nep-hea New Economics Papers
on Health Economics
Issue of 2023‒11‒20
twenty-six papers chosen by
Nicolas R. Ziebarth, Cornell University

  1. Intergenerational Transmission of Inequality: Maternal Endowments, Investments, and Birth Outcomes By Eshaghnia, Sadegh S. M.; Heckman, James J.
  2. Intergenerational Transmission of Home-Leaving Patterns By Elia Moracci; Raffaele Guetto; Daniele Vignoli
  3. How Does Medicaid Expansion Impact Income Support Program Participation and Employment for Different Types of People with Disabilities? By Ari Ne'eman; Nicole Maestas
  4. Are Hospital Quality Indicators Causal? By Amitabh Chandra; Maurice Dalton; Douglas O. Staiger
  5. Does Paid Sick Leave Facilitate Reproductive Choice? By Johanna Catherine Maclean; Ioana Popovici; Christopher J. Ruhm
  6. A “Good” Smoke? The Off-Label Use of Cannabidiol to Reduce Cannabis Use By Davide Fortin; Vincent Di Beo; Sophie Massin; Yann Bisiou; Patrizia Carrieri; Tangui Barré
  7. Economic Benefits and Social Costs of Legalizing Recreational Marijuana By Jason Brown; Elior Cohen; Alison Felix
  8. Scars of war: the legacy of WW1 deaths on civic capital and combat motivation By Felipe Carozzi; Edward W. Pinchbeck; Luca Repetto
  9. Impact of Loss-Framing and Risk Attitudes on Insurance Purchase: Insights from a Game-like Interface Study By Kunal Rajesh Lahoti; Shivani Hanji; Pratik Kamble; Kavita Vemuri
  10. Occupational Differences in the Effects of Retirement on Hospitalizations for Mental Illness among Female Workers: Evidence from Administrative Data in China By Wang, Tianyu; Sun, Ruochen; Sindelar, Jody L.; Chen, Xi
  11. Exploring the Effects of Medicaid During Childhood on the Economy and the Budget: Working Paper 2023-07 By Elizabeth Ash; William Carrington; Rebecca Heller; Grace Hwang
  12. Do wind turbines have adverse health impacts By Christian Krekel; Johannes Rode; Alexander Roth
  13. Machine Learning for Staggered Difference-in-Differences and Dynamic Treatment Effect Heterogeneity By Julia Hatamyar; Noemi Kreif; Rudi Rocha; Martin Huber
  14. Country Differences in Long-Term Care Institutions: Towards a Care Regime Typology By van Damme, Maike; Spijker, Jeroen
  15. Using remote tracking technologies to audit and understand medicine theft By Ryan Jablonski; Brigitte Seim; Mariana Carvalho Barbosa; Clark Gibson
  16. Effectiveness of school-based interventions in Europe for promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors in children By Archontoula Drouka; Dora Brikou; Céline Causeret; Nur Al Ali Al Malla; Stéphane Sibalo; Concha Ávila; Gabriela Alcat; Anastasia E; Patricia Gurviez; Nawel Fellah-Dehiri; Marine Masson; Meropi D Kontogianni; Mary Yannakoulia
  17. Public Infrastructure and Regional Resilience: Evidence from the 1918 Spanish Flu in Germany By Mona Foertsch; Felix Roesel
  18. Local institutions and pandemics: city autonomy and the Black Death By Wang, Han; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
  19. The determinants of child stunting and shifts in the growth pattern of children: a long-run, global review By Schneider, Eric B.
