nep-hea New Economics Papers
on Health Economics
Issue of 2022‒11‒21
twenty papers chosen by
Nicolas R. Ziebarth
Cornell University

  1. Late-career unemployment and cognitive abilities By Freise, Diana; Schmitz, Hendrik; Westphal, Matthias
  2. Performance Pay in Insurance Markets: Evidence from Medicare By Michele Fioretti; Hongming Wang
  3. Workplace Presenteeism, Job Substitutability and Gender Inequality By Ghazala Azmat; Lena Hensvik; Olof Rosenqvist
  4. Time Preferences and Medication Adherence: Evidence from Pregnant Women in South Africa By Mette Trier Damgaard; Christina Gravert; Lisa Norrgren
  5. Before and after out-of-home placement: Child health, education and crime By Petra Gram Cavalca; Mette Ejrnæs; Mette Gørtz
  6. The Health-Consumption Effects of Increasing Retirement Age Late in the Game By Eve Caroli; Catherine Pollak; Muriel Roger
  7. Food Insecurity Among Working-Age Veterans By Rabbitt, Matthew P; Smith, Michael D
  8. An Analysis of Clinical Knowledge, Absenteeism, and Availability of Resources for Maternal and Child Health : A Cross-Sectional Quality of Care Study in 10 African Countries By Di Giorgio,Laura; Evans,David; Lindelow,Magnus; Nguyen,Son Nam; Svensson,Jakob; Wane,Waly; Tarneberg,Anna Welander
  9. Poverty Alleviation and Interhousehold Transfers : Evidence from BRAC's Graduation Program in Bangladesh By Gulesci,Selim
  10. Public Sector Procurement of Medicines in the Philippines By Abrigo, Michael Ralph M.; Tam, Zhandra C; Opiniano, Gina A.; Yee, Sherryl A.; Estopace, Katha Ma-i M.
  11. Assessment of the Service Capability and Readiness of Philippine Hospitals to Provide High-Quality Health Care By Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Nuevo, Christian Edward L.; Uy, Jhanna; Casas, Lyle Daryll D.
  12. Nursing homes and mortality in Europe: Uncertain causality By Xavier Flawinne; Mathieu Lefebvre; Sergio Perelman; Pierre Pestieau; Jérôme Schoenmaeckers
  13. Socioeconomic Impacts of COVID-19 in Four African Countries By Josephson,Anna Leigh; Kilic,Talip; Michler,Jeffrey David
  14. Optimal Contact Tracing and Social Distancing Policies to Suppress a New Infectious Disease By Stefan Pollinger
  15. COVID-19 Vaccination, Political Partisanship, and Moral Values By Piergiuseppe Fortunato; Alessio Lombini
  16. COVID-19 and Gender Differences in the Labor Market: Evidence from the Peruvian Economy By Giannina Vaccaro; Tania Paredes
  17. Social Distancing and Risk Taking: Evidence from a Team Game Show * By Jean-Marc Bourgeon; José de Sousa; Alexis Noir-Luhalwe
  18. COVID-19 Working Paper: The COVID-19 Pandemic and Food Security in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Review of the Emerging Microeconomic Literature By Bloem, Jeffrey; Farris, Jarrad
  19. COVID-19 Working Paper: Food Insecurity During the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Four African Countries By Bloem, Jeffrey; Michler, Jeffrey D; Josephson, Anna; Rudin-Rush, Lorin
  20. Taking Stock of COVID-19 Labor Policy Responses in Developing Countries By De La Flor Giuffra, Luciana; Mujica Canas, Ingrid Veronica; Fontenez, Maria Belen; Newhouse, David Locke; Rodriguez Alas, Claudia P; Sabharwal, Gayatri; Weber, Michael

  1. By: Freise, Diana; Schmitz, Hendrik; Westphal, Matthias
    Abstract: We study the effect of unemployment on cognitive abilities among individuals aged between 50 and 65 in Europe. To this end, we exploit plant closures and use flexible event-study estimations together with an experimentally elicited measure of fluid intelligence, namely word recall. We find that, within a time period of around eight years after the event of unemployment, cognitive abilities only deteriorate marginally - the effects are insignificant both in statistical and economic terms. We do, however, find significant effects of late-career unemployment on the likelihood to leave the labor force, and short-term effects on mental health problems such as depression and sleep problems.
