nep-his New Economics Papers
on Business, Economic and Financial History
Issue of 2015‒05‒16
24 papers chosen by

  1. Internment of Turks in Canada during WWI By Isil Acehan
  2. Long-Run Cultural Divergence: Evidence From the Neolithic Revolution By Olsson, Ola; Paik, Christopher
  3. The political economy of churches in Denmark over 700 years By Ella Paldam; Martin Paldam
  4. Sovereign debt guarantees and default: Lessons from the UK and Ireland, 1920-1938 By Nathan Foley-Fisher; Eoin McLaughlin
  5. Was Stalin Necessary for Russia's Economic Development? By Anton Cheremukhin; Anton Golosov; Sergei Guriev; Aleh Tsyvinski
  6. Political Party Representation and Electoral Politics in England and Wales, 1690-1747 By Dan Bogart
  7. Colonial New Jersey's Provincial Fiscal Structure, 1709-1775: Spending Obligations, Revenue Sources, and Tax Burdens in War and in Peace By Farley Grubb
  8. Financing Sport in the EU: Is That a Business or a Social Enterprise? By Emese Ivan
  10. The Occupational Segregation of Black Women in the United States: A Look at its Evolution from 1940 to 2010 By Olga Alonso-Villar; Coral del Río
  11. The Facts of Economic Growth By Charles I. Jones
  12. Socialist Calculation and Market Socialism By Jael, Paul
  13. Creating academic economics in Brazil: the Ford Foundation and the beginnings of ANPEC By Ramón García Fernández; Carlos Eduardo Suprinyak
  14. The Discourse of Power in Medieval Transylvania (11th – 14th Centuries): A Linguistic Approach By Simina Terian
  15. Cultural tourism in Central and Southeast Europe. Its selective utilization of cultural layers By Peter Jordan
  16. Equity short-term finance under Philip II, with an option to long-term funded debt By Carlos Álvarez Nogal; Christophe Chamley
  17. Bank Behavior in Regional Finance and the Development of Regional Industries:The Case of Prewar Fukushima, Japan By Tetsuji Okazaki
  18. Is Publication in the Hands of Outstanding Scientists? A Study on the Determinants of Editorial Boards Membership in Economics By Raffaele Miniaci; Michele Pezzoni
  19. La industria en colombia: tres décadas sin política sectorial -Consecuencias sobre empleo e ingresos en el sector- By Álvaro Zerda Sarmiento
  20. Marx, the notebooks on the crisis of 1866 and structural changes in capitalism: investigating financial innovation and stock exchanges By João Antonio de Paula; Hugo Eduardo da Gama Cerqueira; Leonardo Gomes de Deus; Carlos Eduardo Suprinyak; Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque
  21. A Construção do Estado-Providência em Portugal: Evolução da Despesa Social de 1935 a 2003 By José A. Pereirinha; Daniel F. Carolo
  22. Who Got What, Then And Now? A Fifty Years Overview From The Global Consumption And Income Project By Arjun Jayadev; Rahul Lahoti; Sanjay G. Reddy
  24. A Woman in the Ottoman Empire: Poet Nigâr Han By REF ALTIKULAÇ DEM

  1. By: Isil Acehan (Ipek University)
    Abstract: Early years of the twentieth century had witnessed an Ottoman influx into North America. Empire for economic as well as political reasons. In Canada, the destination for Ottomans was Brantford and Hamilton, Ontario, which were famous for their iron foundries. A considerable number of Turks had migrated with the intention of returning to their homeland after spending a couple of years and earning enough to buy land upon their return. However, when WWI broke out, and the Ottoman Empire took sides with Germany, they had to undergo the challenges of the war. At the onset of World War I, the War Measures Act was implemented as a result of an Order in Council by the Canadian Government. This resulted in the internment of “enemy aliens”. Among thousands of people of Ukrainian and Eastern European descent, who were interned in concentration camps across Canada during 1914-1920, there were also 205 Turks. Internment of Turks in concentration camps during WWI still remains as an underresearched area as the Canadian government, in the years after the Second World War, destroyed the official records of the First World War internment operations. However, a report exists that states that in 1914 when Great Britain declared War, 8,579 men who originated from opposing nations were interned. Of those, 205 were from the Ottoman Empire. The story of what may well have been the first Muslim community in Canada, and what happened to it at the hands of a fearful government and populace at a time of War, was almost entirely forgotten.This paper will examine the internment Turks in Canada during WWI in the light of Ottoman and Canadian archival documents.