  20. Characteristics of Multiple Job Holdings Triggered by COVID-19 and Their Impact on Well-being (Japanese) By KAWAKAMI Atsushi; TSURU Kotaro; KUME Koichi
  21. Performance of tax-benefit systems amid COVID-19 crises in sub-Saharan Africa: A comparative perspective By Jesse Lastunen; Adnan Abdulaziz Shahir; Pia Rattenhuber; Kwabena Adu-Ababio; Rodrigo Oliveira
  22. Distance Work and Life Satisfaction after the COVID-19 Pandemics By Leonardo Becchetti; Gianluigi Conzo; Fabio Pisani
  23. The effect of compulsory face mask policies on community mobility in Germany By Kovacs, Roxanne J.; Dunaiski, Maurice; Tukiainen, Janne
  24. Minimizing disruptions to immunization services in the context of COVID-19 in Senegal: lessons learnt and policy options By Diop, Rokhaya; Yugo, Mohamed Abass; Mbaye, Rose Nadege; Thiam, Hamidou; Diouf, Mam Coumba; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Chisare, Dorothy
  25. COVID-19 and Mental Health: Natural Experiments of the Costs of Lockdowns By Quintana-Domeque, Climent; Zeng, Jingya
  26. The Impact of the Global COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign on All-Cause Mortality By Virat Agrawal; Neeraj Sood; Christopher M. Whaley

  1. By: Eshaghnia, Sadegh S. M. (Center for the Economics of Human Development (CEHD)); Heckman, James J. (University of Chicago)
    Abstract: Newborn health is an important component in the chain of intergenerational transmission of disadvantage. This paper contributes to the literature on the determinants of health at birth in two ways. First, we analyze the role of maternal endowments and investments (education and smoking in pregnancy) on the probability of having a baby who is small for gestational age (SGA). We estimate both the total impact of maternal endowments on birth outcomes, and we also decompose it into a direct, "biological" effect and a "choice" effect, mediated by maternal behaviors. Second, we estimate the causal effects of maternal education and smoking in pregnancy, and investigate whether women endowed with different traits have different returns. We find that maternal cognition affects birth outcomes primarily through maternal education, that personality traits mainly operate by changing maternal smoking, and that the physical fitness of the mother has a direct, "biological" effect on SGA. We find significant heterogeneity in the effects of education and smoking along the distribution of maternal physical traits, suggesting that women with less healthy physical constitutions should be the primary target of prenatal interventions.
    Keywords: health production, intergenerational transmission, human capital
    JEL: I12 I14 J24
    Date: 2023–09
  2. By: Elia Moracci (European University Institute and Luiss Guido Carli); Raffaele Guetto (Dipartimento di Statistica, Informatica, Applicazioni "G. Parenti", Università di Firenze); Daniele Vignoli (Dipartimento di Statistica, Informatica, Applicazioni "G. Parenti", Università di Firenze)
    Abstract: Exploiting intergenerationally linked data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, we examine the association between the home-leaving ages of parents and those of their daughters and sons. We propose a framework in which intergenerational associations between nest-leaving patterns of successive generations might stem from three channels of transmission, and we rely on detailed information on three generations of individuals to establish the strength of each channel. We find that a 1-year increase in the age at which a parent left home is associated with children leaving the nest approximately 1 month later. We argue that the bulk of this association is due to direct cultural transmission of home-leaving ages stemming from the inheritance of preferences on the optimal timing of life-course events.
    Keywords: leaving the parental home, intergenerational persistence
    JEL: D10 J11 J12 J13
    Date: 2023–11
  3. By: Ari Ne'eman; Nicole Maestas
    Abstract: Social Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income, the United States’ two primary disability income support programs, each offer a pathway to public health insurance in addition to cash benefits. This implies that expansions in public health insurance availability, such as the ACA’s Medicaid expansions, may impact disability program participation and employment of people with disabilities. However, prior research has yielded mixed results as to the impact of Medicaid expansion on these outcomes. Using a stacked difference-in-differences design and data from the Current Population Survey, we demonstrate that the ACA’s Medicaid expansions increased SSDI receipt among individuals ages 50-64 with physical, self-care and independent living disabilities, consistent with a “job unlock” mechanism. Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the CPS, we show that treatment effects are heterogeneous and concentrated among persons with ongoing disabilities (as opposed to new disabilities) as reported on the CPS’s 6-question functional impairment sequence. We also show suggestive evidence of a reduction in SSI, but find that it is sensitive to specification and data preparation choices, which we illustrate through comparison with other recent work. Effects on employment are inconclusive. Our findings provide further evidence of work capacity among SSDI beneficiaries.
