nep-his New Economics Papers
on Business, Economic and Financial History
Issue of 2015‒09‒26
forty-nine papers chosen by
Bernardo Bátiz-Lazo
Bangor University

  1. Whither Business History?: Memory, Message and Meaning By David Merrett
  2. Institutions for Getting Out of the Way: A Comment on McCloskey By Richard N. Langlois
  3. Fighting the Last Economic War: How Crises Lead to Ideological Change in Latin America By Stephen Kaplan
  4. Playing with Fire? Internationalization and Condition of Mexican Banks Prior to The 1982 Debt Crisis By Alvarez, Sebastian
  5. The Traces of “Koroghlu” Epos in World Folklore By Almaz Hasangizi
  6. Albanian pre service teachers' perspectives on critical thinking dispositions By Rudina Guleker
  8. Capital Markets and Sovereign Defaults: A Historical Perspective By Flores Zendejas, Juan
  9. Long-term Trends in Wealth Inequality in Catalonia, 1400-1800: Initial Results By HŽctor Garc’a-Montero
  10. The Great Moderation in historical perspective.Is it that great? By Gadea Rivas, Maria Dolores; Gómez Loscos, Ana; Pérez-Quirós, Gabriel
  11. Funding Policy Research Under “Distasteful Regimes”: the Ford Foundation and the Social Sciences at the University of Brasília By Carlos Eduardo Suprinyak; Ramón García Fernández
  12. Avaliação do Desenho Institucional, dos Recursos e das Capacidades para Concretização do Planejamento de Longo Prazo no Brasil By Cássia Barbosa Saretta; Fabiana Gomes de Carvalho; Bruno Eustáquio Ferreira C. de Carvalho; Wagner de Jesus Martins
  13. Dead Poet's Property - How Does Copyright Influence Price? By Xing Li; Megan MacGarvie; Petra Moser
  17. "Roots of Autocracy" By Oded Galor; Marc Klemp
  18. Towards a History of the Junk Bond Market, 1910-1955 By Peter F. Basile; Sung Won Kang; John Landon-Lane; Hugh Rockoff
  19. Catholic and Protestant Martyrdom in England: Representations of England as Israel c.1530-1600 By Nick Crown
  21. Mathematical Analysis of the Historical Economic Growth By Ron W. Nielsen
  22. Trends in economics publications represented by JEL categories between 2007 and 2013 By Wohlrabe, Klaus; Rath, Katharina
  23. Solitude and Life in the World in the Letters of Antoine Arnauld By Elizaveta A. Al-Faradzh
  24. Fiscal and Urban Policies: the State as a Space Producer in the Fordist- Keynesian Era By Renan Pereira Almeida; Anderson Tadeu Marques Cavalcante; Roberto Luis de Melo Monte-Mór
  25. Taiwan In The Spain History Textbooks And Vice Versa By Chun-wen Lin; Min-Chuan Sung
  27. Banks, Politics, and Political Parties: From Partisan Banking to Open Access in Early Massachusetts By Qian Lu; John Wallis
  28. Research methodologies and publication trends in Credit Risk: A content analysis of 25 years of credit risk management research By Maha Ijaz
  29. 15 Years a Consultant By Phil Ender
  30. The Long Lasting Influenza: The Impact of Fetal Stress during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic on Socioeconomic Attainment and Health in Sweden 1968-2012 By Bengtsson, Tommy; Helgertz, Jonas
  31. Marx, Profits and Fractal Properties: notes on countertendencies to the fall of the rate of profit, simulation models and metamorphoses of capitalism By Leonardo Costa Ribeiro; Pedro Mendes Loureiro; Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque
  32. The Decorations in the Left Aisle of Santa Maria Antiqua within the Context of the Political History of the Iconoclastic Era. By Maria A. Grafova
  33. “That puts it not unto the Touch, To win or lose it all”: The Moral Metaphor of Witchcraft in John Buchan´s Novel By Alice (Hsin-Ying) Lin
  34. Being Bad by Being Good: Owner and Captain Value-Added in the Slave Trade By Dalton, John; Leung, Tin Cheuk
  35. An aspect of the life of pirates in the Indian Ocean, A historical study from English documents By maha alkhashil
  36. Culinary Tourism in Greece: Can the past define the future? A comparative analysis by using 10 case studies By Karagiannis, Dimitris; Metaxas, Theodore
  37. Whose Preferences Are Revealed In Hours Of Work? By John Pencavel
  38. Non-Euclidean geometry and political economy How Jacques Rueff explained unemployment in England (1919-1931) By Adrien Lutz
  39. Images of the Past in British Popular Music of the 1960s: ‘Relevant History’ of the Kinks By Alexandra Kolesnik
  40. When did globalization begin in South Africa? By Willem H. Boshoff; Johan Fourie
  41. Detailed analysis of titles and short abstracts on cloud-computing research papers reachable on Google Scholar By Valerica Greavu-Serban
  42. On commercial gluts Unexpected affinities between Jean-Baptiste Say and the Saint-Simonians By Adrien Lutz
  43. Growing incomes, growing people in nineteenth-century Tasmania By Kris Inwood; Hamish Maxwell-Stewart; Deb Oxley
  44. Re-branding the branded? A sociological analysis on Taiwan's International Image by English-speaking countries By Ya-Hsuan WANG; Hsin-Jen CHEN
  45. Micronesian-flavored American School Leadership for Inclusive Education in Guam By Kim Fong Poon-McBrayer
  46. Structural Changes in Training Primary School Teachers in Hungary in the Middle of the 20th Century By Béla Molnár
  47. Side Effects of Immunities: the African Slave Trade By Esposito, Elena
  48. Was the First World War Disturbing or Reinforcing of Australia's Economic Model? By William Coleman
  49. The value of democracy: evidence from road building in Kenya By Robin Burgess; Remi Jedwab; Edward Miguel; Ameet Morjaria; Gerard Padró i Miquel

  1. By: David Merrett
    Date: 2015–08
  2. By: Richard N. Langlois (University of Connecticut)
    Abstract: In “Max U versus Humanomics: a Critique of Neoinstitutionalism,” Deirdre McCloskey tells us that culture matters – maybe more than do institutions – in explaining the Great Enrichment that some parts of the world have enjoyed over the past 200 years. But it is entrepreneurship, not culture or institutions, that is the proximate cause of economic growth. Entrepreneurship is not a hothouse flower that blooms only in a culture supportive of commercial activity; it is more like kudzu, which grows invasively unless it is cut back by culture and institutions. McCloskey needs to tell us more about the structure of the relationship among culture, institutions, and entrepreneurship, and thus to continue the grand project begun by Schumpeter.