    Keywords: Turks, Canada, Internment, World War I
  2. By: Olsson, Ola (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Paik, Christopher (NYU Abu Dhabi)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the long-run influence of the Neolithic Revolution on contemporary cultural norms and institutions as reflected in the imension of collectivism-individualism. We outline an agricultural origins-model of cultural divergence where we claim that the advent of farming in a core region was characterized by collectivist values and eventually triggered the out-migration of individualistic farmers towards more and more peripheral areas. This migration pattern caused the initial cultural divergence, which remained persistent over generations. The key mechanism is demonstrated in an extended Malthusian growth model that explicitly models cultural dynamics and a migration choice for individualistic farmers. Using detailed data on the date of adoption of Neolithic agriculture among Western regions and countries, the empirical findings show that the regions which adopted agriculture early also value obedience more and feel less in control of their lives. They have also had very little experience of democracy during the last century. The findings add to the literature by suggesting the possibility of extremely long lasting norms and beliefs influencing today's socioeconomic outcomes.<p>
    Keywords: Neolithic agriculture; comparative development; Western reversal
    JEL: N50 O43
    Date: 2015–05
  3. By: Ella Paldam (Department of Culture and Society; Aarhus University); Martin Paldam (Department of Economics and Business, Aarhus University, Denmark)
    Abstract: This paper reports new macro time-series for the number and size of churches in Denmark from year 1300 to 2000. Church densities are defined as the series per capita. The densities are interpreted as a proxy for religiosity. It is falling throughout all 700 years, but two events gave an extra fall: 1) The Reformation of Catholicism into Lutheranism in the first half of the 16th century caused a fall of 9%, and 2) modern economic growth after 1820 caused a fourfold fall as predicted by the theory of the religious transition. We suggest that similar data for all European countries would show the same strong reaction of church densities to modern economic growth.
    Keywords: Church stock, religiosity, transition
    JEL: N13 N14 Z12
    Date: 2015–07–05
  4. By: Nathan Foley-Fisher (Research and Statistics Division, Federal Reserve Board, Washington, D.C., USA); Eoin McLaughlin (Department of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St. Andrews)
    Abstract: We study the daily yields on Irish land bonds listed on the Dublin Stock Exchange during the years 1920-1938. We exploit structural differences in bonds guaranteed by the UK and Irish governments to find Irish events that had long term effects on the credibility of government guarantees. We document two major events: The Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 and Ireland’s default on intergovernmental payments in 1932. We discuss the political and economic forces behind the Irish and UK governments’ decisions. Our finding has implications for modern-day proposals to issue jointly-guaranteed sovereign debt.
    Keywords: Ireland, Irish land bonds, Dublin Stock Exchange, sovereign default, debt mutualization.
    JEL: N23 N25 G15
    Date: 2015–05
  5. By: Anton Cheremukhin (Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas); Anton Golosov (Princeton University); Sergei Guriev; Aleh Tsyvinski (Yale University)
    Abstract: This paper studies structural transformation of Soviet Russia in 1928-1940 from an agrarian to an industrial economy through the lens of a two-sector neoclassical growth model. We construct a large dataset that covers Soviet Russia during 1928-1940 and Tsarist Russia during 1885-1913. We use a two-sector growth model to compute sectoral TFPs as well as distortions and wedges in the capital, labor and product markets. We find that most wedges substantially increased in 1928-1935 and then fell in 1936-1940 relative to their 1885-1913 levels, while TFP remained generally below pre-WWI trends. Under the neoclassical growth model, projections of these estimated wedges imply that Stalin's economic policies led to welfare loss of -24 percent of consumption in 1928-1940, but a +16 percent welfare gain after 1941. A representative consumer born at the start of Stalin's policies in 1928 experiences a reduction in welfare of -1 percent of consumption, a number that does not take into account additional costs of political repression during this time period. We provide three additional counterfactuals: comparison with Japan, comparison with the New Economic Policy (NEP), and assuming alternative post-1940 growth scenarios.
