New Economics Papers
on Business, Economic and Financial History
Issue of 2011‒10‒09
twenty-two papers chosen by

  1. La Argentina agro-exportadora y el desequilibrio regional 1880-1930 By Noemí Girbal-Blacha
  2. Capital formation in machinery and industrialization. Chile 1844-1938 By Cristián Ducoing
  3. The Political Economy of Textbook Writing: Paul Samuelson and the making of the first ten Editions of Economics (1945-1976) By Yann Giraud
  4. Tayloristic rather than Taylorists: The Influence of Taylor on the East German Communists, 1945-51 By Wayne Geerling; Gary B. Magee
  5. Was Canadian Manufacturing Inefficient before WWI? The Case of the Cotton Textile Industry, 1870-1910 By Michael Hinton
  6. Migration Paradigm Shifts and Transformation of Migrant Communities: The Case of Dutch Kiwis By Suzan van der Pas; Jacques Poot
  7. Human Development in Africa: A Long-run Perspective By Prados de la Escosura, Leandro
  8. Global inequality : from class to location, from proletarians to migrants By Milanovic, Branko
  9. Controlling Corruption in law Enforcement: Incentives, Safeguards, and Institutional Change in the Ottoman Empire By Metin M. Cosgel; Bogac A. Ergene; Haggay Etkes; Thomas J. Miceli
  10. Christopher Freeman: Social Science Entrepreneur By Jan Fagerberg; Morten Fosaas; Martin Bell; Ben Martin
  11. Aigua, agricultura i regadiu a la Catalunya contemporània, 1800-2010 By Ramon Garrabou; Josep-Maria Ramon-Muñoz
  12. The Social Democratic Party and the Question of Public Ownership 1982-1991 By Lindberg, Henrik
  13. Tecnologia, heterogeneidad y crecimiento: una caja de herramientas estructuralista By Cimoli, Mario; Porcile, Gabriel
  14. Grossman-Hart (1986) Goes Global: Incomplete Contracts, Property Rights, and the International Organization of Production By Pol Antràs
  15. The common good By Argandoña, Antonio
  16. Does franchise extension reduce short-run economic growth? Evidence from New South Wales, 1862-1882 By Edwyna Harris
  17. The RBV in International Business Studies: A bibliometric study of Barney?s (1991) contribution to the field By Manuel Portugal Ferreira; Fernando A. Ribeiro Serra; Benny Kramer Costa
  18. Economic Sociology or Economic Imperialism? The Case of Gary C. Becker By Tittenbrun, Jacek S.
  19. Los protocolos familiares en países de habla hispana: Cómo son y para qué se utilizan By Tapies, Josep; Ceja, Lucia
  20. UEFA Champions League: El éxito de una estrategia empresarial y deportiva By Gomez, Sandalio; Opazo, Magdalena; Barios, Macarena
  21. Formation and development of marketing channel management theory By Kiryukov, Sergey I.
  22. How Do Editors Select Papers, and How Good are They at Doing It? By Robert Hofmeister; Matthias Krapf

  1. By: Noemí Girbal-Blacha
    Abstract: Argentina -almost 3 million km2- is linked economically, socially and politically to the rural production and trade. First, it was linked through livestock (jerky, fat, and leather), and by the end of nineteenth century through extensive agriculture, joined to rail expansion and massive immigration. Understanding the livestock, mercantile and agro industrial past in Argentina’s modern times is important for the diagnosis and comprehension of its domestic, international and long term situation. This research focuses on the 1880 period, when the leadership and the State were constituted, consolidating the agro-export model, until 1930, when the Argentinean institutional crisis was added to the effects of 1929 crash. Regional spaces, social networks and public policies are the chosen cores to diagnose and explain the uneven regionally Argentina.
    Keywords: Argentina, agro-regions, imbalances, exports.
    JEL: N16 N56 O13 Q17
    Date: 2011–09
  2. By: Cristián Ducoing
    Abstract: The present paper revisits an old theme in Latin American and Chilean economic history; the early industrialization in the XIX - XX centuries. The difference with previous approaches is the elaboration of new quantitative series of Chilean machinery investment in the long run and its relative prices and composition, in the period when some authors have sited the beginning of the industrialization in the continent. Initial findings, based on the participation of capital formation in machinery imports and GDP, do not reinforce the idea of early industrialization in Chile.