    JEL: I13 J14
    Date: 2023–10
  4. By: Amitabh Chandra; Maurice Dalton; Douglas O. Staiger
    Abstract: Hospitals play a key role in patient outcomes and spending, but efforts to improve their quality are hindered because we do not know whether hospital quality indicators are causal or biased. We evaluate the validity of commonly used quality indicators, such as mortality, readmissions, inpatient costs, and length-of-stay, using a quasi-experimental design where hospital closures reallocate large numbers of patients to hospitals of different quality. This setting allows us to measure whether patient outcomes improve as much as quality indicators predict when a relatively low-quality hospital closes, or decline as predicted when a relatively high-quality hospital closes. Using more than 20 years of Medicare claims for over 30 million patients admitted with five common diagnoses, we find that hospital quality indicators overstate differences in the causal impact of hospitals on mortality and readmission rates by 7 percent or less, but overstate differences in the causal impact of hospitals on inpatient cost and length-of-stay measures by closer to 40 percent. On average, hospital closures reduce patient mortality by shifting patients to higher quality hospitals, but the but the effect varies widely depending on the relative quality of the closing hospital.
    JEL: I1 I11
    Date: 2023–10
  5. By: Johanna Catherine Maclean; Ioana Popovici; Christopher J. Ruhm
    Abstract: Unlike most advanced countries, the U.S. does not have a federal paid sick leave (PSL) policy; however, multiple states have adopted PSL mandates. PSL can facilitate healthcare use among women of child−bearing ages, including use of family planning services such as contraception, in−vitro fertilization, or abortion services. Use of these services, in turn, can increase or decrease birth rates. We combine administrative and survey data with difference-in-differences methods to shed light on these possibilities. Our findings indicate that state PSL mandates reduce birth rates, potentially through increased use of contraception but not changes in abortion services. We offer suggestive evidence of heterogeneity in birth rate effects by age, education, and race. Our findings imply that PSL policies may help women balance family and work responsibilities, and facilitate their reproductive choices.
    JEL: D1 I1 J13
    Date: 2023–10
  6. By: Davide Fortin (UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne); Vincent Di Beo (SESSTIM - U1252 INSERM - Aix Marseille Univ - UMR 259 IRD - Sciences Economiques et Sociales de la Santé & Traitement de l'Information Médicale - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - INSERM - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, ISSPAM - Institut des sciences de la santé publique [Marseille]); Sophie Massin (LEM - Lille économie management - UMR 9221 - UA - Université d'Artois - UCL - Université catholique de Lille - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Yann Bisiou (CORHIS - Communication, Ressources Humaines et Intervention Sociale - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia); Patrizia Carrieri (SESSTIM - U1252 INSERM - Aix Marseille Univ - UMR 259 IRD - Sciences Economiques et Sociales de la Santé & Traitement de l'Information Médicale - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - INSERM - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, ISSPAM - Institut des sciences de la santé publique [Marseille]); Tangui Barré (SESSTIM - U1252 INSERM - Aix Marseille Univ - UMR 259 IRD - Sciences Economiques et Sociales de la Santé & Traitement de l'Information Médicale - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - INSERM - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, ISSPAM - Institut des sciences de la santé publique [Marseille])
    Abstract: Although cannabis use is common in France, it is still criminalized. Cannabidiol (CBD) products, including CBD-rich cannabis, are legally available. Although previous results suggested that CBD may have benefits for people with cannabis use disorder, there is a lack of data on cannabis users who use CBD to reduce their cannabis consumption. We aimed to identify (i) correlates of this motive, and (ii) factors associated with successful attempts to reduce cannabis use. Methods A cross-sectional online survey among French-speaking CBD and cannabis users was conducted. Logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of using CBD to reduce cannabis consumption and correlates of reporting a large reduction. Results Eleven percent ( n = 105) of our study sample reported they primarily used CBD to reduce cannabis consumption. Associated factors included smoking tobacco cigarettes (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 2.17 [1.3–3.62], p = 0.003) and drinking alcohol (aOR [95%CI] 1.8 [1.02–3.18], p = 0.042). Of these 105, 83% used CBD-rich cannabis to smoke, and 58.7% reported a large reduction in cannabis consumption. This large reduction was associated with non-daily cannabis use (aOR [95%CI] 7.14 [2.4–20.0], p < 0.001) and daily CBD use (aOR [95%CI] 5.87 [2.09–16.47], p = 0.001). A reduction in cannabis withdrawal symptoms thanks to CBD use was the most-cited effect at play in self-observed cannabis reduction. Conclusions Cannabis use reduction is a reported motive for CBD use—especially CBD-rich cannabis to smoke—in France. More studies are needed to explore practices associated with this motive and to accurately assess CBD effectiveness.