    JEL: E6 N23 N24 O4 O41
    Date: 2013–09
  6. By: Dan Bogart (Department of Economics, University of California-Irvine)
    Abstract: The Whig and Tory parties played an important role in British politics in the decades following the Glorious Revolution. This paper introduces new data on the political affiliation of all MPs in England and Wales between 1690 and 1747. The data have numerous applications for research. The focus here is on majority party representation and the electoral politics of constituencies. I show that the Whigs had stronger representation in municipal boroughs with small and narrow electorates, whereas the Tories were stronger in county constituencies and in boroughs with large and more democratic electorates. The Whigs were stronger in the Southeast region and the Tories in Wales and the West Midlands. After the Whig leader, Robert Walpole, became prime minister in 1721 the Whigs lost some presence in their traditional strongholds including counties where the Dissenter population was large. Finally, I incorporate data on electoral contests and show that the majority party generally lost strength in constituencies following contests.
    Keywords: Political parties; Whigs; Tories; Rage of Party; Walpole; Glorious Revolution
    JEL: N43 P16 D72
    Date: 2014–12
  7. By: Farley Grubb
    Abstract: The spending obligations and revenue sources of colonial New Jersey’s provincial government for the years 1704 through 1775 are reconstituted using forensic accounting techniques from primary sources. Such has not been done previously for any British North American colony. These data are used to assess colonial New Jersey’s provincial fiscal structure. The methods for raising revenue to meet normal peacetime and emergency wartime expenses are identified and analyzed. The provincial tax burdens imposed on New Jersey’s subjects are calculated. How the British interfered with New Jersey’s provincial fiscal structure is identified. What revenues and tax burdens would have been without this interference are estimated.
    JEL: E42 E60 H20 H60 N11 N21 N41
    Date: 2015–05
  8. By: Emese Ivan (St John's University)
    Abstract: The focus of this paper is to evaluate conceptions, perceptions, and interpretations of ‘financing sport’ throughout the European continent. The paper will aim to shed light on the ways that policy contexts dictate the application of sport financing as well as sport practices. While many sport facilities were developed from the 1970s onwards it was not until the 1980s and 1990s that a field began to emerge from the utilitarian presumption that the promotion of sport would have beneficial outcomes for social and civic order. This paper would like to focus some attention to the increasing involvement of central and local governments in sport financing despite an ongoing decrease in sport participation worldwide. Moreover, in pursuing this line of interrogation this paper asserts that opportunity structure for the organization and development of sporting activities has shifted from developmental to managerial throughout the 21st century.
    Keywords: Sport Economics, Business of Sport, Social Values
    JEL: A13 A19 A12
  9. By: Salih KARATA (Selçuk University Faculty of Law)
    Abstract: One of the most threatening case against world peace and security is armament. This problem with the spread of weapons of mass destruction, has become inextricable. Like nuclear and biological weapons, chemical weapons in this context, regardless of the destination domain and cause heavy losses led to the deaths of millions of people until today. During the Second World War weapons of mass destruction often being referred to during international conflicts, but after the war this has been changed. Between the years 1963-1967 the chemical massacre carried out in Yemen, in 1988 Iran / Iraq War, the Iraqi government on the grounds that they help Iran, carried out chemical massacres against its Kurdish citizens (Halabja Massacre) and finally in 2013 during the Syrian civil war chemical massacres carried out against the citizens, these are all the evidence that the authoritarian governments in civil wars do not hesitate to use such weapons against their citizens. On disarmament initiatives Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) have an important place in international law. The number of countries that signed the Convention has reached 192 in 2014. However Israel and Myanmar has not ratified the Convention so it could not entered into force yet for these two signing states. The number of States parties to the Convention reached 190 with the latest Syria's participation. This number corresponds to approximately 90% of states. CWC was signed with the desire to eliminate mass destruction weapons in 21st century. To reach this aim the Convention established a regulatory and inspectionary mechanism. Since its foundation The Organisation For Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) carrying its duty to prevent developement, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and to manage their destruction process. In cooperation with the United Nations since 2013 OPCW is managing the process for the destruction of Syrian chemicals. For its clear efforts to provide peace in the world OPCW was awarded with the Nobel Peace Prize in 2013.