    Keywords: Cognitive abilities,mental health,unemployment,event studies,plant closures
    JEL: J14 J24 C21 I1
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Michele Fioretti (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Hongming Wang
    Abstract: Public procurement bodies increasingly resort to pay-for-performance contracts to promote efficient spending. We show that firm responses to pay-for-performance can widen the inequality in accessing social services. Focusing on the quality bonus payment initiative in Medicare Advantage, we find that higher quality-rated insurers responded to bonus payments by selecting healthier enrollees with premium differences across counties. Selection is profitable because the quality rating fails to adjust for differences in enrollee health. Selection inflated the bonus payments and shifted the supply of highrated insurance to the healthiest counties, reducing access to lower-priced, higher-rated insurance in the riskiest counties.
    Keywords: pay-for-performance,Medicare Advantage,risk selection,quality ratings,health insurance access
    Date: 2021–10–15
  3. By: Ghazala Azmat (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEP - LSE - Centre for Economic Performance - LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science); Lena Hensvik (Uppsala University); Olof Rosenqvist (IFAU - The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy)
    Abstract: Following the arrival of the first child, women's absence rates soar and become less predictable. This fall in workplace presenteeism harms women's wages, especially in jobs with low substitutability. Although both presenteeism and job uniqueness are rewarded, we document that women's likelihood of holding jobs with low substitutability decreases relative to men's after childbearing. This gap persists, with important long-run wage implications. We highlight that the parenthood wage penalty for women could be reduced by organizing work so that more employees have tasks that can be performed satisfactorily by other employees in the workplace.
    Keywords: Work absence,Job substitutability,Gender wage inequality
    Date: 2021–11
  4. By: Mette Trier Damgaard; Christina Gravert; Lisa Norrgren
    Abstract: The effectiveness of health recommendations and treatment plans depends on the extent to which individuals follow them. For the individual, medication adherence involves an inter-temporal trade-off between expected future health benefits and immediate effort costs. Therefore examining time preferences may help us to understand why some people fail to follow health recommendations and treatment plans. In this paper, we use a simple, real-effort task implemented via text message to elicit the time preferences of pregnant women in South Africa. We find evidence that high discounters are significantly less likely to report to adhere to the recommendation of taking daily iron supplements daily during pregnancy. There is some weak indication that time inconsistency also negatively affects adherence. Together our results suggest that measuring time preferences could help predict medication adherence and thus be used to improve preventive health care measures.
    Keywords: time preferences, medication adherence, experiment
    JEL: C93 D91 I12
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Petra Gram Cavalca (Danish Ministry of Finance); Mette Ejrnæs (University of Copenhagen and CEBI, Department of Economics); Mette Gørtz (University of Copenhagen and CEBI, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: We investigate the short-term impact of out-of-home care on child health, schooling and juvenile crime. Using an event study to examine the dynamics around the time of placement, we document a clear deterioration of mental health and increasing crime rates before placement. After placement, we find a decrease in hospitalizations and an improvement in schooling outcomes. For a sub-sample, we use caseworkers’ risk-assessment to form a control group of children who were at risk of a placement. For the marginal child, we find little evidence of a causal effect of placement, as we also see improvements for the control group.
    Keywords: Child protection, health, schooling, crime, event study
    JEL: H75 I14 I21 I38 J12 J13
    Date: 2022–11–04
  6. By: Eve Caroli (LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IZA - Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit - Institute of Labor Economics); Catherine Pollak (DREES - Centre de Recherche du DREES - Ministère de l'Emploi et de la Solidarité, LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Muriel Roger (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LIEPP - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: Using the differentiated increase in retirement age across cohorts introduced by the 2010 French pension reform, we estimate the health-consumption effects of a 4-month increase in retirement age. We focus on individuals who were close to retirement age but not retired yet by the time the reform was passed. Using administrative data on individual sick-leave claims and nonhospital health-care expenses, we show that the probability of having at least one sickness absence increases for all treated groups, while the duration of sick leaves remains unchanged. Delaying retirement does not increase the probability of seeing a GP, except for men in the younger cohorts. In contrast, it raises the probability of having a visit with a specialist physician for all individuals, except men in the older cohorts. Delaying retirement also increases the probability of seeing a physiotherapist among women from the older cohorts. Overall, it increases health expense claims, in particular in the lower part of the expenditure distribution.
