nep-his New Economics Papers
on Business, Economic and Financial History
Issue of 2016‒09‒18
28 papers chosen by
Bernardo Bátiz-Lazo
Bangor University

  1. You Reap What You Know: Darwin beats Malthus: Medicalization, Evolutionary Anthropology and the Demographic Transition By Katharina Mühlhoff
  2. Interest parity conditions during the classical gold standard (1880 -1914) - Evidence from the investment demand for bills of exchange in Europe By Nils Herger
  3. The Labor Market Consequences of Refugee Supply Shocks By Borjas, George J.; Monras, Joan
  4. Tax Cuts, Tax Expenditures, and Comprehensive Tax Reform: Federal Income Tax Reform in the United States, 1961-1986 By Seiichiro Mozumi
  5. Political Business Cycles 40 Years after Nordhaus By Eric Dubois
  6. A Lesson from the Great Depression that the Fed Might have Learned: A Comparison of the 1932 Open Market Purchases with Quantitative Easing By Michael Bordo; Arunima Sinha
  7. Antecedentes del Banco de la República, 1904 -1922. By Adolfo Meisel-Roca.
  8. Failure of rebel movement-to-political party transformation of the CNDD-FDD in Burundi: an issue of balance between change and continuity By Rufyikiri, Gervais
  9. Migration Responses to Conflict: Evidence from the Border of the American Civil War By Shari Eli; Laura Salisbury; Allison Shertzer
  10. Being Central and Productive? Evidence from Slovenian Visual Artists in the 19th and 20th Century By Andrej Srakar; Petja Grafenauer; Marilena Vecco
  11. You Reap What You Know: Observability of Soil Quality, and Political Fragmentation By Thilo R. Huning; Fabian Wahl
  12. Santa Marta Real y Republicana : El accionar económico y político de la Provincia de Santa Marta en los albores de la independencia, 1810-1830. By Joaquín Viloria-De-la-Hoz.
  13. Trading gains: new estimates of swiss gdp, 1851 to 2008 By Stohr, Christian
  14. The economic impact of universities: evidence from across the globe By Anna Valero; John Van Reenen
  15. Long-Run Development and the New Cultural EconomicsS By Boris Gershman
  16. La figure de Saint-Simon dans les discours technocratiques français By Alexandre Moatti
  17. State and Industry Congresses Business in Russia in the Late XIX - Early XX Century: Problems and Cooperation Mechanisms By Bessolitsyn, Alexander
  18. Multiple core regions: regional inequality in switzerland, 1860 to 2008 By Stohr, Christian
  19. "Get rid of the four olds": the long-lasting impact of the Chinese Cultural Revolution on Chinese society By Kerstin Schopohl
  20. Gini coefficients of education for 146 countries, 1950-2010 By Ziesemer, Thomas
  21. La no reversión de la fortuna en el largo plazo: geografía y persistencia espacial de la prosperidad en Colombia, 1500-2005. By Adolfo Meisel Roca.
  22. Essays in the Law and Economics of the Firm By Roberto Venturini
  23. Historical Memory as a Factor in the Consolidation of Russian Society By Pokida, A.N.; Zybunovskaya , N.V.; Aleshina, V.A.
