nep-his New Economics Papers
on Business, Economic and Financial History
Issue of 2015‒03‒27
thirty-two papers chosen by
Bernardo Bátiz-Lazo
Bangor University

  1. Occupational structure in the Polish territories at the turn of the 20th (1895-1900) century By Piotr Koryś; Maciej Tymiński
  2. Scapegoating Cambodia’s “Yuonâ€: Historical Perspectives on Khmer Anti-Vietnamism By Christian Oesterheld
  3. Human Capital Formation from Occupations: The ‘Deskilling Hypothesis’ Revisited By Pleijt, Alexandra M. de; Weisdorf, Jacob L.
  4. First Works of Arthurian Literature in the 12th Century: At the Boundary between History and Fiction By Natalia M. Dolgorukova
  5. The Historical Novel Reconsiered: The Case of George Eliot's Romola By Jaqueline Bohn Donada
  6. Journey of Hajj Pilgrims from Patani and Its Social-economic and Intellectual Impact on the Patani Malay Society (1800-1960s) By Numan Hayimasae
  7. History of the Concept of Value By J. E. King; Michael McLure
  8. Industrial Structure, Prefectural Inequality, and Convergence in Pre-war Japan (1874-1940) By Settsu, Tokihiko
  9. A-Historical Economic Dynamics: A Book Review By Michael McLure
  10. Development Efforts by Modern Turkey: The Report of Moscow Ambassador (1937) By Çağatay Benhür
  11. Discourse Function of Non-Initial Referential Choice in Selected 17th Century Russian Texts By Ekaterina Schnittke
  12. Paul Claudel «L’annonce Faite A Marie»: A Study Of Genre By Anna A. Sabashnikova
  13. From Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas to Francisco Suárez: a survey of influential topics By Rui Gonçalves
  14. The Deep Historical Roots of Macroeconomic Volatility By Sam Hak Kan Tang; Charles Ka Yui Leung
  15. The Political, Moral, Intellectual and Revolutionary Authority of Africa in Malcolm X's Life and Thought By Tunde Adeleke
  16. A. C. Pigou’s Membership of the ‘Chamberlain-Bradbury’ Committee Part Ii: ‘Transitional’ and ‘Ongoing’ Issues By Michael McLure
  17. Gypsies as Victims of Crimes of Crime By Mehlika Ozlem Ultan; Serdar Ornek
  18. The measurement of production: lessons from the engineering industry in Italy, 1911 By Stefano Fenoaltea
  19. The measurement of production movements: lessons from the engineering industry in Italy, 1861-1913 By Stefano Fenoaltea
  20. Management in agriculture; specialities of development By Csaba Berde
  21. THE EFFECTS OF SYSTEMIC BANKING CRISES IN THE INTER-WAR PERIOD By Bruno Rocha; Solomos Solomou
  22. The Ideological economic relationship between Albania and Yugoslavia, 1945-1948 By Ledion Krisafi
  23. Theories of Political Arrangements of Central Europe after World War I By Peter Csanyi
  24. Democratic Ideal and Democratic Institution ——Study on Mihailo Marlcovic’s Democracy Thought By Xueping Hu
  25. Circumstances of the Usage of Technological Tools in History Education in Elementary Level By Emine Özel
  26. The Question of Knowledge in Economics* By Hans Christian Garmann Johnsen
  27. An Australian Contribution to International Trade Theory: The Dependent Economy Model By Phillip Edmund Metaxas; Ernst Juerg Weber
  28. Price Level Stabilization: Hayek and New Keynesians By Pavel Potuzak
  29. THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS COMMITTEE IN MID-1923, COMMISSIONED THE REPORTS PREPARED BY THE BOARD OF INSPECTION TRIPS AND ANATOLIA By Osman AKANDERE
  30. Indian Subaltern Feminism and American Black Womanism By Leema Rose
  31. Financial literacy: A review of literature By Elif Akben Selcuk
  32. Case Study Method Application when Studying Finance and Banking: Situation Description By Natalia Konovalova

  1. By: Piotr Koryś (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Maciej Tymiński (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: Authors present the occupational structure of Polish lands at the turn of 20th century on the basis of censuses carried out in Germany (1895), Russia (1897) and Austria (1900). Our research provides corrections to the errors of the censuses, to a considerable extent. As a result, we present an occupational structure that allows a more complete the picture of the economic situation in the Polish territories at the end of the 19th century. The conducted research has created an opportunity to partially verify the assumption, which is common in Polish economical historiography, that a technological turning point and an industrial revolution occurred in Polish lands already in the 1870s and 1880s. Revised census data demonstrated that the extent of industrialization in Polish lands was still very limited in 1900.
