nep-his New Economics Papers
on Business, Economic and Financial History
Issue of 2006‒10‒07
fifteen papers chosen by
Bernardo Batiz-Lazo
Bristol Business School

  1. Scandinavia, Economics in By Kærgård, Niels; Sandelin, Bo; Sæther, Arild
  2. Living Standards in Black and White: Evidence from the Heights of Ohio Prison Inmates, 1829 – 1913 By Scott A. Carson; Thomas N. Maloney
  3. Local currencies in European History : an analytical framework By Jérôme Blanc
  4. La industrialización en Puebla, México, 1835-1976 By María Teresa Ventura Rodríguez
  5. Verkstadsindustri i globaliseringens tidevarv. En studie av SKF och Volvo 1970-2000 By Broberg, Oskar
  6. Mapping Diversity in Milan. Historical Approaches to Urban Immigration By John Foot
  7. The Emergence of Central Banks and Banking Regulation in Comparative Perspective By Richard S. Grossman
  8. The Recent Evolution and Impact of Tourism in the Mediterranean: The Case of Island Regions, 1990-2002 By Jaume Garau Taberner; Carles Manera
  9. By Chance or Choice: The Regulation of the Apprenticeship System in Australia, 1900-1930 By Thorsten Stromback
  10. Foreigners and the City: An Historiographical Exploration for the Early Modern Period By Donatella Calabi
  11. Etude comparée des systèmes de régulation ferroviaire : Grande-Bretagne, France et Suède. Analyse des règles du jeu et de leur mise en œuvre, Enseignements pour la France By Dominique Bouf; Yves Crozet; Julien Lévêque; William Roy
  12. Crisis de rentabilidad, acumulación de capital y distribución de la renta en la economía de México By Juan Pablo Mateo Tomé
  13. Measuring Economics Research in the Czech Republic: A Comment By Daniel Munich
  14. The Scorecard on Development: 25 Years of Diminished Progress By Mark Weisbrot; Dean Baker; David Rosnick
  15. Social economy as social science and practice : historical perspectives on France By Danièle Demoustier; Damien Rousselière

  1. By: Kærgård, Niels (KVL , The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University); Sandelin, Bo (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Sæther, Arild (Agder University College)
    Abstract: Scandinavia includes in a narrow sense Denmark, Norway and Sweden, which have similar languages and have strongly influenced one another. Nevertheless, it is possible to distinguish different histories of learning. Danish economists made early contributions to neoclassical distribution theory, econometric analysis and multiplier theory. Like most economists from small-language communities they understood the major European languages but wrote in their domestic languages, which delayed international knowledge about their contributions. In Norway Ragnar Frisch revolutionized economics in the 1930s, but met opposition from colleagues. Swedish economics flourished in the early 20th century with Knut Wicksell and Gustav Cassel and later with the Stockholm School. In recent decades national traits have largely disappeared. <p>
    Keywords: Oslo School; Stockholm School; history of economics
    JEL: B00
    Date: 2006–09–15
  2. By: Scott A. Carson; Thomas N. Maloney
    Abstract: The use of height data to measure living standards is now a well-established method in the economic history literature. Moreover, a number of core findings in this literature are widely agreed upon. There are still some populations, places, and times, however, for which anthropometric evidence remains thin. One example is African-Americans in the Northern US in the 1800s. Here, we use new data from the state prison in Ohio to track heights of black and white men from 1829 to 1913. We corroborate the well-known mid-century height decline among white men in Ohio, found by Steckel and Haurin (1994) using National Guard data. We find that black men in Ohio were shorter than white men, throughout the century and controlling for a number of characteristics. We also find a pattern of height decline in mid-century similar to that found for white men.