  24. The U.S. Economy in WWII as a Model for Coping with Climate Change By Hugh Rockoff
  25. Towards a financial cycle for the US, 1973-2014 By Rozite, Kristiana; Bezemer, Dirk J.; Jacobs, Jan P.A.M.
  26. Back to the Future. The effect of digital technology on the performance of public historical archives By Calogero Guccio; Marco Martorana; Isidoro Mazza; Ilde Rizzo
  27. European Integration and Australian Manufacturing Industry: The Case of Philips Electronics, 1960s-1970s By Pierre van der Eng
  28. The Political Economy of National Statistics By Diane Coyle

  1. By: Katharina Mühlhoff (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)
    Abstract: For the better part of human history, life was most fragile and death most imminent during infancy and early childhood. The death of a child may be hardly bearable from a humanitarian perspective. Yet, certain currents in economic theory attach a silver lining to high mortality by claiming that the Malthusian check on population raises per capita income and facilitates the accumulation of capital. The present paper challenges this conventional wisdom. In essence, it argues that high levels of environmental risk produce genetic and behavioral adaptations which induce individuals to have many - in terms of parental investment - cheap offspring. Conversely, stable environments recast the tradeoff between child quantity and quality in favor of more quality-based reproductive strategies. Incorporating these biological relationships into the traditional Barro-Becker model of fertility, the paper finds that both declining extrinsic mortality and increased effectiveness of parenting effort potentially trigger a demographic transition. Thus, the economic benefits of Malthusian population checks are mitigated because high mortality endogenously produces high fertility whereas improved survival encourages human capital investment and fosters long-term growth. To assess whether the theoretical predictions conform with historical reality, I use smallpox vaccination in 19th century Germany as a natural experiment. Performing an econometric analysis of 67 districts in the Granduchy of Baden provides evidence, that comprehensive immunization and advanced medicalization came along with reduced mortality, significantly lower fertility and increased parental care. In sum, it therefore seems that Malthusian mechanisms are at least partly offset by countervailing biological adaptations.
    Keywords: Demographic Transition, Evolutionary Anthropology, Life History Theory, Economic Growth
    JEL: I12 I15 N13 N33 O44
    Date: 2016–09
  2. By: Nils Herger (Study Center Gerzensee, Switzerland.)
    Abstract: This paper examines several versions of the (covered and uncovered) interest parity condition that arguably held as regards the investment demand for bills of exchange during the classical gold standard (1880 - 1914). Contemporaneous guide books about the foreign exchanges report that close connections between the exchange and interest (or discount) rates arose mainly between London and the major financial centres on the European continent. As implied by the interest parity condition, and in particular when future exchange rate movements were covered via a suitable long-bill transaction, weekly data suggest indeed that between Paris, Amsterdam, Berlin and London, the return from discounting bills of exchange in the local money market was roughly equivalent to the (exchange rate adjusted) return from investing in foreign bills.
    Keywords: Covered interest parity condition; Exchange rates; Gold standard; Uncovered interest parity condition
    JEL: F31 N13 N23
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Borjas, George J. (Harvard University); Monras, Joan (CEMFI, Madrid)
    Abstract: The continuing inflow of hundreds of thousands of refugees into many European countries has ignited much political controversy and raised questions that require a fuller understanding of the determinants and consequences of refugee supply shocks. This paper revisits four historical refugee shocks to document their labor market impact. Specifically, we examine: The influx of Marielitos into Miami in 1980; the influx of French repatriates and Algerian nationals into France at the end of the Algerian Independence War in 1962; the influx of Jewish émigrés into Israel after the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s; and the exodus of refugees from the former Yugoslavia during the long series of Balkan wars between 1991 and 2001. We use a common empirical approach, derived from factor demand theory, and publicly available data to measure the impact of these shocks. Despite the differences in the political forces that motivated the various flows, and in economic conditions across receiving countries, the evidence reveals a common thread that confirms key insights of the canonical model of a competitive labor market: Exogenous supply shocks adversely affect the labor market opportunities of competing natives in the receiving countries, and often have a favorable impact on complementary workers. In short, refugee flows can have large distributional consequences.
    Keywords: immigration, refugee supply shocks
    JEL: J15 J61 J2
    Date: 2016–09
  4. By: Seiichiro Mozumi (Faculty of Economics, Keio University)
    Abstract: In the United States since the 1930s, the Treasury Department and tax experts has attempted to accomplish a "one package" comprehensive tax reform program to create a simpler, fairer, and more equitable federal income tax system with sufficient ability to raise revenue. However, their attempts to accomplish the kind of tax reform have always failed except in 1986. This paper picks up three episodes of federal tax reform to demonstrate the Treasury's and tax experts' significant effort to accomplish a "one package" comprehensive tax reform, and the process in and for which they failed and succeeded: Federal tax reform of 1964, 1978, and 1986. In the meantime, through examining the three episodes, this paper explores how Congress had seriously considered the kind of comprehensive tax reform that the Treasury and tax experts proposed after World War II.