    Keywords: economic history, Polish lands, occupational structure, industrialization, backwardness
    JEL: N33 J22 J43 J44
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:war:wpaper:2015-09&r=his
  2. By: Christian Oesterheld (Mahidol University International College)
    Abstract: Despite macro-level advances in ASEAN regional cooperation, on the ground anti-Vietnamese xenophobia remains an unsavory reality in contemporary Cambodia. During the 2013 national elections the newly constituted Cambodian National Rescue Party (CNRP), a merger of the Sam Rainsy Party (SRP) and the Human Rights Party (HRP), has capitalized strongly on anti-Vietnamese sentiments, leading to some minor violent incidents and a prolonged discussion on a renewal of racialism in contemporary Cambodia.Against widely hold views that the strong anti-Vietnamese animus constitutes a century-old historical continuity, this paper argues that popular Khmer anti-Vietnamism is predominantly based on folklorist representations of the lower Mekong delta’s early and mid 19th century social history and that it has undergone two significant – and closely interrelated – transformations in the course of Cambodia’s political history throughout the 20th century. The first transformative framework concerns times of crisis in the constitutive periods of Cambodian independence in the 1940s as well as the reconstitution of Cambodian statehood and nationalism in the early 1970s and again in the early 1990s. Building on René Girard’s mimetic theory, this paper argues that the Vietnamese minority in Cambodia has been ‘scapegoated’ as a ‘dispensable other’ which could be sacrificed in order to re-establish social cohesion in times of intra-societal conflict. As a result, the colloquial Khmer term “yuonâ€, formerly used as a neutral ethnic denomination, has assumed an increasingly derogatory meaning. Intrinsically related to the issue of ‘scapegoating’ is a second transformative moment which concerns the politicization of anti-Vietnamese sentiments in late 20th century Cambodia. It is argued here that this latter transformation has been fostered by ultra-nationalist tenants of Khmer Rouge ideology in the wake of the Third Indochina War. Ever since, divergent political camps have been prone to the use of anti-Vietnamese racialism in order to mobilize support from the Cambodian electorate. By de-cyphering the historical repertoires of Khmer xenophobia against their Vietnamese neighbors, this paper suggests that contemporary Cambodian society continues to fail in its attempts to overcome the social legacy of decades of civil war and factionalist infighting.
    Keywords: Xenophobia ; Cambodia ; Vietnamese minority
    Date: 2014–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0200880&r=his
  3. By: Pleijt, Alexandra M. de (Utrecht University); Weisdorf, Jacob L. (Utrecht University)
    Abstract: We use HISCLASS to code the occupational titles of over 30,000 English male workers according to the skill-content of their work. We then track the evolution of the sampled working skills across three centuries of English history, from 1550 to 1850. We observe a modest rise in the share of ‘high-quality workmen’ deemed necessary by Mokyr and others to facilitate the Industrial Revolution, including machine erectors and operators. But we also find remarkable growth in the share of unskilled workers, rising from 20% in the late sixteenth century to nearly 40% in the early nineteenth century, caused mainly by falling shares of semi-skilled, blue-collar workers. Close inspection of the occupational structures within the main sectors of production suggest that deskilling occurred in agriculture and industry alike, prompted by land concentration in agriculture and workshop-to-factory changes in industry.
    Keywords: Deskilling, HISCLASS, Human Capital, Industrial Revolution, Occupations
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cge:wacage:222&r=his
  4. By: Natalia M. Dolgorukova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The paper explores how the authors of the first works of the so-called Arthurian cycle tried to raise the status of their narrative using the Latin rhetorical triad (‘historia’, ‘argumentum’, ‘fabula’). Macrobius, Isidore of Seville, Geoffrey Map were just a few of the authors who used these categories for the analysis of literary works. This reflection on the form and function of the text is also important for the literature written in the vernacular (Wace, Chretien de Troyes, Guillaume de Lorris, etc.). The paper shows that this intention was one of the reasons for criticism form the so-called “professional historians”, e.g. William of Newburgh, the British historian of the 12th century. First works of Arthurian literature (e.g. The History of the Kings of England by Geoffrey of Monmouth, Le Roman de Brut by Wace) contained specific historiographic claims and downplayed the proportion of invented elements. They could vary depending on the language (Latin and Old French) and the audience for which the texts were written
    Keywords: «Historia», «fabula», «argumentum», Galfrid of Monmouth, Wace, historiography, fiction
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hig:wpaper:07/ls/2015&r=his
  5. By: Jaqueline Bohn Donada (Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná)
    Abstract: Although George Eliot is recognized as a seminal author of the XIX century English realism, Romola, her fourth novel, is not usually remembered amongst her most relevant works. Several contemporary and even more recent critics have considered it a failure and dismissed its XV century Italian background and accumulation of historical detail as irrelevant to the XIX century English novel. However, it has often been said that, generally speaking, all of George Eliot’s novels are historical because all of them are set in a particular place and time, the social and political circumstances of which are of central importance to the lives of the characters and to the developments of the plot. The present work aims at analyzing Romola as George Eliot's attempt of revitalizing and modernizing the form of the historical novel. The paper traces a line of continuation and development from the XVIII century realistic novel to the rise of historical fiction with Walter Scott to Eliot's revaluation of the form in Romola. By the end, it is expected that the paper is able to establish that, in Romola, George Eliot takes on the tradition founded by Walter Scott and remodels it according to her unfolding awareness of the new historical and artistic tendencies that would later be characteristic of Modernist fiction.
