New Economics Papers
on Business, Economic and Financial History
Issue of 2012‒06‒13
27 papers chosen by

  1. British economists on competition policy (1890-1920) By Giocoli, Nicola
  2. "Productivity Change and Mine Dynamics: The Coal Industry in Japan during and after World War II" By Tetsuji Okazaki
  3. The implicit theory of historical change in the work of Alan S. Milward By Fernando Guirao; Frances M. B. Lynch
  4. State capacity and military conflict By Nicola Gennaioli; Joachim Voth
  5. A macroeconomic analysis of the land market in the count of Flanders and the duchy of Brabant. (fifteenth and sixteenth century) By De Vijlder, Nicolas
  6. Provincial grain yields in Spain, 1750-2009 By Carlos Santiago-Caballero
  7. Amateur or professional? A new look at 19th century. patentees in Norway By Basberg, Bjørn L.
  8. Property Rights and Early Colonization in Algeria: The Astonishing Travel Stories of Two Precursors, Tocqueville (1837, 1841) and Juglar (1853) By Claude Diebolt; Antoine Parent
  9. Careers and Wages in the Dutch East India Company By Claudia Rei
  10. The Development of Trade Union theory and Mainstream Economic Methodology By Drakopoulos, Stavros A.; Katselidis, Ioannis
  11. Workforce Reductions in Theory and Practice: The Swedish Tobacco Monopoly in the 1920s By Karlsson, Tobias
  12. Warfare, Fiscal Capacity, and Performance By Dincecco, Mark; Prado, Mauricio
  13. The evolution of the toponyms in the Şureanu mountains viewed on cartographic sources By Putan, Roxana; Cretan, Remus
  14. Schooling supply and the structure of production: Evidence from US States 1950-1990 By Antonio Ciccone; Giovanni Peri
  15. Why price inflation in developed countries is systematically underestimated By Ivan Kitov
  16. The Extraordinary Art Critic Roger de Piles (1635-1709): An Empirical Analysis of his Rankings and Sale Prices By Kathryn Graddy
  17. Education, Experience, and Tenure: Intra-FirmWage Dynamics in the Japanese Steel Industry By NAKABAYASHI, Masaki
  18. Foreign banks, corporate strategy and financial stability: lessons from the river plate By Michael Brei; Carlos Winograd
  20. Citation Success Over Time: Theory or Empirics? By David W. Johnston; Marco Piatti; Benno Torgler
  21. Qu'est-ce qu'une théorie en comptabilité ? By Marc Nikitin; Aurélien Ragaigne
  22. Economics and the Public Sphere By Erik S. Reinert
  23. The Samurai Company: Double Creative Response in Meiji Japan —The Case of Onoda Cement By Yonekura, Seiichiro
  25. Tributación en Colombia y los orígenes de su brecha impositiva, 1821-1920. By Isidro Hernández Rodríguez.
  26. L'évolution d'une profession comptable globale: Une étude comparative historique en quelques pays européens By C. Richard Baker
  27. Revisiting Wal-Mart’s Impact on Iowa Small Town Retail: Twenty-Five Years Later By Stone, Kenneth E.; Artz, Georgeanne M.