  10. By: Olga Alonso-Villar; Coral del Río
    Abstract: Based on detailed occupation titles and making use of measures that do not require pairwise comparisons among demographic groups, this paper shows that the occupational segregation of Black women declined dramatically in 1940-1980, decreased slightly in 1980-2000, and remained stagnant in 2000-2010. An important contribution of this paper is the quantification of the well-being losses that these women derive from their occupational sorting. The segregation reduction was indeed accompanied by well-being improvements, especially in the 1960s and 1970s. Regarding the role that education has played, this study highlights that, only from 1990 onward, Black women with either some college or university degrees had lower segregation (as compared with their peers) than those with lower education. Nevertheless, the well-being loss that Black women with university degrees derived in 2010 for being segregated from their peers in education was not too different from that of Black women with lower education.
    Keywords: occupational segregation measurement, race, gender, Black women, wages, United States
    JEL: J15 J16 J71
    Date: 2015–03
  11. By: Charles I. Jones
    Abstract: Why are people in the richest countries of the world so much richer today than 100 years ago? And why are some countries so much richer than others? Questions such as these define the field of economic growth. This paper documents the facts that underlie these questions. How much richer are we today than 100 years ago, and how large are the income gaps between countries? The purpose of the paper is to provide an encyclopedia of the fundamental facts of economic growth upon which our theories are built, gathering them together in one place and updating the facts with the latest available data.
    JEL: E0 O4
    Date: 2015–05
  12. By: Jael, Paul
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the debate held in the twenties and thirties of the last century between libertarian economists and socialist economists, following the denial by the first ones of the feasibility of a socialist economy. This controversy is well known to specialists and has been widely commented. It seemed to me useful to initiate non-specialists in an original way: by having the controversy speaking by itself. We review the main contributions and summarise their arguments with, initially, the bare minimum of personal comments. Walrasian general equilibrium serves as a reference for the defenders of market socialism in the controversy. But the concept of competition behind this theory is very incomplete; it is purely passive. It follows that the market socialism which emanates from it is not really a MARKET socialism. It is lacking the competition which innovates. Markets for capital goods are also lacking in theses models. Our paper then turns to a new generation of socialist models involving this real competition. We review two models proposed by Bardhan and Roemer and then exhibit a personal model. This type of model is facing a modern criticism whose central concept is the "soft budget constraint".
    Keywords: planning; market socialism; socialist calculation; soft budget constraint; Barone; von Mises; Hayek; Lange; Roemer
    JEL: P20 P21 P27
    Date: 2015–05
  13. By: Ramón García Fernández (UFABC); Carlos Eduardo Suprinyak (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: The 1960s saw the beginning of an effort to improve professional standards in Brazilian academia through cooperation with a few North American institutions, in the context of an important and controversial set of agreements between the Brazilian Ministry of Education (MEC) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). In the case of economics, the Ford Foundation was especially relevant, providing substantial funding for the creation of the first graduate programs in the field in Brazil. An important moment in this process took place in 1973 with the creation of ANPEC, an association of graduate programs in economics whose purpose was to organize and stimulate institutional interaction among its members. ANPEC is still today the most important association for academic economics in Brazil, exercising leadership through both its annual meetings and a national unified exam for admission in graduate programs in the field. The paper explores archival material from the period 1964-74 held at the Ford Foundation, which illuminates both the interaction between representatives of the Foundation and of different Brazilian academic institutions, and the strategy pursued by the former in order to develop the economics profession in the country. We thus seek to contribute to a better understanding of the conflicting motivations that lay behind the creation of ANPEC, and of the effects that the association would have on the emerging graduate programs in Brazil.