    Keywords: cannabidiol (CBD), cannabis (marijuana), cannabis use disorder (CUD), smoking, France, harm reduction
    Date: 2022–03–17
  7. By: Jason Brown; Elior Cohen; Alison Felix
    Abstract: We analyze the effects of legalizing recreational marijuana on state economic and social outcomes (2000–20) using difference-in-differences estimation robust to staggered timing and heterogeneity of treatment. We find moderate economic gains accompanied by some social costs. Post-legalization, average state income grew by 3 percent, house prices by 6 percent, and population by 2 percent. However, substance use disorders, chronic homelessness, and arrests increased by 17, 35, and 13 percent, respectively. Although some of our estimates are noisy, our findings suggest that the economic benefits of legalization are broadly distributed, while the social costs may be more concentrated among individuals who use marijuana heavily. States that legalized early experienced similar social costs but larger economic gains, implying a potential first-mover advantage.
    Keywords: marijuana; Cannabis; social costs; State Revenue; government policy; Tax revenue; legalization
    JEL: H71 I18 R52
    Date: 2023–09–29
  8. By: Felipe Carozzi; Edward W. Pinchbeck; Luca Repetto
    Abstract: What drives soldiers to risk their life in combat? We show that the legacy of war creates lasting conditions that encourage younger generations to take greater risks when fighting for their country. Using individual-level data from over 4 million British war records, we show that WWI deaths deeply affected local communities and the behaviour of the next generation of soldiers. Servicemen from localities that suffered heavier losses in WWI were more likely to die or to be awarded military honours for bravery in WW2. To explain these findings, we document that WWI deaths promoted civic capital in the inter-war period - as demonstrated by the creation of lasting war memorials, veterans' associations and charities, and increased voter participation. In addition, we show that sons of soldiers killed in WWI were more likely to die in combat, suggesting that both community-level and family-level transmission of values were important in this context.
    Keywords: world war, combat motivation, conflict, civic capital, memory
    Date: 2023–08–01
  9. By: Kunal Rajesh Lahoti; Shivani Hanji; Pratik Kamble; Kavita Vemuri
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of loss-framing and individual risk attitude on willingness- to purchase insurance products utilizing a game-like interface as choice architecture. The application presents events as experienced in real life. Both financial and emotional loss-framing events are followed by choices to purchase insurance. The participant cohorts considered were undergraduate students and older participants; the latter group was further subdivided by income and education. The within-subject analysis reveals that the loss framing effect on insurance consumption is higher in the younger population, though contingent on the insurance product type. Health and accident insurance shows a negative correlation with risk attitudes for younger participants and a positive correlation with accident insurance for older participants. Risk attitude and life insurance products showed no dependency. The findings elucidate the role of age, income, family responsibilities, and risk attitude in purchasing insurance products. Importantly, it confirms the heuristics of framing/nudging.