  1. By: Giocoli, Nicola
    Abstract: Most late 19th-century US economists gave a rather cool welcome to the Sherman Act (1890) and, though less harshly, to the Clayton and FTC Acts (1914). A large literature has identified several explanations for this surprising attitude, calling into play the relation between big business and competition, a non-neoclassical notion of competition and a weak understanding of anti-competitive practices. Much less investigated is the reaction of British economists to the passing of antitrust statutes in the U.S. What we know is simply that none of them (including the top dog, Alfred Marshall) championed the adoption of a law-based competition policy during the three decades (1890-1920) of most intense antitrust debates in the U.S. The position of three prominent British economists will be examined in this paper: H.S. Foxwell, D.H. MacGregor, and, of course, Alfred Marshall – the latter in two moments at the extremes of our period, 1890 and 1919. It will turn out that they all shared with their American colleagues a theoretical and operational skepticism about the government and judiciary interference with the free working of markets. They also believed that British industrial structure and business habits were so different from those in the U.S. that the urge of interfering with markets in order to preserve competition was much weaker. Among the paper's insights is that Marshall’s key concept of “defending a competitor’s right to compete” foreran the modern characterization of the goal of competition policy as "the protection of the competitive process". Yet Marshall developed his concept without making recourse to the post-1930s neoclassical notion of competition as a static market structure which lies at the foundation of most contemporary antitrust policy: a useful lesson from the history of economic thought for those IO economists who still claim that the classical dynamic view of competition is unsuited as a foundation for an effective competition policy.
    Keywords: British economists; antitrust law; Sherman Act; Alfred Marshall
    JEL: B21 B31 K21 L40
    Date: 2012–05–30
  2. By: Tetsuji Okazaki (Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo)
    Abstract: In the 1930s and 1940s, the Japanese coal industry experienced huge ups and downs of labor productivity as well as production. In this paper, I explored the micro-aspects of productivity change in the coal industry using mine-level data compiled from official statistics and the original documents of the Coal Control Association. The coal industry in this period was characterized by dynamic changes in market structure. While a number of mines entered and exited the industry, shares of incumbent mines also changed substantially. These mine dynamics had substantial productivity implications. In the early stage of the war, many low productivity mines entered the industry, which reduced average productivity considerably. On the other hand, the government and the Coal Control Association implemented a policy to concentrate productive resources and production on efficient mines during the war, which helped raise average productivity. In a deteriorating environment, coal production in Japan was maintained fairly well during the war. One of the conditions that made it possible was the policy of resource reallocation.
    Date: 2012–05
  3. By: Fernando Guirao; Frances M. B. Lynch
    Abstract: Alan S. Milward was an economic historian who developed an implicit theory of historical change. His interpretation which was neither liberal nor Marxist posited that social, political, and economic change, for it to be sustainable, had to be a gradual process rather than one resulting from a sudden, cataclysmic revolutionary event occurring in one sector of the economy or society. Benign change depended much less on natural resource endowment or technological developments than on the ability of state institutions to respond to changing political demands from within each society. State bureaucracies were fundamental to formulating those political demands and advising politicians of ways to meet them. Since each society was different there was no single model of development to be adopted or which could be imposed successfully by one nation-state on others, either through force or through foreign aid programs. Nor could development be promoted simply by copying the model of a more successful economy. Each nation-state had to find its own response to the political demands arising from within its society. Integration occurred when a number of nation– states shared similar political objectives which they could not meet individually but could meet collectively. It was not simply the result of their increasing interdependence. It was how and whether nation-states responded to these domestic demands which determined the nature of historical change.
    Keywords: historical change,development,World Wars,Third Reich,Blitzkrieg,New Order,Vichy,Fascism,Grossraumwirtschaft,German question,reconstruction,golden age,integration,supranationality,Bretton Woods
    JEL: B23 B31 F02 F13 N01 N14 O10 O24 P16 Q18
    Date: 2011–10
  4. By: Nicola Gennaioli; Joachim Voth
    Abstract: In 1500, Europe was composed of hundreds of statelets and principalities, with weak central authority, no monopoly over the legitimate use of violence, and multiple, overlapping levels of jurisdiction. By 1800, Europe had consolidated into a handful of powerful, centralized nation states. We build a model that simultaneously explains both the emergence of capable states and growing divergence between European powers. In our model, the impact of war on the European state system depends on: i) the importance of money for determining the war outcome (which stands for the cost of war), and ii) a country's initial level of domestic political fragmentation. We emphasize the role of the "Military Revolution", which raised the cost of war. Initially, this caused more internally cohesive states to invest more in state capacity, while other (more divided) states rationally dropped out of the competition. This mechanism leads to both increasing divergence between European states, and greater average investments in state building on the continent overall.