    Keywords: George Eliot, Romola, Historical Novel
    Date: 2014–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0100081&r=his
  6. By: Numan Hayimasae (Prince of Songkla University)
    Abstract: Islam had formally accepted by the Patani people in the mid 15th century while the tenets of Islam were not fully practiced at the early time. In the early period, it has no clear evidence to indicate that there were pilgrims from Patani to reach Mecca for Hajj. However, the names of religious Patani scholars were mentioned about their connection with Mecca in some Malay classical books both directly and indirectly in 16th and 17th century. Journey of Hajj from Patani and had more recorded in the later century after being better transportation especially when the Suez canal in Egypt was opened in 1869 and operating of steamships which carried Malay pilgrims from the Malay Archipelago mainly through Penang and Singapore port. Barriers and various challenges faced by pilgrims throughout on board ship and life in Mecca and its environs gave much impact, especially in terms of social-economy and intellectual structure. Collective memory, spiritual and empirical experience gave a lot of individual impact and made Hajj pilgrims changes their way of life after they returning homeland. For those for stay a period of time for educational purpose after the Hajj season, this also gave profound impact to the Patani Malay society through intellectual pilgrims particularly the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century. Methods, texts, learning and teaching styles, had been transformed into the society especially the Madrasah system which directly copied from the madrasahs in Mecca. The Hajj journey was also one way to link the Malay region with the Muslim world, and consolidated its contact with the Haramayn in particular.
    Keywords: Hajj Pilgrimaage Journey, Social-economic and Intellectual Impact, Patani Malay Society
    JEL: N95
    Date: 2014–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0100218&r=his
  7. By: J. E. King (La Trobe University, Victoria); Michael McLure (University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: In this historical review we distinguish between two broad categories of value theories, objective and subjective, which focus respectively on the conditions of production and on the preferences of consumers. The objective approach to value theory is discussed with respect to classical political economy and the labour theory of value and the Sraffian revival of classical value theory in the twentieth century. The subjective approach to value theory is discussed with reference to neoclassical economics, with emphasis on marginal utility and equilibrium; marginal productivity and the distribution of product; and enhancements to utility analysis developed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. We conclude with a very brief and speculative reflection on the challenge of the digital age for value theory. The paper has been prepared as an entry for the forthcoming second edition of the International Encylopedia of the Social and Behavioural Sciences (Elsevier).
    Date: 2014
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:uwa:wpaper:14-06&r=his
  8. By: Settsu, Tokihiko
    Abstract: The aim of this paper was to examine changes in prefectural income inequality and industrial structure during the pre-war period (1874-1940). The findings of the analysis can be summarized as follows. Prefectural income inequality, which increased in the early stages of Japan’s modern economic development, was mainly due to within-industry differences in labor productivity. From 1874 to 1890 labor productivity differences in the manufacturing, mining, and construction sector increased considerably. Although further analyses are necessary to draw firmer conclusions, it appears that the rise of major industrial centers such as Osaka during this period played a key role. Nevertheless, it is important to note that industrialization was not confined to urban centers, but also took place in other (rural) regions, where increases in employment in the manufacturing sector kept pace with the leading areas. In this sense, it could be said that industrialization during this period was not regionally biased. Moreover, regional inequality increased only moderately in the following period from 1890 to 1909, when the industrialization process had gathered steam. The reason is that although differences in labor productivity due to differences in industrial structure increased during this period, within-industry productivity differences in manufacturing and services did not rise further or in fact declined. A likely reason, it was suggested, was active investment in rural areas as part of the “regional industrialization ideology,” which mitigated labor productivity differences. Overall, the analysis in this paper suggests that changes in industrial structure and in withinindustry differences in labor productivity played a key role in shaping trends in spatial income inequality in Japan.
    Date: 2015–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hit:rcesrs:dp15-1&r=his
  9. By: Michael McLure (Business School, University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: Eralier this year, Mario Pomini published an interesting book titled The Paretian Tradition during the Interwar Period: From Dynamics to Growth (London: Routledge pp162, $140.00, ISBN: 978-0-415-66140-9). In this brief paper, prepared for the History of Economic Thought and Policy, I review Ponimi’s book, discussing his treatment of the contributions of the largely Italian scholars – including Luigi Amorono, Giulio La Volpe, Eraldo Fossati and Giuseppe Palomba – to the Paretian tradition of dynamic general equilibrium. I suggest that this is a useful book that deals with a very interesting episode in intellectual history; although the significant limits of the Pareto inspired approach to dynamics are not fully delineated or explored.
    Date: 2014
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:uwa:wpaper:14-33&r=his
  10. By: Çağatay Benhür (Selçuk University)
    Abstract: In historical process, the best period in Turkish- Russian relations was between the years 1917 and 1939. The good affair between the two countries was began with the mutual assistances on the eve of independence wars after newly established regimes in both countries. It would take another turn due to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s dead in 1938, and due to World War Two started in 1939 which Soviet Union was entered into the conflicts in 1941. In the period between the years 1935 and 1939, which the relations of Turkey and Soviet Union was at the highest level, Zeki Apaydın, who was the Turkish Ambassador in Moscow, sent a report to Ankara in 1937. He attached a wide appendix about the animal husbandry and the product storage techniques which composed of the information, the photographs and the drawings about new tech farm equipment in Soviet Union to his report. Turkish ambassador thought that these documents would be helpful in his country. In this article, Turkish-Soviet affairs will be handle in the frame of the report which was sent by Ambassador Zeki Apaydın to his government.