    Date: 2015–09
  3. By: Stephen Kaplan
    Abstract: Political economy theory expects that changes in macroeconomic governance are often catalyzed by institutional factors, such as partisanship or elections. I challenge and contextualize this view by incorporating the role of technocratic advisors into a domestic policymaking framework. I contend that structural and elite-level explanations are also important to understanding ideational shifts, particularly in regions like Latin America that suffer from severe economic volatility. Presidents tend to govern from the lens of their crisis past, appointing economic hawks (or mainstream economists) who embrace austerity in the shadow of inflation crises, and economic doves (heterodox economists) who drift from budget discipline following unemployment shocks. Employing an originally constructed data index, the Index of Economic Advisors, I conduct a statistical test of 16 Latin American countries from 1960 to 2011, finding support for sustained idological shifts in technocratic composition and fiscal governance, based on the nature of past shocks.
    JEL: B22 E31 E60 E62 E65 H30 H60 N16 O54 O57
    Date: 2015–08
  4. By: Alvarez, Sebastian
    Abstract: Large foreign lending and heavy indebtedness of developing countries are main features of international finance in leading to the debt crisis of the 1980s. The high exposure of the commercial banking sector from industrial countries to external debt in the developing world by the time of the Mexican default in August 1982 is well known. However, although importantly involved in foreign finance and the petrodollar recycling process, the condition of commercial banks from debtor countries themselves has been much less recognized and explored. This paper shows that the health and financial position of the Mexican commercial banking sector significantly deteriorated in the years preceding the debt crisis, and that internationalization was an exit option to domestic fundraising difficulties. Economic and financial analysis of the banks' asset and liability structure demonstrate that banks involved in international business had greater risk levels than those operating only in the domestic market, which puts international banking at the heart of the problem. The paper provides new insights into the domestic and international political economy of a lending-borrowing mechanism that led to what was perhaps the largest global financial crisis since the Great Depression.
    Keywords: International banking, Political economy, Euromarkets, Latin America
    JEL: H63 N26 N86
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Almaz Hasangizi (Institute of Folklore National Academy Sciences of Azerbaijan)
    Abstract: Azerbaijanian emigrant folklore scholars in different countries of the world have done remarkable work in the collection, conservation, publication and popularization of the folklore samples which were either forbidden by the censorship or were falsely propogandized as a result of soviet ideology. Their scientific-theoretical researches cover all genres of the folk literature and as they were created in a liberal atmosphere, they differ with their objectivity and individualism from the researches done under the soviet pressure. “Koroghlu” epos is most widespread epos for its popularity after “Kitabi-Dada Gorgud” in Azerbaijanian folk literature; this epos about heroism has many different versions. “Koroghlu was collected by Alexandor Xodzko, Polish who was working in Iran during 1830-1832 and published in English in London in 1842, after this it gained popularity in Western world. Afterwards the epos was translated to different languages and republished many times. Thus, the history of publishing of “Koroghlu” epos is not very old. But, it is still the subject of research when the epos was created.Different reserches have been conducted on the history of its creation, main hero, other personages and etc. both in Azerbaijan and the wide geographical area where the epos was disseminated. The main protagonist Koroghlu, his battlefield friends, the time and place of its creation and etc.have been the subject of different researches.
    Keywords: folklore, Koroghlu, epos, emigration laiterture
    JEL: Z11
  6. By: Rudina Guleker (European University of Tirana)
    Abstract: This study aimed to explore the perceptions of pre-service teachers' critical thinking dispositions, and their self reported attitudes to foster these dispositions in their future students. The underlying purpose was to evaluate the atmosphere of critical thinking in teacher education programs and to make recommendations for improvement in handling critical thinking preparation in these programs. The study was conducted with 38 students about to complete the master in education program in teaching history in Albania. Mixed methods were used to better tap into their perceptions. Results showed that truth-seeking was a highly valued characteristic, whereas systematicity and inquisitiveness was not regarded as important or feasible. Furthermore, the dispositions were seen to contribute to personal and societal development, whereas the lack of appropriate exposure was considered a threat.
    Keywords: pre-service, perceptions, dispositions, critical thinking
  7. By: Seyit TA (NECMETT)
    Abstract: Orientation is a training process. Usually it used to mean recruitment exercise. But today is referred to as the process of preparing the students to school. The scope of orientation; how to begin the process of orientation training and the situation in Turkey; all this topics are evaluated in this study. Orientation training has begun in recent history. At the same time a practice carried out by the Ottoman State in the 19th century considered within the scope of orientation training.
    Keywords: Orientation, Education, History, Methods
    JEL: I29
  8. By: Flores Zendejas, Juan
    Abstract: This paper provides a historical perspective on the relationship between capital markets and sovereign defaults. While the main body of the sovereign debt literature has rarely incorporated supply side factors, such as market distortions or conflicts of interest, we argue that the history of sovereign defaults cannot be understood without including the evolutionary structure of capital markets. The Southern European debt crises and the recent controversy surrounding the role of holdouts demonstrate that certain proposals raised in previous default episodes deserve further discussion, in particular, those aiming to deal with problems of collective action, liquidity provision, and information flaws.
    Keywords: Sovereign defaults, Capital markets, Financial crises
    JEL: G2 F3 F5 N2
    Date: 2015
  9. By: HŽctor Garc’a-Montero
    Abstract: This paper provides some initial results of long-term trends in economic inequality in Catalonia from 1400-1800 ca. These first findings show that the evidence collected for Catalonia matches quite well with some hypotheses suggested previously in the literature. Namely, the high inequality levels prevalent across pre-industrial Europe; an inequality gradient that linked urban, more populated, and wealthier communities with greater inequality and vice versa; and the importance of the trends followed by the share owned by the wealthy as good predictors of economic inequality trends. However, at this stage, one of the most appealing propositionsÑthe idea that economic inequality grew for the whole of Europe during the early-modern period, shaping a long left side of a Òsuper Kuznets curveÓÑdoes not seem to be fully confirmed for Catalonia. From the mid-17th century, inequality growth seems to go hand-in-hand with growth in per capita GDP. In earlier periods, though, the inequality trend seems to be unrelated to economic growth and even, during the second half of the 16th century, there is some evidence of inequality decline coupled with economic growth.
    Keywords: Economic inequality, social inequality, wealth concentration, pre-industrial, economic growth, super Kuznets curve, wealth, middle ages, early modern period, Spain, Catalonia
    Date: 2015–09
  10. By: Gadea Rivas, Maria Dolores; Gómez Loscos, Ana; Pérez-Quirós, Gabriel
    Abstract: The Great Moderation (GM) is widely documented in the literature as one of the most important changes in the US business cycle. All the papers that analyze it use post WWII data. In this paper, for the first time we place the GM in a long historical perspective, stretching back a century and a half, which includes secular changes in the economic structure and a substantial reduction of output volatility. We find two robust structural breaks in volatility at the end of WWII and in the mid-eighties, showing that the GM still holds in the longer perspective. Furthermore, we show that GM volatility reduction is only linked to expansion features. We also date the US business cycle in the long run, finding that volatility plays a primary role in the definition of the business cycle, which has important consequences for econometricians and forecasters.