    Keywords: industrialization; capital formation; machinery; Chile.
    JEL: E22 L60 N16 N66
    Date: 2011–09
  3. By: Yann Giraud (THEMA, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise)
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, numerous contributions to the history of economics have tried to assess Paul Samuelson’s political positioning by tracing it in the subsequent editions of his famous textbook Economics. This literature, however, has provided no consensus about the location of Samuelson’s political ideas. While some authors believe that Samuelson has always had inclinations toward interventionism, others conclude that he more often acted as a pro-business advocate. The purpose of this paper is not to argue for one of these two interpretations but to depict the making of Economics itself as a political process. By ‘political’ it is not meant the conduct of party politics but the many political elements that a textbook author has to take into account if he wants to be published and favorably received. I argue that the “middle of the road” stance that Samuelson adopted in the book was consciously constructed by the MIT economist, with the help of his home institution and his publishing company, McGraw-Hill, to ensure both academic freedom and the success of the book. The reason for which the stance developed is related to pre-McCarthyist right-wing criticisms of the textbook and how Samuelson and the MIT department had to endure the pressures from members of the Corporation (MIT’s Board of Trustees), who tried to prevent the publication of the textbook and threatened Samuelson’s tenure at MIT as soon as 1947 – when early manuscripts were circulated. As a result, it was decided in accordance with both the Corporation and McGraw-Hill that the Readings volume would be published to balance conflicting ideas about state intervention. Following these early criticisms, the making of the subsequent editions relied on a network of instructors and referees all over the US in order to make it as successful and consensual as possible. This seemed to work quite well in the 1950s and for a good portion of the 1960s, until Economics became victim of its own success and was seen, in an ironical twist of fate, as a right wing text by younger, radical economists. From now on, Samuelson will try to have his book sent as often as possible to the radicals for referring process, with mixed results. Eventually, the book became criticized from both its left and its right.
    Keywords: Paul Samuelson, Economics, Textbook, Politics, Economic Education
    JEL: A14 B20 B31
    Date: 2011
  4. By: Wayne Geerling; Gary B. Magee
    Abstract: Perhaps the most unexpected of Frederick Taylor‟s legacies is the alleged influence his ideas had in the Soviet world. This paper explores this contention by examining the introduction of differential piece rates and „scientific‟ norms—both key aspects of the Taylorist and Soviet systems—in East Germany between 1945 and 1951. As elsewhere, these measures faced stiff opposition. What made this experience different was that their introduction took place in the context of extreme economic and political uncertainty. As this paper outlines, the party‟s various attempts to impose workplace control laid the foundations for the Sovietisation of East Germany. This paper uses a variety of primary sources to tell this story. It concentrates its attention not just on worker resistance to change, but also on how the interactions between party and worker, between different organisations within the occupation zone, between the Soviets and German communists, and within the party itself came together to see piecework entrenched within the East German workplace. While Taylor‟s ideas influenced the party in this process, they did so only after they had been fed through the prisms of Leninism, Stalinism and Soviet experience. East Germany‟s communists were Tayloristic, not Taylorist.
    Keywords: Taylorism, East Germany, norms, differential piece rate, workplace relations
    JEL: J31 J53 N34 N44 P51
    Date: 2011–09
  5. By: Michael Hinton (The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis (RCEA); Ryerson University)
    Abstract: Is it possible that generations of Canadian economists and historians have got it wrong and Canadian manufacturing before WWI was fairly efficient? Yes, because they do not pay enough attention to the measurement of efficiency. New cliometric evidence supporting the revisionist side of this question is presented on total factor productivity and five other measures of efficiency for the Canadian cotton textile industry, 1870-1910, an industry long thought to be grossly inefficient, which shows the industry performed strongly relative to the U.S. cotton textile industry and other cotton textile industries elsewhere in the world.