    Keywords: ANPEC, Ford Foundation, USAID, FGV, IPE/USP
    JEL: B20 A14 A23
    Date: 2015–03
  14. By: Simina Terian (Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu)
    Abstract: This paper examines, from a linguistic perspective, the discourse of power in medieval Transylvania (11th – 14th Centuries), as evinced in the most important corpus of documents of the era (Codex diplomaticus Transsylvaniae, Documenta Romaniae Historica. C. Transilvania, Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der Deutschen in Siebenbürgen, etc.). The premises of my research are: (a) that the discourse of power should not be confined to its formal meanings, instead it carries a number of secondary meanings, no less authoritarian, which can only be inferred by means of a detailed semantic analysis; and (b) that the relationship between the semantic “centers” and “peripheries” reflects the relationship between the cultural and institutional “centers” and “peripheries”. To probe these hypotheses, my paper resorts to, in terms of methodology, the combination of cognitive linguistics (mainly George Lakoff and Dirk Geeraerts’s theories), which emphasizes the metaphorical dimension of the “ordinary” language, and Eugeniu Co
    Keywords: Power, Middle Ages, Transylvania, Linguistics
    JEL: A12
  15. By: Peter Jordan (Institute of Urban and Regional Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria)
    Abstract: The purpose – Cultural and city tourism are intensively promoted by most Central and Southeast European countries. But frequently identity and historiography of the modern nation states is at odds with some periods of history and emphasizes others. This may result in a rather selective presentation of the cultural heritage also to tourists and in difficulties to define a tourism brand. Selective presentation refers also to the cultural heritage of minorities and Communism. Methodology, approach – The paper investigates into the attitudes of various Central and Southeast European countries in this respect. Methods applied are personal observations as well as surveys of websites of national and regional tourist boards. Findings – Political strive for national homogeneity is very often also extended to the field of tourism resulting in the neglect of certain tourist attractions or in not explicitly attributing them to their originators, especially as regards more recent periods of history. Most obvious cases in this respect are the disregard of the Hungarian cultural heritage in Romania, of the Ottoman cultural heritage in Serbia and of not attributing the German cultural heritage to their originators in Slovenia. On the other hand we witness a lot of openness in this respect. Best practices can be observed in Poland related to the Hanseatic/Prussian/German as well as Jewish and Kashubian cultural heritage, in Czechia related to the (supra-national) Austrian cultural heritage, in Slovakia related to the German and Rusyn cultural heritage and not the least in Croatia related to the Venetian and Austrian cultural heritage. This resulted already in significant success on the tourism market by prompting additional demand and attracting a quality segment. This research is original because it relates national and regional tourism branding to a wider historical-political background. An added value results also from the comparative view over rather divergent countries.
    Keywords: cultural tourism, cultural heritage, Central Europe, Southeast Europe, touristic branding, historical layers
    JEL: L83
  16. By: Carlos Álvarez Nogal; Christophe Chamley
    Abstract: Men of finance raised funds for loans, asientos, to Philip II by trading short-term financial instruments in credit markets and by selling long-term annuities, juros. These activities are illustrated by an asiento with the Maluenda brothers (July 13, 1595), where short-term credit secured by the equity of the fleets from the Indies were, for more than one half, converted into funded life annuities that were sold by the Maluendas. The new analysis of this asiento relies on its dossier of more than 400 pages in the archives of Simancas, including the contract, the monitoring attachments, and the final audit.
    Keywords: public finances , Philip II , asientos , juros , methodology , archives , verification
    JEL: N01 N13 N23 N43
    Date: 2015–05
  17. By: Tetsuji Okazaki
    Abstract: Because of the unstable financial market after World War I, the Japanese financial system experienced a wave of bank mergers, which resulted in an increase in bank scale and the development of branch banking. In this paper, we explored the implications of the expansion of branch banking, using bank-office-level data for Fukushima Prefecture. We found that branch offices that belonged to banks headquartered in other cities, counties, or prefectures tended to have a lower propensity to loan compared with the offices of banks headquartered in the same cities and counties as the offices. We also find that concentration of deposits on bank offices headquartered in other cities, counties, or prefectures had a substantial negative impact on the development of the weaving industry. The structural change in the banking industry after World War I altered the spatial allocation of funds and thereby affected the development of regional industries.