    Keywords: Business cycle; Secular changes; Structural Breaks; volatility
    JEL: C22 E32
    Date: 2015–09
  11. By: Carlos Eduardo Suprinyak (Cedeplar-UFMG); Ramón García Fernández (UFABC)
    Abstract: The Ford Foundation’s initial effort to assist in the development of the social sciences in Brazil coincided with the early years of the military regime that ruled the country between 1964 and 1985. Given the Foundation’s expressed goal of fostering research that was of potential relevance for public policy, the Brazilian political context posed a difficult dilemma. The issue came to the forefront amid discussions over a proposal for the creation of a Master’s Program in Economics at the University of Brasília (UnB). Although UnB’s modern institutional structure was ideally suited for the Foundation’s purposes, the university had been subject to repeated military interventions in late 1960’s. Moreover, its geographical closeness to the seat of Brazilian political power arose concerns that it could become an instrument in the hands of the military government. Using evidence from the Ford Foundation archives, the paper attempts to illuminate the institutional context surrounding the development of academic economics in Brazil in the late 1960s and early 1970s, in its relations to the deeper social and political currents in effect at the time.
    Keywords: Ford Foundation, University of Brasília, sociology of the economics profession, Kalman Silvert, Edmar Bacha.
    JEL: B20 A14 A23
    Date: 2015–09
  12. By: Cássia Barbosa Saretta; Fabiana Gomes de Carvalho; Bruno Eustáquio Ferreira C. de Carvalho; Wagner de Jesus Martins
    Abstract: O planejamento de longo prazo (PLP) é um importante instrumento norteador do desenvolvimento. Para tanto, este trabalho se propôs a analisar o PLP no Brasil com o olhar para as capacidades, os recursos e a institucionalidade atual (Secretaria de Assuntos Estratégicos da Presidência da República – SAE-PR) e a ideal para concretizar esse desafio. Os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados foram: revisão bibliográfica, análise documental e entrevistas semiestruturadas on-line e presenciais com experts na área de planejamento. O quadro teórico utilizado como referência foi o de Matus e de Godet. Os resultados sinalizaram que o PLP no país é bastante fragmentado e descoordenado e carece de maior participação social na sua construção. Por fim, o trabalho condensa e elabora contribuições a fim de fortalecer a governabilidade democrática para a elaboração do planejamento. The long-term plan (LTP) is an important guiding instrument of development. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the PLP in Brazil to examine the capabilities, resources, the current institutional framework (Secretariat of Strategic Affairs from Presidency of the Republic of Brazil – SAE-PR) and ideal to perform this challenge. The methodological procedures used were: literature review and analysis of online documents confronted with semi-structured interviews with experts in the field of planning interviews. Matus and Godet were used as the theoretical framework. The results indicated that the LTP in the country is quite fragmented and uncoordinated and lacks a greater social participation in its construction. Finally, the work is condensed and prepares contributions in order to strengthen democratic governance for development planning.
    Date: 2015–09
  13. By: Xing Li; Megan MacGarvie; Petra Moser
    Abstract: This article exploits a differential increase in copyright under the UK Copyright Act of 1814 - in favor of books by dead authors – to examine the influence of longer copyrights on price. Difference-in-differences analyses, which compare changes in the price of books by dead and living authors, indicate a substantial increase in price in response to an extension in copyright length. By comparison, placebo regressions for books by dead authors that did not benefit from the extension indicate no differential increase. Historical evidence suggests that longer copyrights increase price by improving publishers’ ability to practice intertemporal price discrimination.
    JEL: K00 N33 O3
    Date: 2015–09
  14. By: Nicolas Berland (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - CNRS - Université Paris IX - Paris Dauphine); Marie Redon (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - CNRS - Université Paris IX - Paris Dauphine)
    Abstract: This article focuses on the career paths of the CFOs. This professional group, which has been expanding since the 1980s, saw its influence grow with the financialization of organisations. Thanks to a periodic survey of 240 résumés of CFOs, we aim at understanding how financialization guides their career paths, shapes their identity, and strengthens their legitimacy in the organisation. This research will help us understand how these actors promote the financialization of organisations, and contribute to the currents of financialisation and the sociology of finance.
    Abstract: Cet article s'intéresse aux trajectoires professionnelles des directeurs administratifs et financiers (DAF). Ce groupe professionnel, en pleine expansion depuis les années 1980, voit son influence s'accroître avec la financiarisation de l'entreprise. Au moyen d'une étude périodique des Curriculum Vitae de 240 DAF, nous cherchons à comprendre comment, la financiarisation oriente leurs trajectoires professionnelles, façonne leur identité, et renforce leur légitimité dans l'entreprise. Ces recherches constituent un premier pas vers la compréhension de l'influence qu'ont ces acteurs dans le processus d'institutionnalisation de la finance au sein de l'entreprise, et contribuent aux courants de la financiarisation et de la sociologie de la finance.
    Date: 2015–05–19
  15. By: Jimoh Yusuf Amuda (Federal University, Gusau)
    Abstract: This paper examined gendering theories from the eighteenth to the twenty-first century millennium. These theories arose from the women’s movement from the era of Mary Wollstonecraft (1792) across the twenty first century memory lane of feminist’s movement and feminists philosophies. These theories stemmed out of the fact that women had been undermined and under-classed in the world of human rights in all facts of development and human Endeavour. This research will Endeavour to dabble into an in-depth exegesis of these theories and implications for the success or otherwise of the women’s movement. The pedagogy applied during the course of the research is the multidisciplinary approach, use of journal articles, oral interview of some selected women and field work. The recommendations to this study are embellished under solutions and findings. The framework for this research is based on the historical differences between men and women, leading to the development of diverse theories to help in the understanding of the power relations between men and women. Feminists having different views of female oppression and how equality could be achieved have developed these theories. These diverse views and theories have been grouped into radical feminism; cultural feminism, Eco feminism and a whole lot more.