    Keywords: Manufacturing, Nineteenth Century. Canada. Cotton Textiles, Efficiency, Total Factor Productivity
    JEL: D24 L67 N60 N61
    Date: 2011–09
  6. By: Suzan van der Pas (VU University Medical Center, EMGO Institute - LASA); Jacques Poot (National Institute of Demographic and Economic Analysis, University of Waikato)
    Abstract: This paper explores the dynamics of Dutch community change in New Zealand since 1950. The Netherlands has been the largest source country of migrants from continental Europe to New Zealand, but by 2006 40 percent of the Netherlands born were aged 65 or older. We find that there are three distinct cohorts of these migrants, each covering roughly 20 years of arrivals: a large cohort of post-war migrants (those who arrived in the 1950s and 1960s), and much smaller cohorts of skilled migrants (those who arrived in the 1970s and 1980s), and transnational professionals (those who arrived in the 1990s or more recently). Early migrants were mostly younger arrival, more religious, less educated and had more children than the subsequent cohorts. More recent migrants are increasingly highly qualified and in high-skill occupations. "Dutch Kiwis" are more geographically dispersed than other immigrants, and more recent arrivals are relatively more often located in rural areas. This transformation of the Dutch community in New Zealand can be linked to global and New Zealand/Netherlands specific changes that have conditioned the character and volume of the migrant flows and the dynamics of migrant community development.
    Keywords: globalisation, push and pull factors of migration, ageing of migrant communities, migrant integration, cohort analysis
    JEL: F22 J61 Z13
    Date: 2011–06
  7. By: Prados de la Escosura, Leandro
    Abstract: Long-run trends in Africa’s well-being are provided on the basis of a new index of human development, alternative to the UNDP’s HDI. A sustained improvement in African human development is found that falls, nonetheless, short of those experienced in other developing regions. Within Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa has fallen steadily behind the North since mid-20th century. Human development improvement is positively associated to being coastal and resource-rich and negatively to political-economy distortions. Contrary to the world experience, in which life expectancy dominated, education has driven progress in African human development during the last half-a-century and, due to the impact of HIV/AIDS on life expectancy and the arresting effect of economic mismanagement and political turmoil on growth, advances in human development since 1990 have depended almost exclusively on education achievements. The large country variance of the recovery during the last decade suggests being cautious about the future’s prospects.
    Keywords: Africa; Education; HDI; Human Development; Life Expectancy; Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: I30 N37 O15 O55
    Date: 2011–09
  8. By: Milanovic, Branko
    Abstract: Inequality between world citizens in mid-19th century was such that at least a half of it could be explained by income differences between workers and capital-owners in individual countries. Real income of workers in most countries was similar and low. This was the basis on which Marxism built its universal appeal. More than 150 years later, in the early 21st century, the situation has changed fundamentally: more than 80 percent of global income differences is due to large gaps in mean incomes between countries, and unskilled workers'wages in rich and poor countries often differ by a factor of 10 to 1. This is the basis on which a new global political issue of migration has emerged because income differences between countries make individual gains from migration large. The key coming issue will be how to deal with this challenge while acknowledging that migration is probably the most powerful tool for reducing global poverty and inequality.
    Keywords: Inequality,Emerging Markets,Economic Theory&Research,Poverty Impact Evaluation,Income
    Date: 2011–09–01
  9. By: Metin M. Cosgel (University of Connecticut); Bogac A. Ergene (University of Vermont); Haggay Etkes (Bank of Israel); Thomas J. Miceli (University of Connecticut)
    Abstract: Until the seventeenth century, the Ottomans used fines extensively for law enforcement and employed agents to collect the fines. Fines can be costly to implement because of agency problems and corruption. To solve the problem of corruption, the Ottomans implemented a variety of mechanisms, including periodic rotation of officials, separation of adjudication from punishment, and compensation for law enforcers through a two-part scheme consisting of fines and taxes. The system underwent a significant transformation after the seventeenth century, following a period of high inflation that raised the agency cost of a fixed fine system. Imperial decentralization in the provinces and the institution of long-term taxfarming also altered the government’s relationship with local law enforcement agents and reduced the effectiveness of control mechanisms. Consequently, the Ottomans relied less on fines for punishment. Using insights from the law and economics literature, we examine how the earlier mechanisms helped to combat corruption in law enforcement and why they were less effective in later periods.