    Keywords: "one package" comprehensive tax reform, Stanley S. Surrey
    JEL: H2 N42
    Date: 2016–08–24
  5. By: Eric Dubois (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to survey the huge literature that has emerged in the last four decades following Nordhaus's (1975) publication on political business cycles (PBCs). I first propose some developments in history of thought to examine the context in which this groundbreaking contribution saw the light of the day. I also present a simplified version of Nordhaus's model to highlight his key results. I detail some early critiques of this model and the fields of investigations to which they gave birth. I then focus on the institutional context and examine its influence on political business cycles, the actual research agenda. Finally, I derive some paths for future research.
    Keywords: political business cycles,politico-economic cycles,electoral cycles,opportunistic cycles,conditional political business cycles
    Date: 2016–02–01
  6. By: Michael Bordo; Arunima Sinha
    Abstract: We examine the first QE program through the lens of an open-market operation under taken by the Federal Reserve in 1932, at the height of the Great Depression. This program entailed large purchases of medium- and long-term securities over a four-month period. There were no prior announcements about the size or composition of the operation, how long it would be put in place, and the program ended abruptly. We use the narrative record to conduct an event study analysis of the operation using the weekly-level Treasury holdings of the Federal Reserve in 1932, and the daily term structure of yields obtained from newspaper quotes. The event study indicates that the 1932 program dramatically lowered medium- and long-term Treasury yields; the declines in Treasury Notes and Bonds around the start of the operation were as large as 114 and 42 basis points respectively. We then use a segmented markets model to analyze the channel through which the open-market purchases affected the economy, namely the portfolio composition and signaling effects. Quarterly data from 1920-32 is used to estimate the model with Bayesian methods. We find that the significant degree of financial market segmentation in this period made the historical open market purchase operation more effective than QE in stimulating output growth. Had the Federal Reserve continued its operations and used the announcement strategy of the QE operation, the Great Contraction could have been attenuated earlier.
    JEL: E5 N1
    Date: 2016–08
  7. By: Adolfo Meisel-Roca.
    Abstract: A comienzos del siglo XX la economía colombiana se encontraba afectada negativamente por las consecuencias de la Guerra de los Mil Días (1899-1902), la cual dejó la moneda completamente depreciada por una inflación que había llegado a más del 300% anual. A pesar de este panorama desolador, entre 1904 y 1922, Colombia logró estabilizar su economía y tener un sólido crecimiento exportador sobre la base del café. Esto le permitió al país, a comienzos de la década de 1920, llevar a cabo reformas económicas para atraer prestamos del exterior, mejorar la infraestructura de transporte y así ubicarse en los primeros lugares en crecimiento económico en América Latina. En este contexto se generaron las bases para la creación del Banco de la República en 1923. Este documento tiene como propósito describir los antecedentes políticos y económicos que forjaron la creación del banco central colombiano. Classification JEL: E31, E42, E58.
    Keywords: Banco de la República, inflación, tasa de cambio.
    Date: 2015–12
  8. By: Rufyikiri, Gervais
    Abstract: Since its accession to power following the 2005 elections, the CNDD-FDD has been continuously criticized for Burundi governance setbacks while its leaders’ behavior suggested a maquis practice continuity. This study contributes to understand the relationship between the inability of this former rebel party to succeed the democratic transition process and some key elements of its history which played against a real rebel movement-to-political party transformation. Rivalries with pre-war existing political formations, leadership discontinuity, political origin-based identity and exclusion politics, intellectual marginalization and the conditioning of fighters to commit cruelty acts were the main historical factors that have marked the evolution of CNDD-FDD movement and thus shaping its current stature. There are several evidences showing that the CNDD-FDD leadership has transferred armed movement practices from the maquis era to a post-conflict political party, leading to the conclusion that the CNDD-FDD rebel movement-to-political party transformation has completely failed.