    Keywords: Radical feminism, Cultural feminism and Eco feminism
  16. By: Marginson, Simon
    Keywords: Education
    Date: 2014–11–01
  17. By: Oded Galor; Marc Klemp
    Abstract: This research explores the origins of the variation in the prevalence and nature of political institutions across globe. It advances the hypothesis and establishes empirically that variation in the inherent diversity across human societies, as determined in the course of the exodus of Homo sapiens from Africa tens of thousands of years ago, shaped the nature of political institutions across regions and societies. The study establishes that, while human diversity has amplified the beneficial e?ects of institutions, mitigating the adverse e?ects of non-cohesiveness, its simultaneous contribution to heterogeneity in cognitive and physical traits has fostered the scope for domination, leading to the formation and persistence of autocratic institutions. A larger degree of human diversity within societies diminished cohesiveness and therefore stimulated the emergence of institutions that have mitigated the adverse e?ects of non-cohesiveness on productivity. However, the dual impact of human diversity on the emergence of inequality and class stratification have diverted the nature of the emerging institutions towards extractive, autocratic ones. Developing a novel geo-referenced dataset of genetic diversity and ethnographic characteristics among ethnic groups across the globe, the analysis establishes that genetic diversity contributed to the emergence of autocratic pre-colonial institutions. Moreover, the findings suggest that the contribution of diversity to these pre-colonial autocratic institutions has plausibly operated through its dual e?ect on the formation of institutions and class stratification. Furthermore, reflecting the persistence of institutional, cultural, and genetic characteristics, the spatial distribution of genetic diversity across the globe has contributed to the contemporary variation in the degree of autocracy across countries.
    Keywords: Autocracy, Economic Growth, Genetic Diversity, Institutions, Out-of-Africa Hypothesis of Comparative Development
    Date: 2015
  18. By: Peter F. Basile; Sung Won Kang; John Landon-Lane; Hugh Rockoff
    Abstract: We present a new monthly index of the yield on junk (high yield) bonds from 1910-1955. We then use the index to reexamine some of the main debates about the financial history of the interwar years. A close look at junk bond yields: (1) strengthens the view that the decline in lending standards in the late 1920s was modest at best: (2) casts doubt on the view that the banking crisis that began in 1930 disrupted financial markets because banks liquidated their holdings of risky bonds; (3) strengthens the view that the cost of capital rose substantially in the early 1930s and remained high for the rest of the decade; (4) casts doubt on the view that financial markets entered a liquidity trap in the second half of the 1930s; and (5) strengthens the case for believing that junk bond yields contain some information useful for making economic forecasts.
    JEL: N12
    Date: 2015–09
  19. By: Nick Crown (University of East Anglia)
    Abstract: I am a final year PhD student at the University of East Anglia, due to graduate in July after successfully completing my Viva. My thesis, supervised by Doctors Silvia Evangelisti and Jessica Sharkey, provides the first in-depth comparison between Tudor-era Catholic and Protestant martyrs in England since the research of Patrick McGrath, Jack Scarisbrick and Arthur Dickens during the 1960s. Convinced they were living in the end-times, Catholics and Protestants alike strove to portray their own religious group as the elect. This was defined in traditional martyrologies as the uncorrupted successor to the early church or, especially among radical Puritans, ancient Israel. Henrician and Elizabethan Anglicans in particular strove to create a brand of universal, independent Catholicism distinct from continental Protestant heresy; and pre-Reformation Popery that allegedly advocated the worship of dead saints, and the Pope himself, rather than Jesus. At this conference, I intend to discuss the evolving representation of the English Protestant elect, as propagandists writing after the Marian persecutions sought to prove the restored Church of England's legitimacy and exclusivity. Fearing Catholic allegations of plagiarism, and eager to discredit the veneration of pre-Reformation saints as idolatrous, Elizabethan Puritans such as Foxe actively identified the Elizabethan confessional state with ancient Israel, in the belief that a religious group's superiority was determined by its ancient lineage. The following article will serve as the basis for a more in-depth piece of future research, where I will analyse the evolution of English Puritan attitudes towards contemporary Jews during the 17th-century. Furthermore, I will analyse the Catholic response, where Counter-Reformation Jesuits used depictions that would (by modern standards) be considered anti-Semitic, to equate English Protestants with the Jews who allegedly killed Christ; and lost God’s patronage due to their reputed wickedness and stubbornness. Such depictions were useful for reasserting the priesthood's claim of superiority, by arguing that, like the saints of the New Testament, Jesuits took it upon themselves to correct Old Testament errors unwittingly restored by the post-schism Anglican confessional state. N.K. Crown (Doctor designatus)
    Keywords: Reformation, Tudors, British Israelism
    JEL: N93 H77 I29
  20. By: Berdahl, Robert
    Keywords: Education
    Date: 2014–07–01
  21. By: Ron W. Nielsen
    Abstract: Historical economic growth is analysed using the method of reciprocal values. Included in the analysis is the world and regional economic growth. The analysis demonstrates that the natural tendency for the historical economic growth was to increase hyperbolically.
    Date: 2015–09
  22. By: Wohlrabe, Klaus; Rath, Katharina
    Abstract: This article updates Kelly and Bruestle (2011) by illustrating how publication trends in different subject categories in economics evolved from 2007 to 2013. Using data from RePEc we show that the largest increase in the relative share was for articles published in JEL category Q (“Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Environmental and Ecological Economics”) over this period. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the number of JEL categories per article increased over the last 25 years.
    Keywords: JEL classification, economics, research fields, RePEc
    JEL: A12 A14
    Date: 2015–09–17
  23. By: Elizaveta A. Al-Faradzh (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This article features the correspondence of Antoine Arnauld, who lived close to the Port-Royal monastery, as a case study for the perception of solitude in the spiritual literature of the 17th century. For Arnauld the world is corrupt, as a man in it is prone to an excess of temptation. A truly virtuous life means retirement from the world, not monasticism, but a refusal to comply with a world ruled by passions since the original sin. In his letters, Arnauld speaks of seclusion not only from the world but also from human nature with its sinful inclinations. Denouncing the world and its temptations Arnauld sees it as a battlefield for truth and his own mission in the protection of the latter from profanation. Despite seeing the solitary life as the most dignified, he compares the life of a virtuous married woman to a nun’s. Thus, he does not exclude the chance of salvation for those who lead a virtuous secular life. By 1660s his views become more lenient; in one of the letters Arnauld comes up with an apology for the existing social order and its characteristic luxury, seeing it as a manifestation of God’s will. The heterogeneity of Arnauld’s views could be explained by the nature of our source, the letters, as his ideas there are in the process of development of which each letter only registers stages
    Keywords: Port-Royal, theology, early modern period, seclusion, Anthropology of religion, Counter-Reformation, correspondence, post-Trident Catholicism, secular virtue
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2015
  24. By: Renan Pereira Almeida (PhD Candidate, Cedeplar-UFMG); Anderson Tadeu Marques Cavalcante (Cedeplar-UFMG); Roberto Luis de Melo Monte-Mór (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: The theoretical and historical discussion that this paper intends to establish involves the perception that each historical moment has a suitable spatial arrangement for economic growth, for driving-industries and for the dominant techno-economic paradigm in each period, and that such arrangements are articulated and promoted by State action. More clearly and specifically, this work shares the view of many authors who state that the metropolis would have been a combined product of Fordist industrialization and the performance of the Keynesian State, while the contemporary post-metropolitan urban form is marked by post-Fordist industry and the Neoliberal State. From this perspective, Brazilian economic history during the period between 1930-1980 is present in a way of exemplifying that kind of spatial-temporal relationship. Besides offering a critical analysis covering that historical period, the paper concludes with a wider view of International Political Economy, mentioning a number of “Neo-something” phenomena that emerged in this new Era of “Something-Isation”.