    JEL: I12 I31 I32 J15 N31
    Date: 2006
  3. By: Jérôme Blanc (LEFI - Laboratoire d'économie de la firme et des institutions - [Université Lumière - Lyon II])
    Abstract: Although today's main organisation principle of monetary spaces is the nation-state's one, everyone can see it is not totally the case because of the existence and the development of local and social currencies and other sorts of parallel currencies. European history gives very useful lessons on this matter. One can distinguish, indeed, three historical periods : firstly, an “old regime” with a great diversity of money, including forms of local currencies ; secondly, the building of nation states and, consequently, what Benjamin Cohen (1998) calls a “westphalian model of geography of money”, centred on the principle of one nation, one money, excluding local currencies different from national currencies ; thirdly, the contesting of such a regime of monetary sovereignty. European history gives, then, evidences that the contemporary dynamics of local currencies is not a new one, but that it is undoubtedly the most important of the third period. <br />European history leads however to make significant differences between forms of monetary localisms. Those differences are analyzed within the following framework. First, we have to make a distinction between the nature of issuers : public authorities, groups of citizens, businesses and banks. Monetary localisms before the Westphalian era were mainly organized by public authorities (lords) and religious orders, whereas today's monetary localisms mainly come from citizens and businesses (except from emergency issues and secessions logics). Second, we have to make a distinction between the rationales for monetary localisms : sovereignty, seignoriage and financing needs, protecting spaces, revitalizing spaces, transforming the nature of exchanges and money. Monetary localisms before the Westphalian era were mainly organized in order to capture money and dynamize spaces, whereas one can find the four rationales in today's monetary localisms. <br />The paper, after presenting the analytical framework, concentrates on three sorts of local currencies : local currencies as a result of necessities, local currencies issued by banks and local currencies aiming to change money. It concludes on the differences between local currencies in European history and contemporary local currencies.
    Keywords: Local currencies;monetary history;Europe;Owen;Gesell;Banks of issue
    Date: 2006–10–03
  4. By: María Teresa Ventura Rodríguez (Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades - [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla])
    Abstract: Puebla experimentó una industrialización temprana que arrancó en los años treinta del siglo XIX con la producción mecanizada de textiles de algodón; este sector predominó dentro de la estructura industrial por más de 100 años, hasta 1965. El sector textil, junto con los de alimentos y bebidas, fueron los más importantes de la industria de transformación por el número de establecimientos, inversión y valor de la producción. Mientras en el ámbito nacional con el nuevo patrón de acumulación instrumentado de 1940-60 se moderniza y diversifica la estructura industrial, en Puebla no se dan cambios sustanciales, persiste el predominio de las ramas industriales tradicionales productoras de artículos de consumo de bienes no durables. La producción textil sigue siendo la rama hegemónica. La industria de transformación tuvo un peso importante en términos de inversión, producción y personal ocupado, a pesar de haberse quedado rezagada en diversos momentos. Experimentó cambios de 1960 a 1970, periodo en que la industria textil atraviesa una profunda crisis. Hacia 1976 dicha rama ya no es la única que impone el ritmo de desarrollo, sino que se agregan otras como la automotriz y la metálica básica, incorporadas en 1967. La producción no es únicamente de bienes de consumo no duradero; más de la mitad resulta ser de bienes de consumo duradero, intermedios y de capital; además aparecen en el panorama industrial grandes monopolios con importante inversión extranjera que dinamizan la economía regional. El periodo 1835-76 resulta importante porque refleja el peso que tuvo el sector textil en la industria regional y cambios generados en el proceso de industrialización.