    Keywords: pension reform,retirement age,health,health-care consumption
    Date: 2022–10
  7. By: Rabbitt, Matthew P; Smith, Michael D
    Abstract: This report documents the extent and severity of food insecurity among working-age veterans, ages 18–64, who made up 76 percent of the veteran population in 2019. Examining working-age veteran subpopulations, this report compares food insecurity among working-age veterans and nonveterans, and examines the association between military service and food insecurity.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021–05
  8. By: Di Giorgio,Laura; Evans,David; Lindelow,Magnus; Nguyen,Son Nam; Svensson,Jakob; Wane,Waly; Tarneberg,Anna Welander
    Abstract: This paper assesses the quality of health care across African countries based on health providers' clinical knowledge, their clinic attendance, and drug availability, with a focus on seven conditions accounting for a large share of child and maternal mortality: malaria, tuberculosis, diarrhea, pneumonia, diabetes, neonatal asphyxia, and postpartum hemorrhage. With nationally representative, cross-sectional data from 10 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, collected using clinical vignettes, unannounced visits, and visual inspections of facilities, this study assesses whether health providers are available and have sufficient knowledge and means to diagnose and treat patients suffering from common conditions amenable to primary health care. The study draws on data from 8,061 primary and secondary care facilities in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Nigeria, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, and Uganda, and 22,746 health workers. These data were gathered under the Service Delivery Indicators program. Across all conditions and countries, health care providers were able to correctly diagnose 64 percent of the clinical vignette cases, and in 45 percent of the cases, the treatment plan was aligned with the correct diagnosis. For diarrhea and pneumonia, two common causes of under-five deaths, 27 percent of the providers correctly diagnosed and prescribed the appropriate treatment for both conditions. On average, 70 percent of health workers were present in the facilities to provide care during facility hours when those workers were scheduled to be on duty. Taken together, the estimated likelihood that a facility has at least one staff present with competency and the key inputs required to provide child, neonatal, and maternity care that meets minimum quality standards is 14 percent. Poor clinical knowledge is a greater constraint in care readiness than drug availability or health workers' absenteeism in the 10 countries. However, the paper documents substantial heterogeneity across countries.
    Keywords: Health Care Services Industry,Health Service Management and Delivery,Malaria,Leprosy,Communicable Diseases,Cholera,Tuberculosis,Pharmaceuticals Industry,Pharmaceuticals&Pharmacoeconomics
    Date: 2020–10–15
  9. By: Gulesci,Selim
    Abstract: Poor households often rely on transfers from their social networks for consumption smoothing, yet there is limited evidence on how antipoverty programs affect informal transfers. This paper exploits the randomized roll-out of BRAC's ultra-poor graduation program in Bangladesh and panel data covering over 21,000 households over seven years to study the program's effects on interhousehold transfers. The program crowds out informal transfers received by the program's beneficiaries, but this is driven mainly by outside-village transfers. Treated ultra-poor households become more likely to both give and receive transfers to/from wealthier households within their communities; and less likely to receive transfers from their employers. As a result, the reciprocity of their within-village transfers increases. The findings imply that, within rural communities, there is positive assortative matching by socio-economic status. A reduction in poverty enables households to engage more in reciprocal transfer arrangements and lowers the interlinkage of their labor with informal insurance.
    Keywords: Inequality,Livestock and Animal Husbandry,Health Care Services Industry,Labor Markets,Rural Labor Markets
    Date: 2020–11–04
  10. By: Abrigo, Michael Ralph M.; Tam, Zhandra C; Opiniano, Gina A.; Yee, Sherryl A.; Estopace, Katha Ma-i M.
    Abstract: The Philippine government plays an increasingly significant role in the provision of drugs and medicines. Over the last half decade, direct public procurement more than doubled from PHP 7.8 billion in 2014 to PHP 20.1 billion in 2019. In this study, we document government procurement practices as applied to drugs and medicines, with emphasis on instituted information revelation mechanisms to promote transparency. Among the almost 50,000 records in 2019 that we analyzed, we find that about a third of posted procurement opportunities for drugs and medicines had insufficient descriptions available to allow purchase. Further, we find that mandated price caps are associated with longer posting period and greater propensity for failed procurement, but not necessarily with cheaper procurement prices. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: public procurement; drugs and medicines; Drug Price Reference Index; Philippine Government Electronic Procurement System
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Nuevo, Christian Edward L.; Uy, Jhanna; Casas, Lyle Daryll D.