    Keywords: State; Development; Brazilian Economic History; International Political Economy.
    JEL: N16 N46 O54
    Date: 2015–09
  25. By: Chun-wen Lin (Teacher Education Center, National Chiayi University); Min-Chuan Sung (Faculty of Education, University of Macau)
    Abstract: There are diverse approaches to peace building, and among them is international education, of which informed international understanding is the cornerstone. It goes without saying that when it comes to that understanding, a non-nationalist history textbook has to be developed first, for in a sense, history textbooks tell young people who they are and who others are and by so doing imply how to cope with these others. With that in mind, I explore how my country Taiwan has been (mis)understood in international history textbooks, and how the other country depicted in ours. The research results will serve as a stepping stone for future history textbook writing, if not international joint textbook construction. I have undertaken a 2-year research project examining Spain high school history textbooks to see how Taiwan has been described, and the preliminary findings go as the follows, which needs further analyses if more meaningful implications are to be drawn.1.Although Taiwan was once a colony of Spain, it was not recognized as such in the textbooks. 2.Taiwan was not dealt with as an independent subject; it only appeared in juxtaposition with The Communist China. 3.Taiwan seemed to have existed as the Republic of KMT. The democratization since the mid-70s was not mentioned.And now the investigation goes to how Spain has been delineated in Taiwan history textbooks. Upon its completion, the comparison of the two countries will be made through a post-colonialist lens.
    Keywords: Taiwan, Spain, history textbooks, post-colonialism
    JEL: I21 I29
  26. By: Douglass, John
    Keywords: Education
    Date: 2015–04–01
  27. By: Qian Lu; John Wallis
    Abstract: The United States was the first nation to allow open access to the corporate form to its citizens. The state of Massachusetts was not only one of the first states to provide its members with legally sanctioned tools to create organizations and enable open access but, on a per capita basis, had many more banks and other corporations than other states as early as the 1820s. Nonetheless, Massachusetts did not open access easily. This paper documents that until 1812, bank charters were only available to members of the Federalist Party in Massachusetts. When the Democratic-Republicans gained control of the state legislature and governor’s mansion in 1811-12, they chartered two new Democratic-Republican banks and threatened to eliminate most of the Federalist bank. The paper documents the close association of politicians and bankers. Before 1811, close to three-quarters of all the bankers we can identify had been or would eventually become a state legislator. The evolving relationships between politics and banking, the eventual opening of banking, and the wealth of bankers are tracked into the 1850s.
    JEL: G2 G28 N0 N11 O1 O5
    Date: 2015–09
  28. By: Maha Ijaz (Lahore School of Economics)
    Abstract: Purpose: This paper investigates trends in the use of research methodologies and publications in Credit Risk management literature, classified into two broad themes; Credit risk measurement and credit risk pricing, across geographical regions and suggests potential future research opportunities.Methodology: This literature review is based on 140 subject relevant empirical quantitative articles published in peer reviewed journals and uses systematic content analysis as the primary method for data analysis. This review investigates a) developments in the use of research methodologies in terms of research design, types of baseline models, sample size, determinants of credit risk, statistical techniques and time horizon of studies, and b) publication trends in terms of authorship type, authorship collaboration, top journals and citation analysis.Findings: Recently, research in credit risk management has substantially moved from measurement of credit risk to pricing of credit risk. North America and Europe have consistently shown increasing research interest in the area. However, other regions of the world have not yet explored the area to its fullest potential. Significant opportunities and synergies exist for collaborative research among regions.Research limitations: Though the literature review is limited in its selection of articles, it sketches a picture that may surrogate whole research community in credit risk management.Practical implication: Trends in research methodologies and publications provide directions for designing future research projects relevant to various geographical regions of the world. This will help develop a meaningful understanding of credit risk management that is helpful for risk managers.Originality: This paper provides broader and deeper review of credit risk literature. Complex patterns in data are revealed using cross tabulations and advanced cross tabulations that have not been performed in previous content analysis based reviews in credit risk. These patterns will prove useful for designing future research avenues.
    Keywords: Research methodologies, Credit risk management, Credit risk measurement, Credit risk pricing, Publication trends, literature review.
  29. By: Phil Ender (UCLA Statistical Consulting Group (Ret))
    Abstract: The origins and evolution of the UCLA Statistical Consulting Group. The presentation will cover the history of the UCLA Statistical Consulting Group as well as one approach to the practice of statistical consulting in an academic environment. UCLA Statistical Consulting provides services to faculty, graduate students and campus researchers. Additionally, Stat Consulting maintains a website popular not only with Stata users but also users of other statistical packages.
    Date: 2015–08–02
  30. By: Bengtsson, Tommy (Lund University); Helgertz, Jonas (Lund University)
    Abstract: The observation in the 1940s, that children to mothers having rubella in the first part of the pregnancy experienced elevated health risks in later life led to a growing interest into whether fetal exposure to other – less severe – diseases could cause health problems as well. Epidemiological studies of the fetal origins of later life health that followed found that, while this indeed was the case, the effect was rather modest. A frequent weakness with many of these studies is furthermore that they only demonstrate associations, not causal relationships. Recent studies by economists and demographers, using quasi-experimental design to overcome this weakness, show that fetal conditions not only affect health in later life but also education and socioeconomic attainment. There is, however, a lack of consistency in the results. While some are showing strong effects, others show weak or no effects at all. Whether this is due to omitted variables, such as the socioeconomic status of parents or data quality problems is unclear. Thus, the question remains: does fetal stress caused by less severe diseases such as influenza, have long lasting impact on health and socioeconomic attainment? In this study we use a quasi-experimental design to test whether exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic during the fetal stage influenced later life attainment using detailed data on the entire population living in Sweden anytime between 1968 and 2012. In addition, we use rich contextual data on morbidity and mortality, as well as on the socioeconomic status of parents, for the period 1914 to 1922 in order to address issues of selection. We find that the children of mothers exposed during pregnancy to influenza suffered from worse adult health and, for males, also increased mortality at old ages, particularly in cancer. Their income attainment was, however, only weakly – and positively - affected by fetal influenza exposure. We therefore conclude that observed health disadvantage is likely to have been a direct effect of fetal exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic, remaining latent until later in life.