    Date: 2023–10
  10. By: Wang, Tianyu (Renmin University of China); Sun, Ruochen (University of Pennsylvania); Sindelar, Jody L. (Yale University); Chen, Xi (Yale University)
    Abstract: Retirement, a major transition in the life course, may affect many aspects of retirees' well-being, including health and health care utilization. Leveraging differential statutory retirement age (SRA) by occupation for China's urban female workers, we provide some of the first evidence on the causal effect of retirement on hospitalizations attributable to mental illness and its heterogeneity. To address endogeneity in retirement decisions, we take advantage of exogeneity of the differing SRA cut-offs for blue-collar (age 50) and white-collar (age 55) female urban employees. We apply a Fuzzy Regression Discontinuity Design (RDD) around the SRA cut-offs using nationally representative hospital inpatient claims data that cover these workers. We show that blue-collar females incur more hospitalizations for mental illness after retirement, while no similar change is found for white-collar females. Conditional on blue-collar females being hospitalized, probabilities of overall and ER admissions due to mental illness increase by 2.3 and 1.2 percentage points upon retirement, respectively. The effects are primarily driven by patients within the categories of schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders; and neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders. Moreover, the 'Donut' RDD estimates suggest that pent-up demand at retirement unlikely dominates our findings for blue-collar females. Rather, our results lend support to their worsening mental health at retirement. These findings suggest that occupational differences in mental illness and related health care utilization at retirement should be considered when optimizing retirement policy schemes.
    Keywords: mental illness, behavioral disorders, retirement, inpatient care, blue-collar females, white-collar females
    JEL: I11 J26 J14 I18 H55
    Date: 2023–10
  11. By: Elizabeth Ash; William Carrington; Rebecca Heller; Grace Hwang
    Abstract: This paper examines the short- and long-term fiscal effects of Medicaid spending on children. In the short run, costs for Medicaid are paid upfront when the children (or their mothers) receive health care. In the long run, Medicaid enrollment during childhood has been shown to increase earnings in adulthood. Those higher earnings imply greater tax revenues and lower transfer payments by the federal government in the future. On a present-value basis, the Congressional Budget Office estimates that long-term fiscal effects of Medicaid spending on children could offset half or
    JEL: H20 H50 H60 I13 J3
    Date: 2023–11–01
  12. By: Christian Krekel; Johannes Rode; Alexander Roth
    Abstract: While wind power is considered key in the transition towards net zero, there are concerns about adverse health impacts on nearby residents. Based on precise geographical coordinates, we link a representative longitudinal household panel to all wind turbines in Germany and exploit their staggered rollout over two decades for identification. We do not find evidence of negative effects on general, mental, or physical health in the 12-Item Short Form Survey (SF-12), nor on self-assessed health or doctor visits. We also do not find evidence for effects on suicides, an extreme measure of negative mental health outcomes, at the county level.
    Keywords: wind turbines, externalities, health, renewable energy, difference-in-differences, event study, Wellbeing
    Date: 2023–10–10
  13. By: Julia Hatamyar; Noemi Kreif; Rudi Rocha; Martin Huber
    Abstract: We combine two recently proposed nonparametric difference-in-differences methods, extending them to enable the examination of treatment effect heterogeneity in the staggered adoption setting using machine learning. The proposed method, machine learning difference-in-differences (MLDID), allows for estimation of time-varying conditional average treatment effects on the treated, which can be used to conduct detailed inference on drivers of treatment effect heterogeneity. We perform simulations to evaluate the performance of MLDID and find that it accurately identifies the true predictors of treatment effect heterogeneity. We then use MLDID to evaluate the heterogeneous impacts of Brazil's Family Health Program on infant mortality, and find those in poverty and urban locations experienced the impact of the policy more quickly than other subgroups.
    Date: 2023–10
  14. By: van Damme, Maike; Spijker, Jeroen
    Abstract: Objective: This study generates a classification of 26 European OECD countries with respect to care regimes, based on indicators measured around 2008/2010. Building upon the literature, two important dimensions of care arrangements are empirically tested: de-familialization and familialism. Method: Latent profile analyses show how these two dimensions indicate different types of care regimes. The grouping of countries is based on indicators of institutional care for the young and for the old. Results: The results show six care regime types: ‘defamilialized-universal caregiver’; ‘defamilialized-women caregiver’; ‘defamilialized-young/family care-old’; ‘family care-young/supported familialism-old’; ‘supported familialism’; ‘familialism-by-default’. Conclusion and Implications: This classification contributes to developing a theoretical framework of care institutions. In addition, insight is gained into general contextual care institution effects on citizens lives in Europe.