    Keywords: Zeki Apaydın / Turkish Soviet Relations / Ambassador
    Date: 2014–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0201287&r=his
  11. By: Ekaterina Schnittke (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The referential system of Middle Russian is notable for having in addition to the "standard" anaphoric devices—such as zero, pronominal, and nominal forms—devices that combine pronominal and nominal components, e.g. on knjaz' Mixajlo ‘he prince Mixajlo’, tot d'jakon Iov ‘that deacon Iov’. Traditionally, referring expressions of the type Pron+NP were regarded as typical of administrative language and functionally interpreted as satisfying the need for clarity and unambiguous identification of the referents. I show that in a selection of 17th century texts these constructions are used independently of the disambiguation need. I argue that both compound constructions, Pron+NP and Dem+NP, function as markers of the referent's status at different levels of discourse. Specifically, participants who are major at the discourse level and thematic at the episode level tend to be encoded by means of Pron+NP, whereas participants who are thematic at the episode level but minor at the discourse level are usually encoded by means of Dem+NP. These facts are examined against the background of the history of pronouns and demonstratives in the Russian language
    Keywords: historical pragmatics, discourse deixis, discourse status, referential choice, referring devices, appositives, 17th century, history of Russian language, Solovki monastery
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hig:wpaper:20/lng/2015&r=his
  12. By: Anna A. Sabashnikova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The paper looks at the singular genre of Paul Claudel’s 1911 drama, which the author himself defined as a mystery play. This work is studied as a sort of genre experiment, which became possible in the early 20th century, owing to the blurring of borders typical for Symbolist theatre. One can define two specific levels in the subject matter of the piece: the dramatic one, the actual story and the one reminding us of a mystery play, which shows the events in a universal light, symbolically reflecting the principal episodes of sacred history. A detailed analysis of the interaction between these two planes covers the list of personages and their character, the symbolic meaning of different images and developments of the story, spatial and temporal relations, as well as the influence of liturgy. The author comes to the conclusion that Claudel in «L’Annonce faite a Marie» achieves a unique synthesis of genres, reanimating certain features of a Medieval mystery, and in this way continues with his Symbolist drama the centuries-old tradition of Catholic theatre
    Keywords: Claudel, mystery play, Symbolism, New Drama
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hig:wpaper:06/ls/2015&r=his
  13. By: Rui Gonçalves (Centre for Classical and Humanistic Studies)
    Abstract: Departing from the true process of translatio studii that we can find in the own roots of the connection established between philosophy and nature in the bosom of the XIIIth century European thought through the introduction in Paris via the Arabic Spain of works of Aristotle such as Physics, Metaphysics and On the Soul, several questions result pointed out in a new view as they were not since one entire millennium.Among those until then unsuspected topics we could nominate the conciliation between faith and nature, almost unknown before the scholastic age of Saint Thomas Aquinas. According to Saint Peter Damian and his two centuries older dominant precept, only in God would be conceivable the omnipotent entity creative of the universe. In his turn was adopted by Thomas Aquinas the Aristotelian concept of the unmoved mover and he manage to fit it with his famous doctrine of the Five Ways (the “Quinque Viae†from the Summa Theologiae), as an extra manner to explain the substantive nature of God. According to him, not only we could find the divinity in the bosom of nature but also the faculty of locomotion of each different created being was an argument in addition to prove the entire creative work of God.Also the subject arisen by the discussion around the determination of the eternity of world founds support in Master Aquinas in spite of having remained the positions sustained by him on the matter with no solution all along his life. Further themes like the possible intellect and the sensations were sought developed by the Dominican theologian while exploring the Avicenna’s theories concerning the same subject in matter of psychology, maintaining all along of such a process a kind of innovative analysis on matters until then despised or forgetful.When we reach the age of the Jesuit grenadine father Francisco Suárez, and with him the plenitude of the second Spanish scholasticism, it becomes easy to verify that much of these elements crossed to or maintained their importance within this last setting. Among those acquainted as holder of decisive value over the Doctor Eximius we can account ethics, psychology, theodicy and metaphysics. Being perhaps opposed to some conceptualist ideas from the medieval scholastic domain, is due to Suárez the formulation of an authentic anthropocentric theory which was settled in the worry to consider all men as true beings without exception of race and civilization, an approach that made him much more close to the Scottish monk Duns Scotus and the English academic William of Ockham.The way by which we know now having Suárez opened new perspectives to contemporary and future Wiseman (like Descartes, Leibniz, Spinoza and Thomas Hobbes, all from the rationalist century that saw his death in Lisbon, in 1617, after the professorship exerted by him in the University of Coimbra), witnesses us enough a proof of the flows that always travelled over each main epoch of the Aristotelian and Thomistic system of thought from the very beginning of the modern age almost to our days.
    Keywords: Aristotle, Saint Thomas Aquinas, Francisco Suárez, Aristotelianism, Thomism, Second Scholasticism
    Date: 2014–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0201526&r=his
  14. By: Sam Hak Kan Tang (Business School, University of Western Australia); Charles Ka Yui Leung (Department of Economics and Finance, City University of Hong Kong)
    Abstract: We present cross-country evidence that a country’s macroeconomic volatility, measured either by the standard deviation of output growth or the occurrence of trend-growth breaks, is significantly affected by the country’s historical variables. In particular, countries with longer histories of state-level political institutions experience less macroeconomic volatility in post-war periods. In addition, we show that political instability, discretionary fiscal policy, financial underdevelopment, and a lack of foreign direct investment are the main mechanisms by which state history affects the macroeconomic volatility of modern states.