    Keywords: state capacity, war, military revolution, taxation, political economy
    JEL: H10 H20 H56 H60 N43 O10
    Date: 2011–11
  5. By: De Vijlder, Nicolas
    Abstract: The rise of factor markets during the transition from the middle ages into the early modern was of crucial importance for long term economic growth. The transmission of property through the market however remains understudied, especially in the Southern Low Countries. In this paper we construct a formal model to analyse the land market both at the regional and interregional level. We found that regional variations in land prices within Brabant and Flanders can for a large part be explained by differences in future net revenues. A similar economic rationality determined land prices at the local level. Further more, evidence showed that while short-term inter-temporal price fluctuations could occur, overall price levels in the fifteenth century were stable. During the sixteenth century however, deflated land prices rose markedly. While the former fluctuations were due to short-term shock, the persistent price rise in the latter period was caused by structural changes. Overall, our research yields two conclusions. First, economic rationality seemed to drive price formation on both the regional and interregional level. Second, the increased availability of credit from the late fifteenth century onwards consistently drove real prices upwards. Further research is necessary to find out whether credit was a push of pull factor in this respect.
    Keywords: land markets; Flanders; Brabant; macroeconomic analysis; early modern history; property distribution; agriculture
    JEL: N0 N13 N93
    Date: 2012–06–06
  6. By: Carlos Santiago-Caballero
    Abstract: This paper estimates the yields for five grains in 33 provinces of Spain in the mid-18th century. The results show that yields were higher in the north of the country, and that the most fertile provinces of Spain were not far behind the most advanced agricultural regions of the world. Average wheat yields in Spain remained stagnant between 1750 and the late 19th century when they doubled, only to remain stagnant again until the modernisation of the primary sector in the 1960s. Our results show that, in the very long run, yields between provinces tended to converge, and this was the case until the 1960s when the traditional differences in provincial yields began to disappear. The use of artificial fertilisers or new wheat strains were key improvements that helped low yield provinces to break with severe natural constraints such as lack of rainfall or low-quality soils.
    Keywords: Yields, Agriculture, Grain, Convergence
    JEL: N33 N34 N53 N54
    Date: 2012–02
  7. By: Basberg, Bjørn L. (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: The paper analyses Norwegian 19th century patentees. A special focus is on the affiliation or relationship of the patentees to the manufacturing industries, business and the wider economy. A main question is whether the inventors were what might be called ‘amateurs’ working independently, or ‘professionals’ working closer to firms or institutions. A main finding is that even the individual patentees, that comprised the majority of all patentees, had strong associations with industry, and the distinction between ‘professionals’ and ‘amateurs’ is not all that useful.
    Keywords: Industrial breakthrough; Norway; patentees; patents; professional inventors.
    JEL: N63 N73 O31 O34
    Date: 2012–04–26
  8. By: Claude Diebolt (BETA, UMR 7522, Université de Strasbourg & Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.); Antoine Parent (BETA, UMR 7522, Université de Lorraine.)
    Date: 2012
  9. By: Claudia Rei (Department of Economics, Vanderbilt University)
    Abstract: In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, inter-continental trade brought with it a novel form of organizing business: the multinational firm. Headquartered in Europe and operating in Asia, the success of the East India Companies depended largely on the management of overseas outposts, as well as their labor force. Using a dataset of 115 workers hired in Europe to work in Asia, I present the internal structure of civil servants careers and wages in the Dutch East India Company in the eighteenth century. This early modern firm mimics well current theories of internal labor markets: there are stable career paths, fast tracks in promotions, and sizable returns to tenure.