    Date: 2023–09–30
  15. By: Ryan Jablonski; Brigitte Seim; Mariana Carvalho Barbosa; Clark Gibson
    Abstract: Medicine theft is a leading cause of inadequate healthcare. Audits of public health supply chains suggest that up to a third of medicines go missing in low-income countries, disproportionately affecting those facing greater health risks and poverty. Despite much investment, policy-makers struggle to identify and prevent theft due to the opaque and highly distributed supply chain in most low-capacity health systems. We propose a technology-based audit tool—a 'remote tracking audit'—to address these challenges and to provide new insight into the causes and consequences of theft.
    Keywords: Corruption, Health systems, Malawi
    Date: 2023
  16. By: Archontoula Drouka (Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece); Dora Brikou (Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece); Céline Causeret (VIF (Vivons en forme), Lille, France); Nur Al Ali Al Malla (Comocomoschool, Madrid, Spain); Stéphane Sibalo (VIF (Vivons en forme), Lille, France); Concha Ávila (Federación Española de Industrias de Alimentación y Bebidas, Madrid, Spain); Gabriela Alcat (Federación Española de Industrias de Alimentación y Bebidas, Madrid, Spain); Anastasia E (Federation of Hellenic Food Industries, Neo Psychico, Greece); Patricia Gurviez (SayFood - Paris-Saclay Food and Bioproduct Engineering - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Nawel Fellah-Dehiri (UMR PSAE - Paris-Saclay Applied Economics - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Marine Masson (SayFood - Paris-Saclay Food and Bioproduct Engineering - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Meropi D Kontogianni (Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece); Mary Yannakoulia (Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece)
    Abstract: The objective of this review was to summarize existing literature on the effectiveness of school-based interventions, implemented in Europe, under the aim of promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors in children (6 -10 years old). A search of PubMed, Scopus, EFSA and Google Scholar databases was performed for studies published from January 2016 until June 2022. Specific search terms and exclusion criteria were used. Based on the results, diet and physical activity interventions had favorable effects in a series of health outcomes, including anthropometric parameters, biomarkers, eating behavior and self-efficacy. Diet-only interventions had a positive impact specifically on eating habits, mostly on water consumption. Most successful interventions lasted for 1 school year and they were characterized by parents' participation in training and teachers' training.
    Date: 2023–10–10
  17. By: Mona Foertsch; Felix Roesel
    Abstract: Can public infrastructure help regions to mitigate large shocks? We examine how hospital infrastructure contributes to regional resilience in the event of serious health emergencies. During the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, four out of every 1, 000 Germans died. We find lower influenza mortality rates and no political reaction in cities and rural areas with adequate hospital infrastructure. In contrast, rural areas without adequate infrastructure absorb shocks poorly, and voters punish the governing parties in the next elections. We conclude that public infrastructure can mitigate large external shocks, especially in rural regions.
    Keywords: public infrastructure, resilience, health shocks, Spanish flu, Germany
    JEL: D72 O18 I10
    Date: 2023
  18. By: Wang, Han; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
    Abstract: Local institutions have long been regarded as key drivers of economic development. However, little is known about the role of institutions in preparing places to cope with public health crises and pandemics. This paper sheds light on how the nature of a local institution, city autonomy, influenced variations in the incidence of the Black Death —possibly the worst pandemic ever recorded— across cities in Western Europe between 1347 and 1352. We examine urban autonomy not only because it represented a major political shift in medieval times, but because, more importantly, it also represents a key prototype of modern political institution. By exploiting data on the spatial variation of Black Death's mortality rates and duration using OLS and 2SLS methods, we uncover that city autonomy reduced mortality rates by, on average, almost 10 percent. Autonomous cities were in a better position to adopt swift and efficient measures against the pandemic than those governed by remote kings and emperors. This relationship has been confirmed by a series of placebo tests and robustness checks. In contrast, there is no evidence to suggest that city autonomy was a factor in reducing the duration of the pandemic in European cities.