    Date: 2015–05
  18. By: Raffaele Miniaci (University of Brescia); Michele Pezzoni (University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, France; GREDEG CNRS)
    Abstract: This paper aims at casting light on editorial boards of leading journals in economics. This topic has been largely neglected by economists and sociologists of science, although the crucial role played by editors of prestigious journals in steering the discipline. We start our analysis by mapping the content specialization and the level of oligopoly of the contributing institutions within each journal. Then, we assess the impact of editorial boards’ interlocking and turnover on similarity between journals. In the second half of the paper we investigate the determinants of editorial board membership in leading economic journals during the decade from 1994 to 2004. We observe that the scientist’s past productivity is a strong predictor of membership. Nevertheless, other determinants are at play. Among others, we found a significant positive effect of scientist’s social connections with the members of the discipline who are entitled to decide for the appointment as editor.
    Keywords: Economic Journals, Journal interlocking and turnover, Social connection, Editor recruitment
    JEL: B21 B40 B53 C72 D01 D11 D50
    Date: 2015–05
  19. By: Álvaro Zerda Sarmiento
    Abstract: El artículo busca establecer la relación entre la política pública relacionada con la industria, formulada desde finales de los años 80 en Colombia y las consecuencias que tuvo tanto sobre la configuración productiva como sobre el mundo del trabajo en el sector. Los resultados apuntan a la ausencia de una política industrial activa por parte de los gobiernos de todo el periodo y el énfasis en una estrategia transversal para introducir ciencia y tecnología a los procesos. Sin embargo el análisis evidencia que este propósito se quedó en el enunciado pues no fueron tomadas acciones específicas para lograrlo. Como consecuencia el patrón de crecimiento nacional se desindustrializó. Los impactos para los trabajadores fueron negativos: disminución del empleo manufacturero frente al empleo total, estancamiento relativo de los salarios reales frente al crecimiento de la productividad laboral y aumento de la brecha en la apropiación del excedente generado. La estructura productiva industrial se transformó hacia una mayor intensidad en bienes relacionados con actividades extractivas, en desmedro de las intensivas en conocimiento, contrario a lo que pregonaba la estrategia oficial. Finalmente, la política económica planteada por el gobierno del Presidente Juan Manuel Santos en su primer periodo no se orientó a cambiar estas tendencias de largo plazo.
    Keywords: Desarrollo industrial, Política industrial, Ciencia y tecnología, Modelos económicos, Extractivismo.
    JEL: L60 L98 J30 J48 O25
    Date: 2014–08–13
  20. By: João Antonio de Paula (Cedeplar-UFMG); Hugo Eduardo da Gama Cerqueira (Cedeplar-UFMG); Leonardo Gomes de Deus (UFOP); Carlos Eduardo Suprinyak (Cedeplar-UFMG); Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: Marx's Notebooks prepared in 1868 and 1869 (excerpts from The Economist and The Money Market Review) are an investigation on the crisis of 1866. Beyond a broad study of that crisis, they are an investigation of an emerging transformation of capitalism. They focus on leading industrial sectors (railways), financial innovations (such as limited liability firms and new types of shares and titles), and follow political measures undertaken in response to that crisis - dynamic new features of a system in its drive for survival. Those Notebooks might be material for a deep revision of his unfinished manuscripts for Volume III.