    Keywords: Merchant empires, careers, returns to tenure
    JEL: J31 N33
    Date: 2012–05
  10. By: Drakopoulos, Stavros A.; Katselidis, Ioannis
    Abstract: The pre-war approaches to trade unions were mainly based on the theoretical and methodological viewpoints of early institutional economics. Trade unions were conceived of as politico-economic organizations whose members were motivated by relative comparisons and also were concerned with issues of equity and justice. In the post-war period, there was a major theoretical and methodological shift towards the idea of unions as optimizing economic units with well-defined objective functions which are optimized subject to purely economic constraints. This conceptual transformation took place mainly through the Dunlop-Ross debate, in which John Dunlop conceived unions as analogous to business firms, which was contrary to Arthur Ross’ institutional and political approach. The emerging post war mainstream methodological framework with its mathematical formalism and the exclusion of sociological, political and psychological elements from economic analysis was the main reason for the prevalence of Dunlop’s ideas. However, after decades of analytical developments, the current state of trade union theory has not produced very impressive theoretical results.The paper traces the historical development of the economic analysis of the trade unions from a methodological perspective. It examines the methodological reasons for the dominance of Dunlop’s approach and also the current state of, and the contemporary criticism towards, the established theory. Furthermore, it discusses the contemporary efforts to build a more comprehensive approach to trade union theory and to trade union objectives, also incorporating Ross’ institutional and political insights.
    Keywords: Trade Union Theory; Economic Methodology
    JEL: B0 J50
    Date: 2012–06
  11. By: Karlsson, Tobias
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to clarify and discuss the various ways firms can make workforce reductions. This aim is accomplished by an in-depth study of an historical case; the downsizing process undertaken in the 1920s by the Swedish Tobacco Monopoly, a state-owned company that had to balance between rational business conduct and social responsibility. The paper makes use of qualitative sources, such as board minutes and memos, and a database covering all blue-collar workers in one of the company’s factories. The paper adresses conceptual questions concerning how to theoretically and empirically distinguish between various reduction strategies and tactics. Its main contribution is to move beyond the simple characterization of reductions as being either smooth or harsh and instead emphasize the multitude of management choices involved in reducing headcount and, consequently, the diversity of downsizing processes.
    Keywords: personnel management; workforce reductions; downsizing; tobacco industry; Sweden; inter-war period
    JEL: D21 N8 J63 J21 J65 L66 J53
    Date: 2012–06–05
  12. By: Dincecco, Mark; Prado, Mauricio
    Abstract: We exploit differences in casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to estimate the impact of fiscal capacity on economic performance. In the past, states fought different amounts of external conflicts, of various lengths and magnitudes. To raise the revenues to wage wars, states made fiscal innovations, which persisted and helped to shape current fiscal institutions. Economic historians claim that greater fiscal capacity was the key long-run institutional change brought about by historical conflicts. Using casualties sustained in pre-modern wars to instrument for current fiscal institutions, we estimate substantial impacts of fiscal capacity on GDP per worker. The results are robust to a broad range of specifications, controls, and sub-samples.
    Keywords: pre-modern wars; fiscal capacity; public services; worker productivity
    JEL: H11 O43 N40
    Date: 2012–03–12
  13. By: Putan, Roxana; Cretan, Remus
    Abstract: Şureanu Mountains are situated in the south-west of Transylvania, belonging to the Carpathians. The region had been represented on cartographic documents since old times, but detailed maps were made beginning with the Habsburg period. The aim of our study is to display the evolution of cartographic elements exposed on several maps from the 18th century till nowadays. The toponyms reflecting settlements, roads, rivers and landforms have been changed from one cartographic edition to another due to the language on which the documents were written in Transylvania, each dominant administration (Austrian, Hungarian, Romanian) influencing the toponymy of these places. We also analyzed space changes of settlements, routes of transports and valleys in order to show differences in the stages of economic development of the studied mountain region.