    Keywords: Burundi; politics
    Date: 2016–08
  9. By: Shari Eli; Laura Salisbury; Allison Shertzer
    Abstract: The American Civil War fractured communities in border states where families who would eventually support the Union or the Confederacy lived together prior to the conflict. We study the subsequent migration choices of these Civil War veterans and their families using a unique longitudinal dataset covering enlistees from the border state of Kentucky. Nearly half of surviving Kentucky veterans moved to a new county between 1860 and 1880. There was no differential propensity to migrate according to side, but former Union soldiers were more likely to leave counties with greater Confederate sympathy for destinations that supported the North. Confederate veterans were more likely to move to counties that supported the Confederacy, or if they left the state, for the South or far West. We find no evidence of a positive economic return to these relocation decisions.
    JEL: J61 N31 R23
    Date: 2016–09
  10. By: Andrej Srakar (Institute for Economic Research, Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia); Petja Grafenauer (School of Arts, University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica, Slovenia); Marilena Vecco (Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands)
    Abstract: Slovenian art history has received very little (if any) attention from the viewpoint of network theory although there were several examples of artists co-working or working in groups, collectives or even loosely organized clusters (groups from the impressionist Sava in 1904 to postmodern Irwin in 1984). This may be interpreted as a way to acquire better positions in the national and international art circles and on the art market. In our article we use web-based dataset of Slovenska biografija (operated by the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts), which contains data on numerous notable persons throughout Slovenian history to analyze the centrality of individual artistic figures and movements throughout Slovenian art history. We also study the influence of network centrality on cultural production controlling for endogeneity following the instrumental variable approach, proposed in the literature while using a new instrumental variable to solve the problem. Finally, we present results which show that women visual artists used their network positions more intensively than men and provide some first explanations for this observed relationship. In conclusion, we provide some reflections on the importance of these findings for further research work in the area.
    Keywords: Slovenian art history, social network analysis, network centrality, artist productivity, instrumental variables, women visual artists
    JEL: D85 J49 N70 Z11 C36 C38 C45
    Date: 2016–09
  11. By: Thilo R. Huning (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin); Fabian Wahl (University of Hohenheim)
    Abstract: We provide a theoretical model linking limits to the observability of soil quality to state rulers’ ability to tax agricultural output, which leads to a higher political fragmentation. We introduce a spatial measure to quantify state planners’ observability in an agricultural society. The model is applied to spatial variation in the 1378 Holy Roman Empire, the area with the highest political fragmentation in European history. We find that differences in the observability of agricultural output explain the size and capacity of states as well as the emergence and longevity of city states. Grid cells with higher observability of agricultural output intersect with a significantly lower number of territories within them. Our results highlight the role of agriculture and geography, for size, political, and economic organization of states. This sheds light on early, though persistent, determinants of industrial development within Germany, and also within Central Europe.
    Keywords: Principal-agent problem, soil quality, urbanization, political fragmentation, Holy Roman Empire
    JEL: O42 D73 Q15 N93 D82
    Date: 2016–09
  12. By: Joaquín Viloria-De-la-Hoz.
    Abstract: El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar las circunstancias en que se dio el proceso de Independencia en las provincias del Caribe colombiano, centrado en las acciones ocurridas en la provincia de Santa Marta. Se busca conocer el accionar económico y político de los indígenas, los comerciantes catalanes, los militares venezolanos y los criollos de Santa Marta durante la guerra de Independencia y sus motivaciones para defender la monarquía española o la nueva República. En los albores de la Independencia, la historia de Santa Marta muestra que las autoridades coloniales favorecieron en ocasiones los intereses de los indígenas. Estas acciones generaron fidelidad de los indígenas ante el régimen colonial, el cual ya conocían y no les generaba grandes incertidumbres. La inclinación política de cada grupo estuvo mediada por su desenvolvimiento económico, que también se analizará en este documento. En el caso de Santa Marta, su economía giraba en torno a la actividad portuaria, el comercio interno y externo, así como a los cultivos de caña en las cercanías de la ciudad. En el resto de la provincia la actividad económica dominante fue la ganadería, principalmente en la zona de Valledupar, Valencia de Jesús y Plato. Classification JEL:N01, Z10 y Z19.