    Keywords: Karl Marx; MEGA; financial innovation; phases of capitalism
    JEL: B14 B31
    Date: 2015–05
  21. By: José A. Pereirinha; Daniel F. Carolo
    Abstract: Durante o período do Estado Novo, com a criação do sistema da Previdência Social, formam-se as bases institucionais em que assenta o actual Estado-providência em Portugal. As decisões políticas sobre a previdência tomadas no período entre 1935 e 1973, em particular a Reforma da Previdência de 1962, constituíram marcos significativos na história dessa construção. Neste artigo apresentam-se séries estatísticas que foram construídas, para o período do Estado Novo, com o objectivo de caracterizar as etapas desse processo, descrevendo a evolução da organização institucional da previdência, da cobertura material e pessoal dos riscos sociais, da generosidade da despesa com prestações sociais relativas a esses riscos, bem como a sua repartição pelas instituições que tinham a responsabilidade dessa cobertura. A série da despesa social foi alargada, com base nas mesmas fontes, para o período 1974-80 e, com dados publicados na OECD Social Expenditure database, até ao ano de 2003, permitindo assim uma leitura de longo prazo da evolução da despesa social, colmatando um défice de informação quantitativa sobre este tema. Foi possível medir os efeitos, na variação ocorrida do peso da despesa social no PIB ao longo do período do Estado Novo, da variação da cobertura pessoal de riscos sociais e da generosidade média das respectivas prestações, permitindo assim uma leitura interpretativa das diversas fases da construção do Estado-providência neste período.
    Keywords: Estado Novo, Corporativismo, Previdência Social, Estado providência, despesa social. JEL classification : N44
  22. By: Arjun Jayadev (University of Massachusetts, Boston); Rahul Lahoti (University of Goettingen); Sanjay G. Reddy (Department of Economics, New School for Social Research)
    Abstract: Using newly comprehensive data and tools from the Global Consumption and Income Project or CGIP, covering most of the world and five decades, we present a portrait of the changing global distribution of consumption and income and discuss its implications for our understanding of inequality, poverty, inclusivity of growth and development, world economic welfare, and the emergence of a global ‘middle class’. We show how regional distributions of income and consumption have evolved very differently over time. We also undertake sensitivity analysis to quantify the impact of various choices made in database construction and analysis. We find that levels of consumption and income have increased across the distribution, that the global distribution has become more relatively equal due to falling inter-country relative inequality, and that by some measures global poverty has declined greatly but by others it has hardly declined at all, even over the fifty years. The global middle class has grown markedly in certain countries but only slightly worldwide. Most of the marked changes have occurred after 1990. China’s rapid economic growth is by far the most important factor underlying almost all of them, notwithstanding sharply increasing inequalities within the country. Most improvements outside of China are associated with rapid developing country growth after 2000, and are of unknown durability. Country-experiences vary widely; there is for instance some evidence of ‘inequality convergence’ with previously more equal countries becoming less equal over time and the obverse. We provide support for previous findings (e.g. the replacement of the global ‘twin peaks’ by a unimodal distribution) but also arrive at some conclusions that overthrow old ‘stylized facts’ (e.g. that the Sub-Saharan African countries, and not Latin American ones, have the highest levels of inequality in the world, when measured using standardized surveys). The GCIP provides a resource for ongoing analysis, and forecasting, of developments in the world distribution.
    JEL: D30 D31 D60 D63 I30 O10 O15 P50
    Date: 2015–05
  23. By: Carlos Arturo Téllez
    Abstract: La globalización hace necesario que se desarrollen procesos de integración económica entre los países interesados en involucrarse en dinámicas de inmersión internacional, así pues, en el continente latinoamericano Colombia y México, países con economías estables e indicadores económicos que muestran un crecimiento constante, han efectuado en las últimas décadas esfuerzos notorios para integrarse de forma efectiva. Este documento efectúa un análisis detallado de la evolución histórica acerca de la relación entre estos dos países y específicamente describe comparativamente variables como el PIB, desempleo y balanza comercial, con la finalidad de evaluar la consolidación y mejoramiento de los vínculos comerciales al interior del G2.
    Keywords: integración económica, política exterior, balanza comercial, variables macroeconómicas, G2.
    JEL: F13 F15
    Date: 2014–02–26
    Abstract: Poet Nigâr Han
    Keywords: Literatüre, Nigâr Han

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