    Date: 2014
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:uwa:wpaper:14-31&r=his
  15. By: Tunde Adeleke (Iowa State University)
    Abstract: From the dawn of the Black experience in America, Africa had played and continues to play, a central role in constructions of countervailing forms/forces of resistance and empowerment. From the early nineteenth century “pioneers of protest†down to the civil and post-civil rights activists, Black Americans have invoked Africa as a critical repertoire of resistance. None more so than Malcolm X (1925-1965). Although he began his activist career in the Nation of Islam, an organization that focused less on Africa as a source of inspiration and strength, Malcolm would, shortly after his break with the NOI, position Africa at the core, and the foundation, for his philosophy of resistance and empowerment for Blacks. In his writings and speeches; and in the movement that he developed for advancing the black struggles, Malcolm X prioritized the African nexus. He advocated broadening the purview of the Black American struggles to include Africa. In his view, Africa offered much of what Black Americans lacked and desperately need in their historic struggles—the moral, cultural, political, and intellectual force and authority that would facilitate black liberation and empowerment in both America and globally.
    Keywords: liberation, resistance, empowerment, hegemony, self-esteem
    Date: 2014–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0801334&r=his
  16. By: Michael McLure (University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: In 1924-25 A. C. Pigou was a member of the “Committee on the Currency and Bank of England Note Issues”, which became known as the ‘Chamberlain-Bradbury’ Committee after its two successive chairmen. The historical context of that report, including Pigou’s highlighting of discussion pertaining to that context, has been presented in Part I of this study. The present paper, which is the Part II of the study, considers Pigou’s reading of the transcripts of interview between the Committee’s members and those appearing before the Committee to give evidence. The contribution of the present part of the study is to examine the ‘transitional’ and ‘ongoing’ issues that Pigou highlighted in a thematically organised manner, with a view to establishing the character of Pigou’s membership of the ‘Chamberlain-Bradbury’ Committee. His reading of the witness testimony suggests a far more cautious and moderate approach to the return to the gold standard than what can be inferred from the bold and urgent recommendations included in the Committee’s report. A likely reason for Pigou unwillingness to oppose the pro-gold position is also presented.
    Date: 2014
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:uwa:wpaper:14-05&r=his
  17. By: Mehlika Ozlem Ultan (Kocaeli University); Serdar Ornek (Kocaeli University)
    Abstract: Many groups such as Jews, Gypsies, Slavs or the homosexuals were labelled as ‘undesirables’ during the Nazi era. Jews Especially were presented as the enemy of the Aryan ‘master race’ according to the Nazi ideology. Even though gypsies continue to face public prejudices and discrimination today, this study will be focused on the situation and the rights of Gypsies before and after the World War II. Gypsies had full and equal rights of citizenship under the Weimar Constitution, but they were still subject to some discriminational laws. When Hitler took power in 1933, anti-Gypsy laws remained in effect. In 1939, 30.000-35.000 people known as ‘Gypsies’ were living in Germany and Austria. In Europe, the situation of Gypsies differed from country to country, depending on local circumstances. For example, in German-occupied Europe, Gypsies were killed, or deported to camps in Germany or eastern Europe. In Croatia, Serbia, Romania and also Hungary, thousands of Gypsies were killed during the 1940s. According to the United Nations Genocide Convention, “Genocide is a coordinated plan to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group by killing, causing serious bodily or mental harm, inflicting conditions designed to bring about its destruction, preventing births within the group, or removing children from the group.†Many genocides have occurred throughout history, but the word Genocide began to be used from the 1940s. ‘Genocide’ became a part of international law, with the 1948 United Nations Convention on Genocide.This study will try to examine the Gypsies, especially the Roma (Porajmos), as victims of genocide, how they were treated during the World War II and were their rights were before and after the Nazi’s these are main questions that will be answered.
    Keywords: Genocide, Gypsies, World War II, Porajmos, United Nations Genocide Convention
    JEL: K33 N94 H56
    Date: 2014–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0901466&r=his
  18. By: Stefano Fenoaltea
    Abstract: This paper presents the second-generation estimates for the Italian engineering industry in 1911, a year documented both by the customary demographic census, and the first industrial census. The first part of this paper uses the census data to estimate the industry’s value added, sector by sector; the second further disaggregates each sector by activity, and estimates the value added, employment, physical product, and metal consumption of each one. A third, concluding section dwells on the dependence of cross-section estimates on time-series evidence. Three appendices detail the specific algorithms that generate the present estimates; a fourth, a useful sample of firm-specific data.
    Keywords: method, engineering, Italy
    JEL: E01 N13 N63
    Date: 2014
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cca:wpaper:373&r=his
  19. By: Stefano Fenoaltea
    Abstract: In the literature the (Italian) engineering industry is seen as one that transformed metal into machines; its time path is inferred from that of its consumption of metal. Newly recovered evidence indicates that far more metal was turned into (traditional) hardware than into (modern) machines. Machine production grew rapidly from a very small base: metal consumption fails to capture this change in the product mix, and understates the growth of new production at constant prices. Moreover, maintenance activity was in general as significant as new production. Maintenance was labor-intensive rather than metal-intensive, trend-dominated rather than cyclical, and relatively larger, next to new production, in 1861 than in 1913: metal consumption overstates the growth rate of the industry’s total product at constant prices, and much overstates its cyclical volatility. Technical progress was negligible in maintenance, but rapid in new production: constant-price-weighted physical measures fail to capture productivity growth, and even late-weighted series overstate the growth of the industry’s real product. These results are not tied to conditions peculiar to pre-War Italy: the new estimates presented here pave the way for emending, or at least reevaluating, the engineering-industry product series reconstructed for other times or places.