    Keywords: Industria textil ; desarrollo industrial ; industria de transformación ; bienes de consumo no duradero ; patrón de acumulación
    Date: 2006–10–04
  5. By: Broberg, Oskar (Department of Economic History, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: This working paper explores the impact of the globalization process 1970-2000 on two manufacturing industries in the Gothenburg area –SKF and Volvo. Three aspects of the process are highlighted: the development of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT), the increased mobility of capital, and the increased importance of knowledge in manufacturing industry. The history of the two companies is analyzed from the early 1970s to the turn of the century, using literature and interviews. Firstly, the paper explores the organizational development of the two companies. The study shows how SKF and Volvo during these years transformed from being organized as nationally oriented hierarchies to become nodes in global networks. Secondly, a number of specific themes are explored, such as ownership, branding, R&D, and outsourcing. The international ownership increased and the production is now coordinated on a global scale. The main conclusion of this working paper is that SKF and Volvo are representatives of an emerging informational economy. The flexibility generated by new ICT and more liquid financial markets has proven to promote economic growth, while at the same time generate social conflicts as the labour security decreases. <p>
    Keywords: Economic History; Business History; SKF; Volvo; Globalization; Outsourcing
    JEL: L22 L62 N64 N84
    Date: 2006–09–28
  6. By: John Foot (University College London)
    Abstract: An historical and spatial approach is crucial to the understanding of any city. Waves of immigration and population movements from different sources have constructed the cultural mix of this financial, industrial and market city over time. To focus just on the new foreign immigration into Milan over the last 25 years or so risks omitting the deep historical fissures created by previous (and bigger) waves of population movements – the traces left by these populations in the urban fabric and their role in subjective experience. Moreover, the historical and spatial comparison of various types and moments of population movement can help us to understand the changes to this city at macro and micro-levels. This paper uses a mixture of approaches in order to understand and map diversity in Milan, its province and its region. It is intended as a discussion paper to be looked at in conjunction with the work and arguments laid out in other research projects and published work. Methodologies used in this paper range from straightforward historical research (using documents and archives) to photography, micro-history (the examination of one small area – in this case one housing block) and oral historical interviews.
    Keywords: Immigration, Urban Space, Periphery (Periferia), Memory, Housing
    Date: 2006–08
  7. By: Richard S. Grossman (Department of Economics, Wesleyan University)
    Date: 2006–06
  8. By: Jaume Garau Taberner (Universitat de les Illes Balears); Carles Manera (Universitat de les Illes Balears)
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyse one of the world’s top tourist destinations, the Mediterranean, and, more specifically, the evolution and impact of mass tourism on its western islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta and the Balearic Islands) throughout the final decade of the 20th century. Firstly a general overview of world tourism is given, followed by an analysis of tourism in the Mediterranean. In continuation, an in-depth study is made of the evolution and impact of tourism on the aforementioned islands. Finally, the economic impact of tourism specialisation is examined in these island regions.
    Keywords: Mediterranean, Balearic Islands, Malta, Sardinia, Sicily, Corsica, Destination Lifecycle, Mass Tourism, IMEDOC
    JEL: L83 N70
    Date: 2006–08
  9. By: Thorsten Stromback
    Abstract: This paper traces the process whereby the apprenticeship system came to be regulated by industrial tribunals during the period 1900 to 1930. It describes how the regulation emerged, the motives that underpinned it, and the wider political debate about the apprenticeship system at the time. It then goes on to assess the effect of this regulation. This assessment is informed by an underlying theoretical perspective and draws on the contemporary debate and the outcomes that can be observed. While the question of primary interest is the efficiency of the regulatory regime that emerged, broader considerations are invoked. What was set in place in the early part of the 20th century has continued to shape the how the apprenticeship system has developed since then. For that reason, the future development of the apprenticeship system may be a more relevant indicator of outcomes than the contemporary facts.
    Keywords: apprenticeship, trade unions, arbitration, Australia
    JEL: J51 M53 N37
    Date: 2006–09
  10. By: Donatella Calabi (Università IUAV di Venezia)
    Abstract: This paper will focus on the physical traces left by different minorities in the European city of the early modern age. Looking to the urban context in the main important ports and commercial centers we can find violent conflicts, traditional uses, as well as new urban strategies by the governors to keep together (for economic and social purposes) city-dwellers and foreigners. The invention of specific buildings and the effect on the architectural language is often quite visible and a mean of cultural exchanges.