    Keywords: Santa Marta, Cartagena, Mamatoco, Bolívar, Montilla, Morillo,independencia, realismo, colonia.
    Date: 2015–04
  13. By: Stohr, Christian
    Abstract: This paper revises Swiss GDP emphasizing the difference between single and double deflation, which depends on trading gains: i.e. gains from terms of trade and from the real exchange rate. These gains contributed significantly to Swiss economic growth between 1930 and 1990. Earlier series of Swiss GDP have neglected trading gains. In backward projections, this leads to overestimation of GDP (per capita) levels. The Maddison database (Bolt & Zanden 2014), for example, suggests that Swiss GDP per capita was 38 percent above that of the USA in 1875. My series shows that Swiss GDP per capita was still below the Western European average.
    Keywords: Historical National Accounts, Gross Domestic Income, Double Deflation, Real Exchange Rate, Terms of Trade, Switzerland
    JEL: C82 E01 N13 N14 O47
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Anna Valero; John Van Reenen
    Abstract: We develop a new dataset using UNESCO source materials on the location of nearly 15,000 universities in about 1,500 regions across 78 countries, some dating back to the 11th Century. We estimate fixed effects models at the sub-national level between 1950 and 2010 and find that increases in the number of universities are positively associated with future growth of GDP per capita (and this relationship is robust to controlling for a host of observables, as well as unobserved regional trends). Our estimates imply that doubling the number of universities per capita is associated with 4% higher future GDP per capita. Furthermore, there appear to be positive spillover effects from universities to geographically close neighbouring regions. We show that the relationship between growth and universities is not simply driven by the direct expenditures of the university, its staff and students. Part of the effect of universities on growth is mediated through an increased supply of human capital and greater innovation (although the magnitudes are not large). We find that within countries, higher historical university presence is associated with stronger pro-democratic attitudes.
    Keywords: universities; growth; human capital; innovation
    JEL: I23 J24 O10 O31
    Date: 2016–08
  15. By: Boris Gershman
    Abstract: This paper reviews recent economics literature on culture, with an emphasis on its relation to the field of long-run growth and development. It examines the key issues debated in the new cultural economics: causal effects of culture on economic outcomes, the origins and social costs of culture, as well as cultural transmission, persistence, and change. Some of these topics are illustrated in application to the economic analysis of envy-related culture.
    Keywords: Culture, cultural persistence, cultural transmission, long-run development
    JEL: J15 O10 Z10 Z12 Z13
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Alexandre Moatti (Sphere - SPHERE - Sciences - Philosophie - Histoire - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7 - CGEIET - Conseil général de l'économie, de l'industrie, de l'énergie et des technologies - Ministère de l'Economie, des Finances et de l'Industrie)
    Abstract: This paper, based on various contemporary and historical sources, as well as a personal experience, tends to investigate how the figure of Claude-Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825) is mobilized nowadays in some discourses originating from a special French environment, at the border between large French corporations and the highest ranks of French administration (Corps des Mines, Inspection des Finances,…). Relying on the moral value of science and technics, defining public policies on the side of the political power, and finally promoting the notion of “common interest” at the highest ranks of some French enterprises would be the three cardinal virtues of such discourses.
    Abstract: Cette communication vise à investiguer, en s’appuyant sur diverses sources contemporaines et historiques ainsi que sur une expérience personnelle, comment la figure du comte de Saint-Simon (1760-1825) est invoquée de nos jours dans des discours émanant de milieux de grandes entreprises imbriqués, comme c’est souvent le cas en France, au milieu de la haute fonction publique (grands Corps d’État notamment). Ces discours font apparaître trois vertus cardinales supposées saint-simoniennes : la valeur et la compréhension de la science et de la technique, la définition de politiques publiques en appui au pouvoir politique, la défense d’un « intérêt général » à la tête des grandes entreprises françaises (y compris privées).