    Keywords: Corruption, criminal fines, deterrence, incentives, institutional change, Ottoman Empire
    JEL: H1 K4 N45
    Date: 2011–09
  10. By: Jan Fagerberg (Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo); Morten Fosaas (Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo); Martin Bell (SPRU – Science and Technology Policy Research, The Freeman Centre, University of Sussex); Ben Martin (SPRU – Science and Technology Policy Research, The Freeman Centre, University of Sussex)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on Christopher Freeman’s contributions to the field of innovation studies. First, we consider his role as the creator of various organisational and intellectual frameworks crucial for the field’s development, including the main research activities he initiated. Next, we examine the publications by Freeman that these activities led to. A database of surveys of the innovation literature, assembled from articles in handbooks covering this area, is used to identify the most influential of his writings for this field. In addition, citations to these works in scholarly journals are analysed in order to examine the nature and extent of his influence on other scholars. The final section sums up the evidence regarding Freeman’s influence on the field’s development. A list of Freeman’s scholarly works is included as an appendix.
    Keywords: Freeman, innovation studies, SPRU, economics of innovation, innovation systems
    Date: 2011–09
  11. By: Ramon Garrabou (Unitat d'Història Econòmica, Departament d'Economia i d'Història Econòmica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona); Josep-Maria Ramon-Muñoz (Departamento de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Murcia)
    Date: 2011–09
  12. By: Lindberg, Henrik (The Ratio Institute)
    Abstract: The paper studies the shift in managing the state or public enterprises from a perspective of policy learning during the period 1982-1991 in Sweden. There was a significant reversal in the policy around state enterprises sector from 1982 towards a more market oriented business approach. The aim here is to investigate whether this transformation is a case of policy learning. How and where are policies formulated, and which sources are relevant to detect evidence of a possible learning process? If this shift could be described in terms of learning: When, how and why did the elite among the bureaucrats and politicians learn? The results seem to indicate that there is no specific event or paradigmatic shift that happened during the actual mandatory period 1982-1991. It was rather more of a gradual adaptation on the issue of state enterprises, mostly triggered by earlier experiences as well as the last major economic crisis in the 1970s and early 1980s. The actual learning that took place had its sources mainly from within the party.
    Keywords: Social Democratic Party; public ownership; privatization; state enterprises; policy learning; knowledge
    JEL: L32
    Date: 2011–09–29
  13. By: Cimoli, Mario; Porcile, Gabriel
    Abstract: En este texto se presentan algunas ideas claves del estructuralismo latino-americano por medio de un conjunto muy acotado de ecuaciones y gráficos. El artículo pretende ser, al mismo tiempo, un instrumento didáctico (que puede usarse como apoyo en cursos de grado e de post-grado) y una caja de herramientas para pensar los efectos de ciertas políticas y choques sobre el crecimiento y la distribución. Se busca así contribuir a la enseñaza y difusión de una rica e importante corriente del pensamiento sobre desarrollo económico, destacando sus altos niveles de articulación interna, su originalidad y, al mismo tiempo, sus vínculos y continuidad con otras teorías heterodoxas del crecimiento y la distribución, como las teorías keynesiana y evolucionista. The paper offers by means of a simple set of graphics a presentation of some of the key insights of Latin American Structuralism (LAS). The paper emphasizes the close links that exist between LAS and other heterodox schools in growth theory, like Post-Keynesians and Schumpeterians. The graphs are used as a toolbox to study the effects on growth in developing economies of both international shocks and domestic industrial and technological policies. In English: The paper offers by means of a simple set of graphics a presentation of some of the key insights of Latin American Structuralism (LAS). The paper emphasizes the close links that exist between LAS and other heterodox schools in growth theory, like Post-Keynesians and Schumpeterians. The graphs are used as a toolbox to study the effects on growth in developing economies of both international shocks and domestic industrial and technological policies.
    Keywords: Crecimiento y distribución -- modelo estructuralista
    JEL: O11 E24
    Date: 2011–08
  14. By: Pol Antràs
    Abstract: I survey the influence of Grossman and Hart's (1986) seminal paper in the field of International Trade. I discuss the implementation of the theory in open-economy environments and its implications for the international organization of production and the structure of international trade flows. I also review empirical work suggestive of the empirical relevance of the property-rights theory. Along the way, I develop novel theoretical results and also outline some of the key limitations of existing contributions.