    Keywords: method, engineering, Italy
    JEL: E01 N13 N63
    Date: 2014
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cca:wpaper:400&r=his
  20. By: Csaba Berde (University of Debrecen Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development)
    Abstract: Agricultural engineer education at University of Debrecen has more than 140 years’ history. Seven departments were established for the higher agricultural education, launching in 1867. One of them was the Department of Practice. The education of Management and Organization became connected to this Department. It absolutely coincides with the general relationship of managerial thinking, and its development, meaning that management and organization form parts the practice. In the essay we introduce this development process of the 140 years’ old education and research of management. We try to identify similarities with general history of development of managerial science. We emphasize that change of managerial education in Debrecen is identical with development process of former socialist countries of Central-Europe. Practical education and approach turned into applied farm management by the middle of XX. century. In 1950 name of department changed into „Applied Farm Business Departmentâ€. In 1970 the department was called „Labor Organization and Managementâ€, later in 1975 it changed again for „Management and Labor Organizationâ€. It illustrates the change in way of thinking, since primarily labor organization was main stream of education, while later the dominant role of management was identified and acknowledged. This change was also experienced in the field of research beside education. After the change of regime we established Department of Management and Labor Sciences in the beginning of 2000, which later was transformed into a larger Institute. We also introduce that private research conception, which serves as base for a private managerial science program of our Doctoral School, operating in the field of management and organization
    Keywords: management, change, development
    Date: 2014–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0702470&r=his
  21. By: Bruno Rocha; Solomos Solomou
    Abstract: This paper examines the time-profile of the impact of systemic banking crises on GDP and industrial production using a panel of 24 countries over the inter-war period and compares this to the post-war experience of these countries. We show that banking crises have effects that induce medium-term adjustments on economies. Focusing on an eight-year horizon, it is clear that the negative effects of systemic banking crises last over the entirety of this time-horizon. The effect has been identified for GDP and industrial production. The adverse effect on the industrial sector stands out as being substantially larger in magnitude relative to the macroeconomic effect. Comparing the results across long-run historical periods for the same selection of countries and variables identifies some differences that stand out: the short term macroeconomic impact effects are much larger in the post-war period, suggesting that the propagation channels of shocks operate at a faster pace in the more recent period. Moreover, the time-profile of effects differs, suggesting that modern policies may be modulating the temporal shape of the response to banking crises shocks. However, the broad magnitude of the adverse effect of banking crises remains comparable across these time periods.
    Keywords: Local projections, Banking crises, Financial crises, Economic History, Inter-war.
    JEL: E6 N0 N2 G01
    Date: 2015–03–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cam:camdae:1503&r=his
  22. By: Ledion Krisafi (European University of Tirana, PhD candidate in International Relations)
    Abstract: During the years 1945 to 1948 Yugoslavia had an enormous impact and influence on Albania’s economy and economical development. This influence went so far as we can say that Albania and Yugoslavia in those years were economically united. They had a common currency, common custom unions, common economic plans. In those years they signed a lot of treaties between them to further their close economic relations. This close economic relationship between Albania and Yugoslavia was not based on real economic interests between two countries, but on ideological interests. The albanian government didn’t wish to have economic relations with Italy or other european countries, or even the United States, as it had been before the Second World War, but it preferred other communist countries and the one willing to help was Yugoslavia. The albanian government repeatedly considered this relationship as a democratic and sincere economic relationship between the two countries which aimed at helping the people and not just the foreigners who invested in albania, and it contrasted it with the so called imperialistic economic relationship that Albania had before the Second World War with Italy which aimed at using Albania’s natural resources without helping the common people. This economic relationship ended in 1948 because according to the albanian government, this relationship was not anymore democratic and sincere.
    Keywords: Albania, Yugoslavia, economy, ideology, communism, imperialism.
    Date: 2014–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0100828&r=his
  23. By: Peter Csanyi (Alexander Dubcek University of Trencin)
    Abstract: The goal of this paper is to describe and analyze the theories of political organization of Central Europe during the interwar period, especially from the Czechoslovak perspectives. Some connections between the European integration process, and a national and a civil identity are outlined, in particular the problems of the Central European national states in the process of the European integration. The discourse on the Central Europe is one of the most difficult, because it has many aspects: political, cultural, philosophical, historical, religious, ethnic, psychological and economic.Small states, such as the interwar Czechoslovak Republic was, depend on their surroundings. They do not have enough power to enforce a balance of power favorable to themselves. If they originated as an expression of a temporary state of the balance of power, they are condemned to dissolution. Some representatives of the Czech and Slovak nations attempted to understand and confront these realities with a practical policy. I guess that if we want to understand these theorists and politicians, it will be important to know and understand the view of Central Europe, which they represent.The most of the integration projects of 1920s and 1930s reflect the fear of economic and political strengthening of Germany, optimistic hope of democratization of the USSR, and seeking for allies in the Central European region.
    Keywords: Central Europe, political organization, theories, Czechoslovak perspectives, nation
    Date: 2014–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0902984&r=his
  24. By: Xueping Hu (Harbin Engineering university)
    Abstract: In the democratic history, there are inner conflicts always between democratic institution and democratic ideal. It is due to the inherent ideal dimension of democracy that each democratic society is inherent imbalanced regardless of which in history or in reality.Mihailo Marlcovic,the philosopher of Yugoslavia Praxis Group, in the view of constructing people’s genuine relationship,he reflected upon what the connotation of democratic ideal is.He argued the deviation between the democratic institution and the democratic ideal, as well as the hazard of this deviation.At the same time; he explored the possible ways to integrate these two democratic dimensions. His research is a significant contribution to nowaday democratic society’s development.