    Keywords: Şureanu Mountains; Carpathians; toponyms; cartographic sources; territorial changes; settlements
    JEL: N93 Z19
    Date: 2010–02–03
  14. By: Antonio Ciccone; Giovanni Peri
    Abstract: We find that over the period 1950-1990, US states absorbed increases in the supply of schooling due to tighter compulsory schooling and child labor laws mostly through within-industry increases in the schooling intensity of production. Shifts in the industry composition towards more schooling-intensive industries played a less important role. To try and understand this finding theoretically, we consider a free trade model with two goods/industries, two skill types, and many regions that produce a fixed range of differentiated varieties of the same goods. We find that a calibrated version of the model can account for shifts in schooling supply being mostly absorbed through within-industry increases in the schooling intensity of production even if the elasticity of substitution between varieties is substantially higher than estimates in the literature.
    Keywords: Schooling supply, Within-industry absorption, Industry composition
    JEL: F1 J3 R1
    Date: 2011–11
  15. By: Ivan Kitov
    Abstract: There is an extensive historical dataset on real GDP per capita prepared by Angus Maddison. This dataset covers the period since 1870 with continuous annual estimates in developed countries. All time series for individual economies have a clear structural break between 1940 and 1950. The behavior before 1940 and after 1950 can be accurately (R2 from 0.7 to 0.99) approximated by linear time trends. The corresponding slopes of regressions lines before and after the break differ by a factor of 4 (Switzerland) to 19 (Spain). We have extrapolated the early trends into the second interval and obtained much lower estimates of real GDP per capita in 2011: from 2.4 (Switzerland) to 5.0 (Japan) times smaller than the current levels. When the current linear trends are extrapolated into the past, they intercept the zero line between 1908 (Switzerland) and 1944 (Japan). There is likely an internal conflict between the estimating procedures before 1940 and after 1950. A reasonable explanation of the discrepancy is that the GDP deflator in developed countries has been highly underestimated since 1950. In the USA, the GDP deflator is underestimated by a factor of 1.4. This is exactly the ratio of the interest rate controlled by the Federal Reserve and the rate of inflation. Hence, the Federal Reserve actually retains its interest rate at the level of true price inflation when corrected for the bias in the GDP deflator.
    Date: 2012–06
  16. By: Kathryn Graddy (Department of Economics, Brandeis University)
    Abstract: Roger de Piles (1635-1709) was a French art critic who decomposed the style and ability of each artist into areas of composition, drawing, color and expression, rating each on a 20 point scale. Based on evidence from two datasets that together span from the mid-eighteenth century to the present, this paper shows that de Piles’ four characteristics are each both currently and historically correlated with prices achieved at auction. The effect of de Piles’ drawing characteristic on price has steadily decreased over the period 1736-1960 while the effect of de Piles’ color characteristic appears to have increased over the same period. De Piles’ overall ratings have also withstood the test of a very long period of time, with estimates indicating that the works of his higher-rated artists achieved a greater return than his lower rated artists. The annual returns of all artists that he rated achieved comparable returns to other art indices.
    Date: 2012–05
  17. By: NAKABAYASHI, Masaki (Education, Experience, and Tenure: Intra-FirmWage Dynamics in the Japanese Steel Industry)
    Abstract: Contemporary major Japanese firms recruit new graduates and promote from within, providing a rare example of the gports of entryh policy, and were once recognized as innovative organizations. This microanalysis of a steel company in the 1930-60s shows that 1) the internal labor market had been enhanced, but 2) mid-career recruiting was active and employeesf fertility decision depended on previous experience as well as tenure B3by the 1960s, while 3) the return on education surged and in-house training was linked to educational background from the 1950s, indicating that extended schooling replaced mid-career experience after the 1970s under technology-education complementarity.
    Keywords: employer Internal labor markets; return on schooling; specific human capital; Japan.