    Keywords: local institutions; pandemics; city autonomy; Black Death; Europe
    JEL: N43 N93 O17
    Date: 2021–11–01
  19. By: Schneider, Eric B.
    Abstract: This article explores how child growth has changed over the past 150 years and links changes in child growth to the recent decline in child stunting in low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article begins by defining the four characteristics of the growth pattern in height: size at birth, size at adulthood, the timing of the pubertal growth spurt and the speed of maturation. It then shows how these characteristics have changed over time and links these characteristics to child stunting, children who are too short for their age relative to healthy standards, the most common indicator used to measure malnutrition in LMICs today. The article then surveys the literature on the causes of changes in the growth pattern and reductions in child stunting, comparing research on current LMICs with historical research on current high income countries (HICs) in the past. To limit the scope of the contemporary literature, I focus on explanations of the so-called ‘Indian enigma’: why Indian children are shorter than sub-Saharan African children despite India’s lead in many indicators of economic development. The article closes with ideas for what historical and contemporary researchers can learn from one another.
    Keywords: child stunting; growth pattern; living standards; child health; Indian enigma; health transition; Wiley deal
    JEL: I10 J13 J16 O15
    Date: 2023–10–19
  20. By: KAWAKAMI Atsushi; TSURU Kotaro; KUME Koichi
    Abstract: This paper uses individual data from the "Internet Survey on New Work Styles in the Age of Covid19 and AI"(RIETI) to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the holding of side jobs. Among employed individuals who held a second job at the time of the survey, 42.8% were triggered to gain further employment by the new coronavirus, and most of these side jobs were due to a decrease in income. Those who needed a second job because of COVID-19 triggers tended to have lower well-being indicators, such as happiness, than those who did not. For multiple jobs triggered by non-COVID-19 reasons, well-being tended to be higher for those who held a side job than those who wanted a side job, but this was not the case for those with a multiple job holding triggered by COVID-19. On the other hand, for full-time employees, obtaining a second job associated with reduced working hours and workplace closure or downsizing tended to be oriented toward skill acquisition, job change, and independence. This point suggests that side jobs are chosen for the purpose of autonomous career development in response to the downsizing of main jobs due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Date: 2023–10
  21. By: Jesse Lastunen; Adnan Abdulaziz Shahir; Pia Rattenhuber; Kwabena Adu-Ababio; Rodrigo Oliveira
    Abstract: We examine the distributional effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated tax-benefit measures in seven sub-Saharan African countries, focusing on the onset of the crisis. We evaluate impacts on disposable incomes, considering variations across income groups; assess the effectiveness of tax-benefit policies in mitigating income losses; and analyse the influence of these measures on income-based poverty and inequality. We find notable reductions in disposable incomes, concentrated among higher-income households, and moderate increases in headcount poverty rates and poverty gaps.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Income distribution, Poverty, Inequality, Africa
    Date: 2023
  22. By: Leonardo Becchetti (CEIS & DEF, University of Rome "Tor Vergata"); Gianluigi Conzo (University of Rome "Tor Vergata"); Fabio Pisani (University of Rome "Tor Vergata")
    Abstract: We use data of the 10th European Social Survey containing information on COVID-19 and work at distance. We find that working with employers that accept working from home or place of choice less than before the COVID-19 period impacts negatively and significantly on respondents’ wellbeing. We calculate that the reduction of this opportunity produces a fall of 5.6 percent in the probability of declaring high life satisfaction, the effect being concentrated in the subsample of respondents with work-life balance problems where the magnitude of the impact goes up to a maximum of 11 percent. Our findings contribute to explain the COVID-19 Easterlin paradox (contemporary occurrence of a sharp fall in GDP and non decrease/increase, in life satisfaction in the first 2020 COVID-19 year in many countries) and the great resignation - the rise of quit rates after COVID-19, partly motivated by absence of offers of hybrid contracts allowing a mix of work in presence and work at distance
    Keywords: distance work, life satisfaction, COVID-19
    JEL: I31 J08
    Date: 2023–11–07
  23. By: Kovacs, Roxanne J.; Dunaiski, Maurice; Tukiainen, Janne
    Abstract: There is an ongoing debate about face masks being made compulsory in public spaces to contain COVID-19. A key concern is that such policies could undermine efforts to maintain social distancing and reduce mobility. We provide first evidence on the impact of compulsory face mask policies on community mobility. We exploit the staggered implementation of policies by German states during the first wave of the pandemic and measure mobility using geo-located smartphone data. We find that compulsory face mask policies led to a short-term reduction in community mobility, with no significant medium-term effects. We can rule out even small increases in mobility.