    Keywords: Saint-Simon, Polytechnique, Corps des Mines, Beffa, Fauroux, Lévy-Lambert, Moch, Vallon, Spinasse, Coutrot
    Date: 2016–03–16
  17. By: Bessolitsyn, Alexander (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: Prepared material traces the main stages of the formation of representative business organizations, representing the interests of the mining and processing industries, as well as transport. Arisen from the top, according to the government's initiative is mainly at the stage of economic modernization in the XIX-XX centuries. In the form of sectoral conventions, these organizations have become the leading form of representation of the interests of the business community in the state. The present study focuses on the analysis of the main areas of development, the identification of problems of interaction and the formation mechanisms of cooperation between state authorities and representative organizations of employers on behalf of their vanguard - the national and the regional and sectoral conventions at the turn of XIX-XX centuries. The conclusion is that, despite a number of features, these organizations were adequate form of representation of Russian business interests. They carry out certain functions of an intermediary between the state and the business community and laid the foundations of the social partnership system.
    Keywords: state, industry, Russia, history, XIX century
    Date: 2016–06–16
  18. By: Stohr, Christian
    Abstract: This paper estimates regional GDP for three different geographical levels in Switzerland. My analysis of regional inequality rests on a heuristic model featuring an initial growth impulse in one or several core regions and subsequent diffusion. As a consequence of the existence of multiple core regions Swiss regional inequality has been comparatively low at higher geographical levels. Spatial diffusion of economic growth has occurred across different parts of the country and within different labor market regions at the same time. This resulted in a bell-shape evolution of regional inequality at the micro regional level and convergence at higher geographical levels. In early and in late stages of the development process, productivity differentials were the main drivers of inequality, whereas economic structure was determinant between 1888 and 1941.
    Keywords: Regional data, Inequality, Industrial structure, Productivity, Comparative advantage, Switzerland
    JEL: R10 R11 N93 O14 O18
    Date: 2016
  19. By: Kerstin Schopohl
    Abstract: This paper studies the long-term impact of the Chinese Cultural Revolution on interpersonal trust, mental health and perceived equality. The Cultural Revolution was a social upheaval in China between 1966 and 1976 initiated by China’s leader Mao Zedong that resulted in a period of anarchy, violence and chaos as well as a large number of deaths, injuries and much persecution across China and was in particular targeted at intellectuals and the wealthy. The Cultural Revolution is likely to have had a long-lasting impact on social capital and preferences as well as on mental well-being. Using data from the Chinese General Social Survey as well as county level data on the number of abnormal deaths and victims of political persecution between 1966 and 1971 from Walder and Su (2003), I use a difference-in-difference strategy comparing individuals born before the Cultural Revolution with those born thereafter as well as across different counties to estimate the impact of Cultural Revolution intensity measured by victims and abnormal deaths on interpersonal trust, depression and perceived equality. To control for potential endogeneity due to unobservables as well as for measurement error, I instrument Cultural Revolution Intensity with the number of universities in a county at the time of the Cultural Revolution. I find that the Cultural Revolution is associated with lower levels of interpersonal trust, perceived equality and depression for more educated individuals born before the Cultural Revolution. These results are largely robust to a battery of tests. This shows that violence and conflict can have long-lasting effects on societies and that the consequences of the Cultural Revolution persist in China up to today.
    Keywords: Cultural Revolution; China; Trust; Mental Health; Persistence
    JEL: Z13 N45 N35 P26
    Date: 2016
  20. By: Ziesemer, Thomas (UNU-MERIT, and Maastricht University, SBE)
    Abstract: We provide Gini coefficients of education based on data from Barro and Lee (2010) for 146 countries for the years 1950-2010. We compare them to an earlier data set and run some related LOESS fit regressions on average years of schooling and GDP per capita, both showing negative slopes, and among the latter two variables. Tertiary education is shown to reduce education inequality. A growth regression shows that tertiary education increases growth, Gini coefficients of education have a u-shaped impact on growth and labour force growth has an inverted u-shape effect on growth.