    JEL: J31 J24 N35
    Date: 2011–09
  18. By: Michael Brei (EconomiX - CNRS : UMR7166 - Université Paris X - Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense); Carlos Winograd (EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, Université d'Evry - Val d'Essonne - Université d'Evry - Val d'Essonne, PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris - INRA)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the risk taking of branches and subsidiaries of international bank holding institutions from the perspective of host country regulators in two Latin American financial systems: Argentina and Uruguay. Using both theory and empirics, we analyze differences in the risk attitudes of these institutions in the run up to the major financial crises of 2001-02. The empirical part of this paper is based on a rich bank-level dataset on corporate structures, balance sheets, and ownership of banks. We find that foreign banks branches have taken on fewer risks than subsidiaries and relate this to differences in the legal responsibility of parent banks. This research not only shows original results concerning banks corporate strategies in the face of country risk, but also contributes to the debate on appropriate banking regulation.
    Keywords: Financial Crises ; Argentina ; Uruguay ; Bank Corporate
    Date: 2012–06
  19. By: Yves Levant (LEM - Lille - Economie et Management - CNRS : UMR8179 - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et Technologies - Fédération Universitaire et Polytechnique de Lille); Henri Zimnovitch (PESOR - Université Paris XI - Paris Sud)
    Abstract: L'imputation des charges indirectes est un des problèmes majeurs du calcul de coût dont nombreux travaux historiques ont éclairé l'évolution. En s'intéressant aux solutions qui furent proposées en France sur la période qui va de 1914 aux années 1950, l'article montre qu'il s'agit à chaque fois de trouver un équilibre entre trois exigences : un souci de précision, un besoin d'opérationnalité pour le personnel administratif et comptable, une intelligibilité pour les dirigeants et ingénieurs qui décident du modèle qui sera installé dans leur entreprise. Le rôle des différentes méthodes d'équivalence qui furent imaginées entre 1914 et les années 1950 permet de vérifier les termes de ce compromis. Pour comprendre les raisons qui ont conduit à l'émergence de ces nouvelles méthodes, les profonds changements idéologiques, politiques, économiques et sociaux, survenus alors, sont rappelés en soulignant leur influence sur les fonctions qui étaient assignés au coût. Au-delà de ces forces, l'article montre le déterminisme logique mais aussi la part des individus dans cette histoire de l'allocation des frais généraux.
    Keywords: Histoire, calcul des coûts, charges indirectes, méthodes d'équivalence, France.
    Date: 2012
  20. By: David W. Johnston; Marco Piatti; Benno Torgler
    Abstract: This study investigates the citation patterns of theoretical and empirical papers over a period of almost 30 years, while also exploring the determinants of citation success. The results indicate that empirical papers attract more citation success than theoretical studies. However, the pattern over time is very similar with yearly mean citations peaking after around 4 years. Moreover, among empirical papers it appears that the cross-country studies are more successful than single country studies focusing on North America data or other regions.
    Keywords: Citations; Theory, Empirics; Cross-Country; North America
    JEL: A11 B40 C0 N01 Z0
    Date: 2012–06
  21. By: Marc Nikitin (LOG - Laboratoire Orléanais de Gestion - Université d'Orléans); Aurélien Ragaigne (CEREGE - CEntre de REcherche en GEstion - Université de Poitiers : EA1722 - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Poitiers)
    Abstract: L'examen des résumés et titres de 906 articles parus dans les meilleures revues de comptabilité nous a permis d'entrevoir quelques caractéristiques de ces recherches : la " préoccupation théoricienne " est présente depuis le début de la période étudiée (1990). Son accroissement est sensible et régulier depuis la fin des années 1990. Les théories auxquelles ces articles renvoient offrent l'aspect d'une grande diversité d'appellations d'une part, mais également d'une diversité d'acception du mot " théorie " d'autre part. À tel point qu'une démarche typologique partant de la liste des théories mentionnées semble particulièrement délicate et hasardeuse. Dans une démarche exploratoire, nous proposons d'emprunter aux études littéraires la notion de 'genre' et d'en faire un critère pour élaborer une typologie des théories (ou méta théories) présentes dans les recherches en comptabilité. Nous examinons plus en détail l'un de ces genres.