    Keywords: Democracy Ideal ,Institution ,Human emancipation
    JEL: P39
    Date: 2014–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0701150&r=his
  25. By: Emine Özel (Dumlupinar University)
    Abstract: Turkish history that expands over very broad lands and long periods of time is explained in the history topics in elementary grade six and seven in the social studies curriculum. To handle educational difficulties caused by this situation, educational technologies possessing many teaching strategies and concurrently addressing many sensory organs should be used. The aim of this research is to determine, aligned the views of students, grade six and seven social studies teachers’ circumstances of the usage of educational technologies during the instruction of history topics in the scope of subject of social studies. For this purpose, 452 grade six and seven students attending the schools in Kutahya city center in the educational year of 2011-2012 were surveyed. In thıs research, it has been found that grade six and seven social studies teachers make no distinction between grade six and seven when using technological tools that, as compared to public schools, various technology is used more often in private schools, that the majority of the students find the use of technology in education beneficial, that an important portion of the teachers use technological tools occasionally in the teaching of history and that projectors, printers and photocopy machines are the most desired tools that students want to be used the most.
    Keywords: Social Studies, History Chapters, Teaching Technologies, Teaching Technologies of Social Studies.
    Date: 2014–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0301827&r=his
  26. By: Hans Christian Garmann Johnsen (University of Agder)
    Abstract: This article argues that despite the fact that the concept of knowledge and is much discussed, it is underdeveloped in economic theory. It discusses this in relation to three dominant positions in economics; the Neoclassical, Institutional and Austrian. Of the three, the Austrian is the position that has gone deepest into the study of knowledge. However, not even the Austrian position has fully explored how knowledge development can be integrated into its theory. It is therefore argued that economic theory should embrace a broader understanding of knowledge, which draws upon a cross-disciplinary approach and takes into account that knowledge is inherently both a subjective, social and complex phenomenon.
    Keywords: knowledge in economics, economic theory
    Date: 2014–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0702777&r=his
  27. By: Phillip Edmund Metaxas (University of Western Australia); Ernst Juerg Weber (University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: This paper details the origin and development of the dependent economy model. The model is also known as the ‘Australian model’ and the ‘Salter-Swan-Corden-Dornbusch model’, but neither title adequately conveys the scope and sequence of contributions that were instrumental to its development. In particular, attention is given to indispensable contributions made by renowned Australian public servant Sir Roland Wilson and British economist James Meade, which preceded those of Trevor Swan, Wilfred Salter, W. Max Corden and Rudiger Dornbusch. It is shown that Wilson and Meade laid much of the theoretical groundwork ahead of the contributions of Swan, Salter, Corden and Dornbusch. Each contribution is analysed in detail and the model’s development is placed in the broader context of the evolution of balance of payments theory. The paper sheds light on several underappreciated (or perhaps unknown) facets of the model and, principally, highlights a broader Australian contribution to international trade theory inherent in it, namely, the identification of the real exchange rate as the critical relative price in balance of payments adjustment.
    Date: 2014
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:uwa:wpaper:14-02&r=his
  28. By: Pavel Potuzak (University of Economics, Prague)
    Abstract: The doctrine of price level stabilization is one of the most important building blocks in modern macroeconomics. In 1920s and 1930s, Friedrich August von Hayek presented a theory that challenged this monetary-policy regime. Hayek stressed that attempts to stabilize the price level in the situation of a growing natural output might cause serious injection effects leading the economy to a boom-bust cycle. This article compares the Hayek theory with the New Keynesian doctrines. A simple graphical model is used to elucidate differences between the two theories. It is suggested that a declining price level might be a normal response of the price system in the expanding economy because the New Keynesian arguments stressing price rigidities may be of lower significance when the deflation in prices is caused by technological progress.
