodities; costs; relative prices
    JEL: B24 B31 B51
    Date: 2018–12
  38. By: Richard Bluhm; Melanie Krause
    Abstract: The commonly-used satellite images of nighttime lights fail to capture the true brightness of most cities. We show that night lights are a reliable proxy for economic activity at the city level, provided they are first corrected for top-coding. We present a stylized model of urban luminosity and empirical evidence which both suggest that these ‘top lights’ follow a Pareto distribution. We then propose a simple correction procedure which recovers the full distribution of city lights. Applying this approach to cities in Sub-Saharan Africa, we find that primate cities are outgrowing secondary cities but are changing from within.
    Keywords: development, urban growth, night lights, top-coding, inequality
    JEL: O10 O18 R11 R12
    Date: 2018
  39. By: Eder, Christoph (University of Linz); Halla, Martin (University of Linz)
    Abstract: The East-West gap in the German population is believed to originate from migrants escaping the socialist regime in the German Democratic Republic (GDR). We use newly collected regional data and the combination of a regression discontinuity design in space with a difference-in-differences approach to document that the largest part of this gap is due to a massive internal migration wave 3 years prior to the establishment of the GDR. The timing and spatial pattern of this migration movement suggest that the dominant motive was escaping physical assault by the Soviet army and not avoiding the socialist regime. The skill composition of these migrants shows a strong positive selection. The gap in population has remained remarkably sharp in space and is growing.
    Keywords: institutions, wartime violence against civilians, selective migration, regional migration, World War II, Germany, spatial distribution, regional economic activity
    JEL: N44 N94 R23 R11 R12 J61
    Date: 2018–12

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