    Keywords: fetal origins hypothesis, 1918 influenza pandemic, quasi-experiment, income, hospitalization, mortality, causes of death, register data, total population, Sweden
    JEL: I14 N14
    Date: 2015–09
  31. By: Leonardo Costa Ribeiro (Cedeplar-UFMG); Pedro Mendes Loureiro (Cedeplar-UFMG); Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: What really matters to understand capitalist dynamics in the long run are the countertendencies to the tendential fall of the rate of profit. For researchers in 2015, with all historical and statistical information on capitalist dynamics (not available to Marx, Schumpeter or Bain), capitalism can be seen as an engine for the creation of countertendencies to the fall of the rate of profit. Since classical political economy (Smith, Ricardo, Mill) and Marx the behavior of the rate of profit is a key subject of investigation, that has been also investigated by Schumpeter, evolutionary economist and modern industrial economics. Contemporary debates on the rate of profit would have three advantages vis-à-vis previous rounds of this long-lasting discussion: 1) the MEGA Project has provided more information Marx's works; 2) there are data on the long-term behavior of the rate of profit; 3) there are new tools to investigate the logic of capitalism as a complex system - a dialogue with physics is useful for this analysis. This paper combines different approaches and methods: a short review of the history of economic thought, lessons from economic history, data analysis of the movements of the rate of profit and a simulation model to test our understanding of those movements - a model based on two very simple rules, inspired on an interpretation of Marx's insights about the contradictory interaction between the tendency and the countertendencies to the fall of the rate of profit. These different approaches and methods organize this paper.
    Keywords: the rate of profit, Marx, MEGA2 Project, complex systems, metamorphoses of capitalism
    JEL: P16 O33 B51
    Date: 2015–09
  32. By: Maria A. Grafova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The topic under consideration is a fresco of the left aisle of the Church of Santa Maria Antiqua in the Roman Forum. It depicts a row of holy men flanking Christ sitting on His Throne dating back to the time of the Pope Paul I (757-767). The author focuses on images of saints on the fresco, their hierarchy, and their garments. It is revealed that the holy men on the right hand of Christ are venerated saints of the Roman Church and those on the left hand are mostly Eastern holy bishops, great theologians and champions of orthodox faith who fought against various kinds of heresies. They have never been really popular in Rome. The author has come to the following conclusion: the saints on the left and the saints on the right represent together the united and undivided Church fighting against the heresy of Iconoclasm. The main weapon of the Western Church being its firmness in the orthodox faith, the main weapon of the Eastern Church was its theological erudition
    Keywords: Rome, Byzance, frescoes, Santa Maria Antiqua, Iconoclasm, History of Papacy
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2015
  33. By: Alice (Hsin-Ying) Lin (Department of Foreign Languages and Literature)
    Abstract: The essay explores how John Buchan uses a cultural gap between the disciplined church world and the living-conditions of peasants in Woodilee to raise questions about the knowledge of evil in seventeenth-century Scotland. Published in 1927, when Scotland was not prepared to cope with a politico-religious struggle between King Charles I and Parliament during the English Civil War (from 1644 to 1646), Witch Wood depicts how a young Presbyterian minister, David Sempill, witnesses the pretences and prejudices of three other church elders. The novel depicts how the seventeenth-century Scottish church interprets the concept of evil and convicts its members of witchcraft, focusing on the controversial relationship between nature and morality. This essay will explore how several of Buchan’s more negative political-religious characters lead to the eventual banality of domestic evil within the Scottish church; furthermore, it will point out the ironic moral contrast between the speculations and deeds of the Church’s Chief Elder Chasehope and the secular farmer Shillinglaw. This essay ultimately offers observations, on a somewhat more speculative level, in relation to the novel’s discourse concerning unorthodox, if not Christian, interpretations of evil, using manifestation of several convincing representatives of human nature. It questions whether witchcraft should be recognized as a phenomenon of the human impulse towards natural worship, or as a ritual with evil motive.
    Keywords: John Buchan; Witch Wood; witchcraft; evil; nature and morality
  34. By: Dalton, John; Leung, Tin Cheuk
    Abstract: We use slave voyage data from 18th century Great Britain and France to answer two questions: 1) How important was the managerial quality of owners and captains in slave trading? and 2) What explains the substantial variation in managerial quality? Utilizing the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, in which we observe the performance of owners and captains in each of their voyages, we follow the teacher evaluation literature to estimate the value-added of owners and captains to slave voyage output, i.e. the number of slaves arriving in the Americas. Several results emerge. First, if we replace all owners with the 90th percentile owner in the country, slave voyage output would be 15% and 25% higher than if we replaced all owners with the 10th percentile owner in Great Britain and in France. This 90/10 ratio is 1.27 for British captains. Second, owner value-added is negatively associated with family businesses and positively associated with the level of competition. A comparison of owner value-added before and after the unexpected outbreak of the Seven Years' War, which historians suggest decreased (increased) competition in the French (British) slave trade, suggests competition's effect on owner value-added might be causal.
    Keywords: slave trades, managerial ability, value-added, competition, family business
    JEL: F14 N73 N77
    Date: 2015–08
  35. By: maha alkhashil (Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University)
    Abstract: The pirates in the Indian Ocean greatly threatened the trade activities that passed by. They were concentrated on a few islands in the Indian Ocean. From these islands, they sailed out to overtake ships and then came back to these islands loaded with booty looted from these ships. Since the English people had settled in India and established the East India Company, England came into conflict with these pirates in defending its trade and its position as a great sea power that was threatened by the predations of these pirates. English records documented many aspects of the life of pirates at that time. This research aims at shedding light on aspects of the life of pirates on the islands of the Indian Ocean in the seventeenth century. It also aims to show their way of life, their affairs and the nature of their activities during the period of their settlement in these islands. It is an attempt to understand this period in greater detail and to explore historical documents that may help to differentiate between reality and imagination regarding the life of pirates and related matters. This study is composed of several sections:The introduction discusses pirates in the Indian Ocean in the seventeenth century and the reasons that their activity flourished. This introduction also indicates the places where they settled in the Indian Ocean and why they chose these places. Finally, the text discusses their activities during their settlement of these islands. The study reaches the following conclusions: the pirates chose Madagascar and Mauritius and other islands in the Indian Ocean as places to settle due to the special features of their location and the lack of powerful neighbors to threaten them. These places were the destinations of pirates of every nationality. They considered these islands to be shelters to return to after attacking trading ships and loading up with looted merchandise which they quickly sold here and there or they might travel to sell it in the western Indian islands. The pirates often carried off hostages with them to these islands when they felt threatened or were chased. Pirates faced some threats especially when danger escalated and the East India Company began to pursue them to their hiding places.
    Keywords: Indian Ocean, Piracy, Pirates, East India Company
  36. By: Karagiannis, Dimitris; Metaxas, Theodore
    Abstract: This paper examines the possibility that gastronomy, based on ancient Greek values, could be part of the answer for economic prosperity through the development of food tourism in a country with harsh economic environment such as Greece. We examine if local food, culture and tourism could become great fields of new entrepreneurial and thus regional development when paired with knowledge, innovation and quality. We shall examine what the historical background on ideas such as gastronomy, entrepreneurship, and innovation in ancient Greek culture; in order prove that the answer to contemporary business practicing might be hidden in the history of the country. Real examples of innovative entrepreneurship related to gastronomy will be presented as case studies. By analyzing them, we will prove that there is an answer for potential business growth, when tailor-made solutions are applied that take into account the unique characteristics of a place while utilizing its competitive advantages.