    Keywords: Price level stabilization, business cycle, natural rate of interest
    JEL: E42 B25 B53
    Date: 2014–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0902921&r=his
  29. By: Osman AKANDERE (Necmettin Erbakan UNIVERSITY)
    Abstract: The Turkish nation, State, and National cooperation with them in Fighting the invading Armenia and the Greeks against the East, South, and West had to battle fronts. All these fronts was taken prisoner as soldiers of the warring parties.Greek prisoners other than prisoners of war, in agreement with the national struggle to be released were provided. Greek warfare during the Lausanne Conference, while prisoners of Greece and Turkey as a mutual release of prisoners signed the contract for the garrison and the prisoner were created, ranging from the battalion are in.Both the number and the Greek prisoners of war have to Greece in the hands of the Turkish prisoners of war captured in the presence of senior generals and officers, plus a large number of civilian population is to take place, the parties to the issue of prisoners has led to pay attention. It's not just the Governments of the warring States, Greek and Turkish Red Crescent Red Cross to prisoners of war, he has worked closely with the State concerned. This community are put forward claims and reports prepared by international Red Cross Committee have complained about each other with. Therefore, the International Committee of the Red Cross from time to time in both countries, in order to make an inspection of the camp experts remained in post. Indeed, in 1922 and in 1923, various inspection delegations, including the Greek prisoners of war camps were sent to Turkey to review.We are the prisoners of the Greek warfare in Turkey this study regarding the status "prisoners were treated badly and is in difficult conditions of the prisoners" to what extent the Greek Red Cross claims is correct, commissioned by the International Committee of the Red Cross in Geneva to investigate Burnier-Burckhardt and his delegation, for their inspection visits and in Anatolia, it will consider the report and prepared
    Keywords: The national struggle, the Greek prisoners of war, the International Committee of the Red Cross, Inspection Visits, the report
    Date: 2014–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0702338&r=his
  30. By: Leema Rose (Sirte University)
    Abstract: Women's oppression is the most widespread and the deepest form of oppression in society. The world of women, as Simone de Beauvoir observes, "is everywhere enclosed, limited, dominated by the male universe; high as she may raise herself, far as she may venture, there will always be a ceiling over her head, walls that will block her way". Women all over the world, like the colonized subjects, have been relegated to the position of the "other" "marginalized" and in a metaphorical sense "colonized" by various forms of patriarchal domination as they share with colonized races and cultures an intimate experience of the politics of oppression and repression. Based on this assumption of inferior position, women are called the "subalterns". The issues agitating women belonging to different cultures are different.There are two special voices shouting in the wilderness for liberation-- the Dalit woman in India and the Black woman in America, who are under the triple subjugation of caste or race, gender and class. It is therefore imperative to isolate the problems specific to these triple-subjugated women and work for their empowerment. The Dalit woman writer Bama's stories and the African-American woman writer Alice Walker's stories demonstrate how the material reality of different groups of women can lead to very different perceptions of the nature of political struggle. All the different schools of Feminist thought have a particular way of characterizing freedom or liberation. In the case of Womanist thought, the emphasis is on the full self-development of woman but there is also recognition that women are all involved with families, communities, political entities and other groups that affect their progress in important ways. Dalit Feminism, on the other hand, underscores the relevance of the histories of colonialism on the national front and stories of male hegemony on the familial front. Hence, this paper focuses on Dalit Feminism and American Black Womanism.
    Keywords: Dalit Feminism, Black Womanism, Subaltern, Colonialism, Hegemony, Triple-subjugation.
    Date: 2014–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0100872&r=his
  31. By: Elif Akben Selcuk (Kadir Has University)
    Abstract: Financial education programs that are being conducted in many countries are relatively new. Therefore, literature on financial literacy is also a developing field which has not yet reached maturity. This paper provides a review current research on financial literacy and identifies gaps in the literature. The paper begins by discussing attempts to define financial literacy. The three dimensions of the financial literacy -financial knowledge, financial attitudes, and financial behavior- are discussed in detail and the interrelationships between these three dimensions are presented. The impact of financial knowledge on attitudes and on actual financial behavior is given special emphasis. Second, literature on the measurement of financial literacy is presented including attempts to come up with a financial literacy scale with desirable psychometric properties. Then, research on determinants of financial literacy is reviewed. Demographic and socio-economic variables as well as psychological and motivational factors are reviewed as potential determinants of financial literacy. The impact of financial literacy on financial well-being, retirement savings, or credit card debt is also discussed. Studies focusing on retirees, working adults, and students are separately presented. Finally, financial education efforts in several countries are discussed and findings from developed and developing countries are compared. The paper concludes with policy recommendations and suggestions for further research.
    Keywords: financial literacy; financial education; financial research
    JEL: D14 D12
    Date: 2014–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0200625&r=his
  32. By: Natalia Konovalova (Riga International School of Economics and Business Administration (RISEBA))
    Abstract: The methods of situation analysis are used more and more in the learning process in present time. Case study method takes an important place in teaching of students. When studying such subject matters as corporate finance and banking, the decision and discussion of case study becomes an effective method of assimilation of the gained knowledge, allows students to concentrate on the arisen real problem from practical activities, independently to study it, and then to offer possible versions of its decision. One of important problems in the financial and bank sphere is existence of outstanding debts which demand creation of provisions, and, therefore, increase banks’ expenses. It negatively affects financial result of commercial banks, and banks either receive less profit, or sustain losses. On the other hand, borrowers who freely obtained the credits during the pre-crisis period faced a problem of insolvency and can't fulfill the obligations for payment of the credit. It generates a problem, both in the sphere of corporate finance, and in the banking sector. Therefore considering really arisen problem situation between bank and the borrower, students are to have preliminary knowledge of the analysis of financial statements of the enterprise, skills of calculation and an assessment of financial performance (liquidity, financial stability, business activity, profitability). Besides, students need to possess skills of bank management to estimate correctly a situation in the bank, to have skills of credit policy implementation, of provision creation on the overdue credits, as well as to make decisions on restructuring of the credits.The purpose of the academic research is demonstration of the concrete problem situation which has arisen between bank and the borrower in the period of financial crisis, and the offer of possible versions of the solution of an exit from the created problem situation. In article the long-term period of cooperation of the borrower and bank (2004 - 2013) is considered, stages of their interaction during the pre-crisis period, the period of crisis and during the post-crisis period are described. Therefore for the decision of this case study students are to have skills in the sphere of economy, the financial analysis, corporate finance, banking and bank management.
    Keywords: Case study method, Banking, Management, Corporate finance, Students’ skills
    JEL: G21 E49
    Date: 2014–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:0702443&r=his

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