    Keywords: Covid-19; coronavirus; face masks; social distancing; community mobility; Wellcome Research Fellowships in Humanities and Social Science 219744/Z/19/Z
    JEL: D90 H10 I12 I18
    Date: 2023–10–11
  24. By: Diop, Rokhaya; Yugo, Mohamed Abass; Mbaye, Rose Nadege; Thiam, Hamidou; Diouf, Mam Coumba; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Chisare, Dorothy
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic revealed the vulnerability of essential health services globally and caused major disruptions, particularly in immunization services. In 2020, an estimated two thirds of 105 countries reported disruptions to routine facility-based and/or outreach immunization services (WHO, 2020b). Within the same year, an estimated 23 million children missed out on basic childhood vaccinations, accounting for the highest number since 2009 and representing a significant increase from 2019 (UNICEF, 2021; WHO, 2021a). Some settings experienced an upsurge in deadly diseases, such as measles outbreaks observed in Nigeria and Côte d’Ivoire between late 2020 and early 2021 (WHO, 2022a). The indirect effects of the pandemic on routine immunization services will likely lead to increased illness and death for many years, particularly among vulnerable populations such as women and children.
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2023–08–30
  25. By: Quintana-Domeque, Climent (University of Exeter); Zeng, Jingya (University of Exeter)
    Abstract: The COVID 19 pandemic has profoundly impacted the world, affecting not only physical health and the economy but also mental well being. This chapter provides an investigation of the causal link between lockdown measures a significant public health intervention and mental health. Our examination begins with an overview of the mental health landscape across various countries prior to the COVID 19 pandemic. We then summarize key insights from a range of surveys, reviews, and meta analyses concerning the pandemic's effect on mental health. Further, we delve into a detailed analysis of three noteworthy studies that employ natural experiments to investigate the effects of lockdowns on mental health in different countries. Despite their differing research designs, these studies converge on the conclusion that lockdowns have had a detrimental impact on mental health. The intensity of this effect, however, varies among different population groups. This suggests that lockdown measures have affected certain segments of the population more profoundly than others.
    Keywords: COVID 19, mental distress, natural experiments
    JEL: I1 J1
    Date: 2023–10
  26. By: Virat Agrawal; Neeraj Sood; Christopher M. Whaley
    Abstract: The global COVID-19 vaccination campaign is the largest public health campaign in history, with over 2 billion people fully vaccinated within the first 8 months. Nevertheless, the impact of this campaign on all-cause mortality is not well understood. Leveraging the staggered rollout of vaccines, we find that the vaccination campaign across 141 countries averted 2.4 million excess deaths, valued at $6.5 trillion. We also find that an equitable counterfactual distribution of vaccines, with vaccination in each country proportional to its population, would have saved roughly 670, 000 more lives. However, this distribution approach would have reduced the total value of averted deaths by $1.8 trillion due to redistribution of vaccines from high-income to low-income countries.
    JEL: I1 I18
    Date: 2023–10

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