    Keywords: Théorie comptable ; genres littéraires
    Date: 2012
  22. By: Erik S. Reinert
    Abstract: This paper identifies four different periods (1848, 1890s - partly also 1930s - and neoliberalism today) where the same tendencies recur: a Rise of Academic Monoculture (of esoteric knowledge), Refeudalization (tendencies towards a plutocracy), Crisis and Renewal. These sequences and their recurrence define the changing relationship between economics and the public sphere, and it is only through activities in the public sphere that any renewal will take place.
    Date: 2012–05
  23. By: Yonekura, Seiichiro
    Date: 2012–05
  24. By: Dragos Zelinschi (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - Université de Nantes : EA4272)
    Abstract: En Roumanie, la professionnalisation de la comptabilité, menée par l'élite des anciens élèves des écoles de commerce, aboutit à l'adoption en 1921 d'une des législation les plus favorables d'Europe. Par la suite, dans les années 1920, malgré un monopole sanctionné par voie légale, l'élite des professionnels, désormais regroupée au sein du Corps des comptables, doit continuer son mouvement, car elle se confronte à de nombreuses difficultés : intégration de certaines catégories de praticiens, définition du champ d'expertise, concurrence des comptables non membres etc. Sa stratégie subit des modifications, dues essentiellement au changement de statut de la comptabilité, qui devient une véritable profession organisée et reconnue
    Keywords: professionnalisation, clôture sociale, Roumanie
    Date: 2012
  25. By: Isidro Hernández Rodríguez.
    Date: 2011–12–04
  26. By: C. Richard Baker (School of Business - Adelphi University, Pôle de Recherche - Rouen Business School - Rouen Business School)
    Abstract: Tandis qu'il est maintenant évident qu'une profession comptable globale évoluait en réponse à la croissance du capitalisme global, une étude historique de l'évolution de la profession comptable suggèrerait que l'évolution de la profession n'était pas lisse ou constante, et que l'état jouait un rôle significatif dans cette évolution. Si le statut légal en ce qui concerne les audits externe des comptes annuels, qui ont trouvé son début au mi 19ème siècle, a présenté une occasion pour la croissance d'une profession globale, la concurrence économique parmi les nations et les conflits militaires pendant le 19ème et les 20èmes siècles empêchaient la création d'une profession comptable véritablement globale. D'ailleurs, les façons dont la profession émergeait et évoluait par le temps ont différé dans différents pays, et c'est seulement pendant des périodes récentes qu'il y a des efforts significatifs d'harmoniser les structures de normalisation de la profession dans différents pays. Une étude comparative historique de l'évolution de la profession comptable dans quelques pays européen constitue le but de cet article.
    Keywords: histoire de l'audit, profession comptable, France, Royaume Unis, Allemagne
    Date: 2012
  27. By: Stone, Kenneth E.; Artz, Georgeanne M.
    Abstract: Stone conducted the first study of Wal-Mart stores economic impact in Iowa in 1988.  Since then, research on Wal-Mart’s impacts has exploded. Recent studies employ sophisticated statistical techniques to more accurately measure the size and direction of effects. Many reach conclusions similar to Stone’s original work.  This paper updates the original Stone study with additional years of data.  It draws on recent methodological advances to help account for Wal-Mart’s strategic location decisions on estimated retail sales impacts in Iowa.  Consistent with previous studies, we find that Wal-Mart’s entry into smaller trade centers in Iowa had a big initial impact on host town retail sales, with some categories experiencing large significant increases while others saw declines in sales per capita.  Wal-Mart’s presence helped to stabilize or even expand the local retail sector of most rural Iowa host communities.  To conclude, policy implications for local economic development officials are discussed.
    Keywords: Wal-Mart; retail trade; Iowa
    JEL: L81 R
    Date: 2012–05–31

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