    Keywords: culinary tourism, gastronomy, economic development, comparative analysis, Greece
    JEL: O20 R11 R58 Z19
    Date: 2015
  37. By: John Pencavel (Stanford University)
    Abstract: It has become orthodox in economics research to interpret the association between hourly earnings and working hours as the expression of the preferences of workers. This convention originated in H. Gregg Lewis’ explanation for the decline in hours of work since the nineteenth century. His explanation rested on an explicit resolution of the identification problem inherent in any quantity (hours) - price (wage) relation. For over forty years, researchers have neglected this identification problem with the result that the findings in the purported “labor supply†literature are of questionable value
    Keywords: Working hours, wages, labor supply, labor demand, identification
    JEL: J22 J23 C13
  38. By: Adrien Lutz (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - PRES Université de Lyon - CNRS)
    Abstract: This paper provides new perspectives on the French liberal economist Jacques Rueff (1896-1978), especially as regards his early writings on unemployment. We aim to show that Rueff distinguishes the root causes of permanent unemployment in England (1919-1931) based upon an interesting reading of non-Euclidean geometry. Controversially, this enables him to locate the cause of unemployment in the stickiness of the wage/price ratio. Hence, arguing that reality remains inaccessible in itself, Rueff focuses on a succession of variables (price, wage, unemployment), supplemented by his concepts of rational ego and the reasoning machine, in order to approach this reality.
    Keywords: Rueff, unemployment, real wage
    Date: 2015–09–15
  39. By: Alexandra Kolesnik (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In the late 1960s, British popular music, evolution of its aesthetic and thematic traits had some peculiarities. Light guitar-based music was flavored by English folklore and exceptional British subjects, live performances demonstrated certain theatricality, imagery of rock bands was linked to British cases becoming a peculiar way of exhibiting their ‘Englishness’. As a result of new British musicians’ desire to determine their own sound, they tend to rework the past and actively include national history subjects in their music. The paper analyzes the mechanisms of treatment with the past in British popular music of the late 1960s on the example of the rock band, the Kinks. Focused largely on the musical style of American blues on their first albums, since 1967 year the Kinks turned to British musical tradition rediscovering mainly music hall. Despite the fact that other British Invasion leaders, the Beatles and the Rolling Stones, also borrowed the music hall imagery, the Kinks embraced not only the external music hall style, but deeply adopted music form and subjects. An appeal to the widely recognizable tradition of the British music hall was occurring on the wave of general re-actualization of national past in England. The paper describes, firstly, particular historical subjects that became popular among the British audience in the 1960s; secondly, the format of treatment with the past, which is conditionally characterized as a ‘relevant history’
    Keywords: popular music studies, popular culture, British popular music history, the Kinks, past, historical imagery
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2015
  40. By: Willem H. Boshoff (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch); Johan Fourie (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch)
    Abstract: Economic globalization is defined as the co-movement of prices across a large number of countries (O’Rourke and Williamson, 2002). This research note identifies the period when South African prices began to move in unison with those of the country’s lead trading partner or, in other words, when South Africa globalized. We find that South African wheat prices started reflecting UK trends soon after the discovery of diamonds and gold in the interior of the country. The mineral revolution, it seems, was responsible for integrating the broader South African economy – here proxied by agricultural prices – into the global economy. We further show that this integration was not confined to Cape Town; the coming of the railways ensured that markets in the larger Western and Eastern Cape and, importantly, the town of Kimberley, were well integrated with those in Cape Town. We therefore establish the start of South Africa’s globalization in the 1870s.
    Keywords: globalization, trade, periphery, colonialism, railways, Africa
    JEL: N17
    Date: 2015
  41. By: Valerica Greavu-Serban (Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi)
    Abstract: Cloud computing has become a prevalent phenomenon in today computing industry. The evolution and trends of cloud computing inciting in the same extent, professionals, researchers, business, government institutions and common users. Generous web resources and literature is offering all those interested, details of the general concepts, developing and implementing models, detailed analysis of the functionalities and concrete aspects of security and privacy. This paper is based on a statistical research targeting titles and short abstracts for published articles related to cloud computing technologies available on Google scholar database. Main goal is to highlight the most common key concepts used to describe the research on cloud computing and to identify a research trend.
    Keywords: Knowledge, web scraping, text mining, DataMiner, R
    JEL: A19 M14 C89
  42. By: Adrien Lutz (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - PRES Université de Lyon - CNRS)
    Abstract: A standard reading in the history of economic thought considers Saint-Simonianism to be embodied in the works of a set of European social thinkers including Robert Owen, William Godwin and Sismondi, all of whom are seen as standing in strict opposition to the doctrine of laissez-faire. This article, however, argues that, during the first quarter of the 19th century, the Saint-Simonians and the liberal economist Jean-Baptiste Say can be seen to adopt convergent views on commercial gluts. First, it shows how the Saint-Simonians and Say both see undersupply and lack of industry as causes of gluts. Next, we assert that their intellectual affinities are also visible in their belief that increasing production remains an appropriate solution for gluts. Finally, this convergence is explained by their common heritage: Saint-Simonianism is embedded in a neo-Smithian tradition for which Say can be taken as representative. We argue that this legacy explains their convergence.
    Keywords: Saint - S imonianism, Jean - Baptiste Say, Adam Smith, Laissez-faire, Commercial gluts
    Date: 2015–09–15
  43. By: Kris Inwood; Hamish Maxwell-Stewart; Deb Oxley
    Abstract: The earliest measures of well-being for Europeans born in the Pacific region are heights and wages in Tasmania. Evidence of rising stature survives multiple checks for measurement, compositional and selection bias. The challenges to health and stature seen in other nineteenth-century settler societies (the ‘antebellum paradox’) are not visible here. There was a strong correlation in Tasmania between stature and per capita GDP. We sketch an interpretation highlighting the role of relatively slow population growth and urbanization, a decline in food cost per family member available from a worker’s wage, and early recognition of the importance of public health.