    Abstract: In the Philippines, decisionmakers mostly rely on access indicators in measuring health system performance. However, as the country embarks on path-breaking Universal Health Coverage (UHC) reforms, assessing healthcare quality is more important than ever. In this study, we examined the management practices and service capacity and readiness of hospitals, both structural measures of healthcare quality. Using a validated self-administered online questionnaire, we collected a wide range of data on hospital management and service delivery from selected public and private hospitals. Our findings reveal the longstanding challenges in hospital management and their limitations to provide even the most rudimentary components of medical care - diagnostics and drugs. Our recommendations revolve around the systematic collection of healthcare quality indicators and the use of incentives and grants to facilitate the collection, measurement, and submission of data from facilities. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: universal health care; Philippines;healthcare quality; service capability
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Xavier Flawinne (Université de Liège); Mathieu Lefebvre (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Sergio Perelman (Université de Liège); Pierre Pestieau (Université de Liège, PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jérôme Schoenmaeckers (Université de Liège, CIRIEC-Belgium)
    Abstract: The current health crisis has particularly affected the elderly population. Nursing homes have unfortunately experienced a relatively large number of deaths. On the basis of this observation and working with European data (from SHARE), we want to check whether nursing homes were lending themselves to excess mortality even before the pandemic. Controlling for a number of important characteristics of the elderly population in and outside nursing homes, we conjecture that the difference in mortality between those two samples is to be attributed to the way nursing homes are designed and organized. Using matching methods, we observe excess mortality in Sweden, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Czech Republic and Estonia but not in the Netherlands, Denmark, Austria, France, Luxembourg, Italy and Spain. This raises the question of the organization and management of these nursing homes, but also of their design and financing.
    Keywords: mortality,nursing homes,propensity score matching,SHARE
    Date: 2022
  13. By: Josephson,Anna Leigh; Kilic,Talip; Michler,Jeffrey David
    Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the attempts to limit its spread have resulted in profound economic impacts, and a significant contraction in the global economy is expected. This paper provides some of the first evidence on the socioeconomic impacts of and responses to the pandemic among households and individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa. To do so, reduced-form econometric methods are applied to longitudinal household survey data from Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, and Uganda -- originating from the pre-COVID-19 face-to-face household surveys and from the novel phone surveys that are being implemented during the pandemic. The headline findings are fourfold. First, although false beliefs about COVID-19 remain prevalent, government action to limit the spread of the disease is associated with greater individual knowledge of the disease and increased uptake of precautionary measures. Second, 256 million individuals -- 77 percent of the population in the four countries -- are estimated to live in households that have lost income due to the pandemic. Third, attempts to cope with this loss are exacerbated by the inability to access medicine and staple foods among 20 to 25 percent of the households in each country, and food insecurity is disproportionately borne by households that were already impoverished prior to the pandemic. Fourth, student-teacher contact has dropped from a pre-COVID-19 rate of 96 percent to just 17 percent among households with school-age children. These findings can help inform decisions by governments and international organizations on measures to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and reveal the need for continued monitoring.
    Keywords: Health Care Services Industry,Gender and Development,Educational Sciences,Nutrition,Food Security
    Date: 2020–11–03
  14. By: Stefan Pollinger (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper studies how to optimally combine contact tracing and social distancing to halt the transmission of a new infectious disease. It finds that the crucial tradeoff is between the intensity of the cost from control measures and health outcomes and the time the population needs to endure them. The optimum is a simple function of observables, which eases its implementation. Sufficiently stringent social distancing ensures consistently decreasing case numbers, such that contact tracing can gradually take over the control of the disease. The total cost of suppression depends critically on the efficiency of contact tracing since it determines how fast the policymaker can relax economic restrictions. A calibration to the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy and Singapore illustrates the theoretical results.
    Keywords: COVID-19,suppression strategies,contact tracing,Zero COVID
    Date: 2021–12–30
  15. By: Piergiuseppe Fortunato; Alessio Lombini
    Abstract: This paper examines the association between political partisanship and willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 in the US. It shows that those counties with a stronger lead of the Republican candidate during the latest presidential electoral rounds displayed consistently lower vaccination rates (1st and 2nd dose) than swing counties and Democratic strongholds. The paper also examines how partisanship interacts with socio-demographic variables such as education, income per capita, and ethnic composition in affecting vaccination attitudes. The results remain qualitatively unaffected when taking into consideration differences in the timing and intensity of vaccination campaigns across states and the potential endogeneity of political preferences. Our results also highlight how the specific combination of moral values that characterize the Republican electorate might explain the observed association between partisanship and vaccination rates.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Vaccination, Partisanship, Moral Values
    JEL: I12 I18 Z13
    Date: 2022–11
  16. By: Giannina Vaccaro (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.); Tania Paredes (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.)