    Keywords: Human capital, Human capital distribution, education, inequality, growth, new data
    JEL: E24 I24 I25 O15 Y10
    Date: 2016–08–29
  21. By: Adolfo Meisel Roca.
    Abstract: En este artículo se examina la tesis de la reversión de la fortuna propuesta por Acemoglu, Johnson y Robinson (2002) de acuerdo con la experiencia colombiana durante los últimos 500 años. Utilizando un total de 14 censos nacionales de población y el registro de los indígenas encomendados que había en 1559, se encuentra que la densidad demográfica de las regiones de Colombia ha mostrado una gran persistencia en el transcurso del tiempo. Por lo tanto, la evidencia indica que los lugares que fueron prósperos en torno al año 1500 siguen siéndolo hoy en día y viceversa. Estos resultados indican que las influencias a largo plazo de la geografía sobre las disparidades económicas regionales al interior de un país no son despreciables. Classification JEL:N16, J10, N36.
    Keywords: Historia Económica Comparativa, Economía demográfica,Latinoamérica.
    Date: 2014–10
  22. By: Roberto Venturini
    Abstract: Firms are central to the functioning of the economy. Ever since Smith (1838) and Coase (1937), economists have gone a long way trying to understand why firms exist, how they are organized, and how they interact through the market.This thesis contributes to the study of how regulation and market incentives can affect firm decisions and their organization.
    Keywords: Competition, International Trade, R&D Management
    Date: 2016–08–22
  23. By: Pokida, A.N. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Zybunovskaya , N.V. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Aleshina, V.A. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The scientific report presents the results of a sociological study carried out by the Center of social and political monitoring of the School of Public Policy RANEPA in 2015. The study investigates the status and dynamics of development of historical memory in the Russian society. The analysis of sociological data includes the comparison of the results many years of research.
    Keywords: sociological study, RANEPA
    Date: 2016–06–28
  24. By: Hugh Rockoff
    Abstract: During World War II the United States rapidly transformed its economy to cope with a wide range of scarcities, such as shortfalls in the amounts of ocean shipping, aluminum, rubber, and other raw materials needed for the war effort. This paper explores the mobilization to see whether it provides lessons about how the economy could be transformed to meet scarcities produced by climate change or other environmental challenges. It concludes that the success of the United States in overcoming scarcities during World War II without a major deterioration in living standards provides a basis for optimism that environmental challenges can be met, but that the unique political consensus that prevailed during the war limits the practical usefulness of the wartime model.
    JEL: N42
    Date: 2016–09
  25. By: Rozite, Kristiana; Bezemer, Dirk J.; Jacobs, Jan P.A.M. (Groningen University)
    Date: 2016
  26. By: Calogero Guccio (Department of Economics and Business, University of Catania); Marco Martorana (Department of Economics and Business, University of Catania); Isidoro Mazza (Department of Economics and Business, University of Catania); Ilde Rizzo (Department of Economics and Business, University of Catania)
    Abstract: The diffusion of social media platforms in public services calls for investigating their role in terms of supply and consumption. In cultural heritage, the application of such technologies has manifold implications ranging from preservation, to production and usage of cultural goods. This paper explores the scope for the use of new media in cultural heritage using website services. More specifically, we investigate the efficiency of public historical archives (PHAs) in Italy over the period 2009-2014 and try to assess the influence of websites on their efficiency. We use a two-stage approach involving the estimation of the frontier using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Window DEA (WDEA) to obtain PHAs efficiency scores and evaluate the effect of the use of websites on efficiency.
    Keywords: Innovation; Public services; Cultural heritage; Archives; Non parametric frontier
    JEL: Z1 D24
    Date: 2016–09
  27. By: Pierre van der Eng
    Abstract: The creation of the Common Market in the European Community required electronics multinational Philips to integrate production operations across European countries. This effort had consequences for its Australian subsidiary. Rather than become a regional Philips hub with the support of its parent, as intended in the 1960s, it was absorbed by addressing changes in Australian trade policy and increased Japanese imports. The parent company’s establishment of regional supply centres in Europe and Asia left no role for the small Australian production facilities in the company’s global structure. Production and employment at Philips Australia were scaled back drastically during the 1970s.
    Keywords: European integration, Australia, electronics industry, Philips, institutional change, co-evolution
    JEL: L20 L63 M19 N47 N87
    Date: 2016–05
  28. By: Diane Coyle
    Date: 2016

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