    JEL: D23 F10 F12 F14 F21 F23 L22 L23
    Date: 2011–09
  15. By: Argandoña, Antonio (IESE Business School)
    Abstract: The concept of the common good occupied a relevant place in classical social, political and economic philosophy. After losing ground in the Modern age, it has recently reappeared, although with different and sometimes confusing meanings. This paper is the draft of a chapter of a Handbook; it explains the meaning of common good in the Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy and in the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church; why the common good is relevant; and how it is different from the other uses of the term in the liberal and liberal-welfarist, communitarian and totalitarian social philosophies, and in the capabilities approach.
    Keywords: Capabilities; Common Good; Liberalism; Society;
    Date: 2011–07–17
  16. By: Edwyna Harris
    Abstract: Empirical studies have established that franchise extension has positive effects on long-run growth because democratisation leads to greater equality of access to resources. However, in the short-run franchise may lead to a redistribution of resources away from important sectors of an economy. This paper examines this proposition by considering the case of land reform in the colony of New South Wales between 1862 and 1882. Reform was a direct result of franchise extension in preceding years that attempted to reallocate land away from the wool sector to small agriculturalists. Wool producers tried to avoid redistribution of their holdings by expending resources on evading reform legislation. These were resources that could have been invested in productive activities and therefore, it is expected that franchise reduced short-run growth because of the institutional changes it induced. The results presented here confirm that evasion efforts acted to reduce both pastoral sector and total GDP in the short-run.
    Keywords: franchise, land reform, evasion, short-run growth
    JEL: P48 N57 N17
    Date: 2011–09
  17. By: Manuel Portugal Ferreira (Instituto Politécnico de Leiria); Fernando A. Ribeiro Serra (HSM Educação); Benny Kramer Costa (Universidade Nove de Julho e Universidade de São Paulo)
    Abstract: Jay Barney?s contribution to the current status of the Resource-Based View (RBV) is well accepted, in particular his 1991 article on ?Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage? has been acknowledged as one of the most significant contributions to developing the RBV. The RBV has since evolved to become one of the central theoretical perspectives in international business studies and research, and several other business disciplines. In this paper we examine the impact of Barney?s (1991) work on firms? resources for International Business research over the past twenty years. Methodologically we do a bibliometric study of the articles published in the leading IB journal - Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS), from 1991 to 2010, examining citations, co-citations, networks of co-authorship and major themes. Our analyses show that the RBV has been having an important impact on the majority of IB research themes.
    JEL: M0 M1
    Date: 2011–09–26
  18. By: Tittenbrun, Jacek S.
    Abstract: The paper is devoted to a critical analysis of a number of key theories by Gary S. Becker. It is commonly believed that his main accomplishment lies in the extension of the scope of an economic analysis to include numerous traditionally considered as non-economic phenomena. This extension, however, is only feasible at the expense of another extension – this time of the scope of the concepts used. This over-inclusiveness , in turn, makes his theories impossible to falsify, thus calling into question their scientific quality. In the process of considering particular Becker’s conceptions, i.e. human and social capital, the family, marriage and household and the polity a host of other specific drawbacks of Becker’s economic approach to social processes, often related to his ideological bias are indicated.