    Date: 2015–04
  44. By: Ya-Hsuan WANG (National Chung Cheng University); Hsin-Jen CHEN (National Chung Cheng University)
    Abstract: In spite of Taiwan’s rapidly high development in manufacture and technology, it is somehow unknown to international students before they visited Taiwan; with the most confusion with Thailand. Addressing the policy of multicultural education with the focus of international literacy for teachers, this project explores the possibility, depth and width for developing the teaching materials, New Taiwan Image, of international education for English-speaking countries. Based on 24 individual interviews with Taiwan’s international students from Australia, United Kingdom, Canada and United States, this study aims to explore Taiwan’s international images in terms of its traditional culture, modern culture and popular culture. According to the research results, the most impressive image for Taiwan is its traditional culture. The researched international students in Taiwan are best impressed by its preservation of traditional cultures, values, and heritages which are equated to Chinese culture. Yet, they are least impressed by its modern culture and popular culture though people in Taiwan are mostly carrying on modern life. The researched students feel ambivalent toward Taiwan’s religious rituals like burning ghost money; and consider it as primitive and superstitious. Underneath the appreciation of old-fashioned traditional culture, the “othering” image subtly discloses their western mentality of cultural superiority. One of the most positive images is the reputation of Taiwanese hospitality. International students soon felt people in Taiwan are very kind to white people, yet unkind to non-white people. It is so-called “benevolent racism” because Taiwanese people favor “whiteness”. The above findings show that cultural imperialism is still prevalent; the embedded value of cultural superiority exists in students’ projection on other culture. Positive images acknowledge great preservation of exotic old culture and good development of modernity and industrialization. Negative images continuously strengthen the otherness of local culture and construct local custom as backward, weird, or mysterious. Positive and negative images on Taiwan work together to ensure dominant culture superior to any other culture that developed far below modern standard. Mostly, traditional culture was seen a stumbling stone against globalization.Hence, this article aims to rebrand the branded by suggesting that we shall develop international educational materials from the perspective of critical multiculturalism. International education should focus on constructing knowledge of new Taiwan image with the attitude of cultural equality and social justice towards cultural diversity. It is dedicated to transform and change the current situation of non-recognition or mis-recognition due to insufficient information about Taiwan.
    Keywords: Cultural Imperialism, International Education, National brand, New Taiwan Image
  45. By: Kim Fong Poon-McBrayer (Hong Kong Institute of Education)
    Abstract: Guam has a long history of European colonialism. Being the largest island in Micronesia, Guam was the only U.S.-held island in the region before World War II. Guam’s special education is subject to relevant US laws. On the other hand, the Micronesian cultures and values influence their practices together with limited resources and its geographical isolation from major cultures. Guam has adopted the resource room model originated from the US as the key feature of its inclusive education due to the impact of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. School leadership has long been recognized to play a significant role in the practice of inclusive education. Little is known about the practices of inclusive education in Guam in the international literature. This author has thus recently conducted a qualitative study to examine the inclusive education system, strategies adopted by the school leadership, and teacher working conditions. Data reflected that the school district leadership has played at least an equally, if not more, important role in the implementation of inclusive education in Guam. The law and the district direction are central to the current practices of inclusive education. Implications for inclusive education development, policies, personnel preparation, and further research were discussed.
    Keywords: Micronesia, Guam, Inclusive education, school leadership, resource room
    JEL: I21 I28 I25
  46. By: Béla Molnár (University of Western Hungary – Berzsenyi Dániel Faculty for Teacher Training)
    Abstract: Besides recognizing the facts mentioned in former publications (according to which training time was reduced to four years from 1949 and there was a withdrawal in training teachers of primary schools instead of developing it), it is necessary to point out that training teachers of primary schools could also show results between 1945 and 1959. It is the subject of the thesis to explore the changes in the structure of the training of primary school teachers in Hungary in the last 15 years of the training at secondary level. Among the objectives it was formulated where the training of primary school teachers was situated in the system of teachers’ training and what intentions presented themselves in connection with the modernization of the training.The changes occurring in the system of education entailed the change of training primary school teachers. The formation of training primary school teachers was in connection with extending public education. When re-organizing schools at secondary level, the training cycle of training primary school teachers was reduced.In 1944/45 the dual structure of five years created in 1941 survived, in this system the students of the third year of a lycée could go on for higher education at the 4th then the 5th year of a training institute of primary school teachers.In November 1947, two pedagogical colleges began to function in Budapest and Szeged where class teachers were trained for primary schools and so were trained specialized teachers for teaching certain groups of subjects at the senior section of primary school. Training time comprised 6 semesters at the college. In 1948 ecclesiastical schools were nationalized then the Minister stopped the training of primary school teachers at secondary level. Pedagogical colleges functioned on the grounds of their original objectives until 1949 then the training of priimary school teachers was made a task of colleges.In 1949 a system of general and specialized secondary grammar schools was built up. Pedagogical secondary grammar school became a formation that lasted four years adapting itself to the system of secondary schools. Pedagogical secondary grammar school prepared for studies at higher level, on the other hand, it offered a specialized qualification of primary school and kindergarten teacher.In 1950 a decree with legal force created institutes of training primary school teachers.
    Keywords: History of education, training primary school teachers, Hungary, teacher training college, pedagogical secondary grammar school
    JEL: I29
  47. By: Esposito, Elena
    Abstract: The resistance of Sub-Saharan Africans to diseases that were plaguing the southern United States contributed to the establishment of African slavery in those regions. Specifically, Africans' resistance to malaria increased the profitability of employing African slave labor, especially that of slaves coming from the most malaria-ridden parts of Africa. In this paper, I first document that African slavery was largely concentrated in the malaria-infested areas of the United States. Moreover, I show that the introduction of a virulent strain of malaria into US colonies greatly increased the share of African slaves, but only in states where malaria could thrive. Finally, by looking at the historical prices of African slaves, I show that enslaved individuals born in the most malaria-ridden African regions commanded higher prices.
    Keywords: Slavery, Malaria, African Slave Trade, Colonial Institutions
    JEL: I12 N31 N37 N57 J15 J47
    Date: 2015
  48. By: William Coleman
    Abstract: The paper argues there is little evidence that the First World War quickened the currents of development of the Australian economy of twentieth century. It instead suggests the War was reinforcing of the Deakinite model of economic management that already been established in Australia by the outbreak of War. It did so by enlarging the tenet of ‘protection plus preference’ that had been inscribed in the pre-War policy consensus; by strengthening the revenue and legal authority of the central state basic to the Deakinite framework of economic governance; and by assimilating rural interests into the terms of that framework.
    Keywords: World War One, imperial preference, Australian settlement, agrarianism
    JEL: N1 N4 N7
    Date: 2015–03
  49. By: Robin Burgess; Remi Jedwab; Edward Miguel; Ameet Morjaria; Gerard Padró i Miquel
    Abstract: Ethnic favoritism is seen as antithetical to development. This paper provides credible quantification of the extent of ethnic favoritism using data on road building in Kenyan districts across the 1963–2011 period. Guided by a model it then examines whether the transition in and out of democracy under the same president constrains or exacerbates ethnic favoritism. Across the post-independence period, we find strong evidence of ethnic favoritism: districts that share the ethnicity of the president receive twice as much expenditure on roads and have five times the length of paved roads built. This favoritism disappears during periods of democracy.
    JEL: D72 H54 J15 O15 O17 O22 R42
    Date: 2015–06

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