    Keywords: City, History of Architecture, Modern Age, Foreigners, Minorities
    Date: 2006–09
  11. By: Dominique Bouf (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - [CNRS : UMR5593] - [Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat]); Yves Crozet (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - [CNRS : UMR5593] - [Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat]); Julien Lévêque (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - [CNRS : UMR5593] - [Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat]); William Roy (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - [CNRS : UMR5593] - [Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat])
    Abstract: Ce rapport de recherche commandé par la direction de la stratégie de la SNCF compare les systèmes de régulation ferroviaire britannique et français. Il s'agit d'étudier les règles du jeu établies pour réguler un système ferroviaire verticalement dé-intégré avec un gestionnaire d'infrastructure et des entreprises ferroviaires. Après avoir rappelé les principes et l'évolution de la réforme ferroviaire britannique, la régulation ferroviaire est analysée en détail. Les activités régulées sont distinguées selon qu'elles concernent l'établissement de la grille horaire, la gestion opérationnelle du réseau ou les modifications de celui-ci. La régulation britanniques repose largement sur le consensus entre partenaires de l'industrie ferroviaire. Pour ce faire, un système de compensation des externalités a été établi, un régulateur indépendant a été institué et un dispositif de règlement des conflits propre à l'industrie a été mis en place. Mais ce système incitatif est pénalisé par des coûts de transaction très élevés. En France, la régulation est largement définie par la loi et repose sur l'antagonisme entre le gestionnaire d'infrastructure, RFF, et l'opérateur historique, SNCF, qui est aussi gestionnaire délégué de l'infrastructure. Il apparaît globalement que pour faire pression sur l'acteur dominant (la SNCF), les pouvoirs publics ont eu tendance à laisser à RFF une liberté d'action relativement importante au regard des contraintes que la régulation britannique fait porter sur Network Rail.
    Keywords: Etude comparée ; systèmes de régulation ferroviaire ; règlementation ferroviaire ; infrastructure ; dé-intégration
    Date: 2006–10–04
  12. By: Juan Pablo Mateo Tomé (Departamento de Economía Aplicada I - [Universidad Complutense de Madrid])
    Abstract: En esta ponencia se expone una estimación de la tasa de ganancia en la economía mexicana para el período 1970-2003. Sostenemos que esta variable es clave en la comprensión de la aparición de la crisis. El nexo que permite explicar su aparición radica en el proceso de acumulación de capital, función de la masa de ganancia generada. Cuando se estanca, se derrumba la acumulación de capital y, ante la ausencia de una recomposición de las condiciones de valorización del capital, caracterizamos el período objeto de estudio como de “crisis estructural.” El análisis de la evolución de los determinantes de la rentabilidad en esta fase nos permite identificar la disfuncionalidad del papel de la crisis, ya que impulsa la composición del capital, lo que se rige en una presión extra para la modificación del patrón de distribución de la renta.
    Keywords: Rentabilidad ; crisis ; acumulación ; México ; composición del capital
    Date: 2006–10–04
  13. By: Daniel Munich
    Abstract: Turnovec (2005) represents the first rigorous attempt to quantify and compare research of economists affiliated with Czech institutions as well as total output by these institutions. In this comment, I reconsider some of his results. My key finding is that a research-accounting methodology that closely reflects the widely differing quality of publications in economics leads to notably different results from those presented by Turnovec, who used an accounting scheme favoring quantity of publications over their quality.
    Keywords: Impact factor, Publications, Czech Republic, Research
    JEL: A10 A11
    Date: 2006–07
  14. By: Mark Weisbrot; Dean Baker; David Rosnick
    Abstract: This paper examines data on economic growth and various social indicators and compares the past 25 years (1980-2005) with the prior two decades (1960-1980). The paper finds that the past 25 years in low- and middle-income countries have seen a sharp slowdown in the rate of economic growth, as well as a decline in the rate of progress on major social indicators including life expectancy and infant and child mortality. The authors conclude that economists and policy-makers should devote more effort to determining the causes of the economic and development failure of the last quarter-century.
    Keywords: economic development, growth, social indicators, growth failure, developing countries, education, health
    JEL: O10 O40 O11
    Date: 2006–09
  15. By: Danièle Demoustier; Damien Rousselière (LEPII - Laboratoire d'Economie de la Production et de l'Intégration Internationale - [CNRS : FRE2664] - [Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II])
    Abstract: This article aims to investigate the multiple meanings of "économie sociale" ("social economy"), a term which first appeared in France at the founding moment of modern capitalism, both as a concept in the framework for the creation of a social science in close relation with the tradition of classical, Christian and socialist economists, and also to establish an ensemble of social practices and institutions. A historical perspective shows the close yet ambivalent relationship between these two principal connotations. Stemming from this, the conclusion presents some new research orientations towards social economy as a social science and social practice.
    Keywords: social economy ; social science ; France
    Date: 2006–10–02

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