New Economics Papers
on Business, Economic and Financial History
Issue of 2009‒08‒22
seven papers chosen by

  1. The Greatest Photographers of the Twentieth Century By David Galenson
  2. Trade Booms, Trade Busts, and Trade Costs By David S. Jacks; Christopher M. Meissner; Dennis Novy
  3. The Price of Degenerate Art By Kim Oosterlinck
  4. Rules of Engagement: Architecture Theory and the Social Sciences in Frank Duffy’s 1974 Thesis on Office Planning By Branden Hookway
  5. The Process of European Spatial Development in Austria: The Case of Gürtel Revitalization Project, Vienna By Sameeha Sheth
  7. Fusion terminée, fusion interminable ? Le cas Peugeot-Citroën By Emmanuelle Rigaud

  1. By: David Galenson
    Abstract: A survey of textbooks reveals that scholars consider Alfred Stieglitz to have been the greatest photographer of the twentieth century, followed in order by Walker Evans, Cindy Sherman, Man Ray, and Eugène Atget. Stieglitz, Evans, and Atget were experimental artists, who were committed to realism, whereas Man Ray and Sherman were conceptual innovators, who constructed images to express ideas. During much of the twentieth century, photography was dominated by the experimental approach and aesthetic of Stieglitz and his followers, but late in the century this changed; as photography grew increasingly central to advanced art in general, it came to be dominated by conceptual innovators. Sherman’s celebrated creation of artificial scenes is characteristic of the almost exclusively conceptual uses that today’s advanced artists make of its techniques and images, as technical and aesthetic considerations are generally subordinated to conceptual concerns.
    JEL: Z1 Z11
    Date: 2009–08
  2. By: David S. Jacks; Christopher M. Meissner; Dennis Novy
    Abstract: What has driven trade booms and trade busts in the past and present? We derive a micro-founded measure of trade frictions from leading trade theories and use it to gauge the importance of bilateral trade costs in determining international trade flows. We construct a new balanced sample of bilateral trade flows for 130 country pairs across the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania for the period from 1870 to 2000 and demonstrate an overriding role for declining trade costs in the pre-World War I trade boom. In contrast, for the post-World War II trade boom we identify changes in output as the dominant force. Finally, the entirety of the interwar trade bust is explained by increases in trade costs.
    JEL: F15 N70
    Date: 2009–08
  3. By: Kim Oosterlinck (Centre Emile Bernheim, Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels.)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes, on basis of an original database of close to 3 000 canvasses sold during the war in Drouot, the main French auction house, the evolution of the art market in occupied France. Based on hedonic regressions, it shows that by all standards the market experienced a massive boom. Our index increases from a value of 100 in December 1940 to more than 500 in February 1943 after which a marked decline occurred up till November 1943. The paper also analyzes the impact on the market of a given state policy regarding acceptable taste. The paper shows that the price of the paintings viewed as “degenerate” by the Nazis mimicked those of the art market in general and this up till June 1944 when their price increases once more whereas the general index decreases slightly.
    Keywords: Art market, Art investments, Degenerate art, Economics of occupation, Hedonic Regression, World War Two
    JEL: G1 N44 Z11
    Date: 2009–08
  4. By: Branden Hookway
    Abstract: This paper addresses the broad shift that took place in architectural theory and education in the 70s, where models of the discipline asserting the autonomy of architecture eclipsed models privileging architecture’s ties to other disciplines, particularly technology and the social sciences. With Frank Duffy's Princeton thesis on open office planning (1974) as a focus, the paper explores the theoretical and institutional contexts of this shift and offers a critical reappraisal in light of contemporary issues facing architecture.
    Date: 2009–07
  5. By: Sameeha Sheth
    Date: 2009–08–14
  6. By: Ahohounkpanzon, Michel
    Abstract: This paper presents the concept of articulation of modes of production in the works of the german africanist Georg Elwert born in 1947 and died in 2005. After the explanation of concepts of mode of production and articulation of modes of production, the paper analyzes how Professor Georg Elwert trained at Heidelberg has used them at Bielefeld and Berlin to analyze the interaction between peasant society, penetration of the central State and Market Economy in Benin (formerly Dahomey) in the late 70s and early 80s. The analysis of African societies and Benin through the paradigm of the articulation modes of production made by Georg Elwert is of interest to those who study these companies and their transformations in a globalization time because his work offer new interpretations and important starting point for research in the complex between farmers, state and market in contemporary Africa . Innovations developed by Elwert relate to aspects such as the economy of solidarity, conflicts, corruption, the “commando State” and markets of violence.
    JEL: B51 D73 A13 B14 A14
    Date: 2009
  7. By: Emmanuelle Rigaud (CRG - Centre de recherche en gestion - CNRS : UMR7655 - Polytechnique - X)
    Abstract: Quand, lors d'une fusion entre des firmes dont la valeur provient de marques fortes, les dirigeants décident de maintenir ces marques, il est probable qu'ils enclenchent un processus de nature indéterminable ou, tout du moins, un processus dont la fin est indéterminable. C'est ce que semble montrer le cas de la fusion entre Peugeot et Citroën, étudié sur une période de plus de trente ans.
    Keywords: fusion;acquisition;Peugeot;Citroën;autonomie des marques;mutualisation
    Date: 2009–03

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