    Keywords: Becker; human capital; social capital; marriage; altruism; self-interest family
    JEL: A12
    Date: 2011–09–25
  19. By: Tapies, Josep (IESE Business School); Ceja, Lucia (IESE Business School)
    Abstract: La Cátedra de Empresa Familiar del IESE llevó a cabo una investigación sobre la eficacia de los protocolos familiares en 248 empresas familiares, de las cuales el 90% reside en España y un 10% en Latinoamérica. La investigación indica que el 55% de las familias empresarias encuestadas no cuenta con un protocolo familiar. Teniendo en cuenta el tamaño de las empresas familiares, el estudio demuestra que el protocolo familiar está muy presente en las empresas de mayor tamaño. El 64% de las empresas con una facturación de entre 50 y más de 200 millones de euros cuentan con un protocolo familiar, mientras que en las empresas familiares de menor tamaño (hasta 10 millones de euros), el 73% de los participantes dicen no contar con un protocolo familiar. El estudio muestra, además, que el 60% de los encuestados admite que el protocolo familiar ha sido útil en varias ocasiones. La investigación también destaca que en el 71% de los casos en los que el protocolo familiar es un documento escrito y asumido por toda la familia, el contenido del mismo, se aplica rigurosamente, mientras que en el 73% de los casos en los que el protocolo familiar se define como un documento escrito pero no totalmente asumido por la familia, su contenido se aplica en muy pocos aspectos. Respecto a la implicación de las próximas generaciones en el desarrollo del protocolo familiar, el 73% de las empresas familiares encuestadas han realizado un esfuerzo para que los miembros de las siguientes generaciones se impliquen y sean partícipes del proceso de elaboración y actualización del protocolo familiar. Del mismo modo, el estudio demuestra que el 52% de las familias empresarias encuestadas y que cuentan con un protocolo familiar ha elegido a un consultor especializado en el área de empresa familiar como facilitador en el desarollo de su protocolo familiar. Por último, la investigación también muestra que el protocolo familiar contiene, en más de 71 empresas familiares los valores, la misión y la visión de la familia empresaria, así como el tipo de empresa familiar que desean ser. Del mismo modo, también encontramos otros aspectos incluidos en los protocolos familiares como la formación de accionistas y la implicación de la familia política en la empresa familiar.
    Keywords: protocolo familiar; empresa familiar; eficacia; utilidad;
    Date: 2011–07–05
  20. By: Gomez, Sandalio (IESE Business School); Opazo, Magdalena (IESE Business School); Barios, Macarena (IESE Business School)
    Abstract: El objetivo de nuestra investigación es estudiar la evolución y transformación que ha tenido la Copa de Europa, desde sus inicios hasta convertirse en la UEFA Champions League como la conocemos hoy en día, buscando específicamente en los factores estratégicos, comerciales, organizativos y económicos que nos permitan describir el proceso de cambio que enfrenta esta organización deportiva en particular. Para una mejor comprensión de las estrategias de organización deportiva se construyó una matriz, donde tenemos la estrategia de negocio en el eje vertical y la estrategia de los deportes en el eje horizontal. La parte comercial y financiera del club es el terreno donde crece el éxito deportivo. La salud financiera permite a un club que tenga buenos jugadores, buenos entrenadores, mejores instalaciones, etc. Estar en un cuadrante o en otro dependerá del nivel competitivo del club de fútbol. Esto dependerá de las estrategias (de negocios y estrategia de los deportes), desarrolladas por el club, y de la cantidad de área de las estrategias encaminadas a mejorar todas las formas de capital disponible para un club de fútbol hoy en día.
    Keywords: Deporte; Estrategia; cambio;
    Date: 2011–06–09
  21. By: Kiryukov, Sergey I.
    Abstract: In this paper the problems of formation and development of marketing channel management theory are considered. The definition and components of marketing channels are presented. Marketing channel management process and key management decisions are described. The major stages of marketing channel management theory evolution are provided. Perspectives of marketing channel management theory development and issues of demand chain management concept are considered. Executive summary is available at p. 42.
    Keywords: Marketing Channels, Distribution Channels, Marketing Channel Management Theory, Strategic Marketing Channel Management, Demand Chain Management,
    Date: 2011
  22. By: Robert Hofmeister (Department of Economics, University of Konstanz, Germany); Matthias Krapf (Chair for International Personnel Management, University Wien, Austria)
    Abstract: Using data on the B.E. Journals that rank articles into four quality tiers, this paper examines the accuracy of the research evaluation process in economics. We find that submissions by authors with strong publication records and authors affiliated with highly-ranked institutions are significantly more likely to be published in higher tiers. Citation success as measured by RePEc statistics also depends heavily on the overall research records of the authors. Finally and most importantly, we measure how successful the B.E. Journals’ editors and their reviewers have been at assigning articles to quality tiers. While, on average, they are able to distinguish more influential from less influential manuscripts, we also observe many assignments that are not compatible with the belief that research quality is reflected by the number of citations.
    Keywords: Peer Review, Research Evaluation, Citations, Journal Quality
    JEL: A10 A14
    Date: 2011–09–29

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