    Abstract: The COVID-19 and its confinement measures have generated a severe economic contraction around the world. However, there is still no consensus on the magnitude of its immediate effects, particularly in developing countries. Analysts have emphasized not only human capital losses but also an economic recession and increase in economic and social inequalities, including gender differences. Despite the Latin America (LA) countries are most affected in terms of deaths, most studies focus on the impact of COVID19 on developed countries. Using data from the National Household Surveys (ENAHO) from 2019-2021, we studied the impact of the COVID-19’S confinement measures on gender differences in the labor market in Peru, country with one of the biggest death rates. We found that the COVID-19 pandemic and its lockdown measures accentuated gender inequality in labor market. Women have largely decreased the total hours worked than men, particularly due to the reduction of formal employment. More vulnerable women are low-skilled and those who have not worked remotely. JEL Classification-JE: J01 , J02 , J22 , O17.
    Keywords: COVID-19, employment, gender differences, impact analysis, Peru.
    Date: 2022
  17. By: Jean-Marc Bourgeon (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech, X-DEP-ECO - Département d'Économie de l'École Polytechnique - X - École polytechnique); José de Sousa (Université Paris-Saclay, RITM - Réseaux Innovation Territoires et Mondialisation - Université Paris-Saclay, LIEPP - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Alexis Noir-Luhalwe (Université Paris-Saclay, RITM - Réseaux Innovation Territoires et Mondialisation - Université Paris-Saclay)
    Abstract: We examine the risky choices of pairs of contestants in a popular radio game show in France. At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the show, held in person, had to switch to an all-remote format. We find that such an exogenous change in social context affected risk-taking behavior. Remotely, pairs take far fewer risks when the stakes are high than in the flesh. This behavioral difference is consistent with prosocial behavior theories, which argue that the nature of social interactions influences risky choices. Our results suggest that working from home may reduce participation in profitable but risky team projects.
    Keywords: COVID-19,Social Distancing,Social Pressure,Decision Making,Risk
    Date: 2022–09–30
  18. By: Bloem, Jeffrey; Farris, Jarrad
    Abstract: This paper reviews preliminary findings from the emerging microeconomic literature on observed changes in food insecurity associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. The review complements existing macroeconomic projections of food insecurity, based on expected changes in income and prices, by providing discussions of local-level, microeconomic differences in food insecurity in low- and middle-income countries.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021–10
  19. By: Bloem, Jeffrey; Michler, Jeffrey D; Josephson, Anna; Rudin-Rush, Lorin
    Abstract: This report analyzes food security in the year after the onset of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in four African countries. Using household-level data collected by the World Bank, this report describes differences in food security over time during the pandemic between rural and urban areas as well as between female- and male-headed households in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria. A sharp increase in food insecurity is observed during the early months of the pandemic before a gradual decline. Additionally, findings show a larger increase in food insecurity in rural areas relative to urban areas within each of these countries. Finally, no systemic difference in food insecurity is found between female-headed and male-headed households.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, International Development
    Date: 2022–07
  20. By: De La Flor Giuffra, Luciana; Mujica Canas, Ingrid Veronica; Fontenez, Maria Belen; Newhouse, David Locke; Rodriguez Alas, Claudia P; Sabharwal, Gayatri; Weber, Michael
    Abstract: This Jobs Watch brief provides an analysis of labor market and social protection responses to the COVID-19 crisis, with a focus on policies targeted to workers and firms. It includes a comprehensive set of labor market interventions, using data from the global COVID-19 SPJ Policy Inventory. The analysis can inform governments of approaches that can be taken when introducing or adapting their crisis mitigation measures. To our knowledge, this is the first summary of labor market policies adopted by developing countries in response to the COVID-19 crisis.
    Keywords: labor market policy; Poverty and Equity; information on labor market; jobs and development; Occupational health and safety; Active Labor Market Policies; active labor market policy; income tax reduction; labor regulation; Cash Transfer; social protection policy; cash transfer program; labor market impact; public works program; social security contribution; wage subsidy; Wage Subsidies; unemployment benefit; labor market intervention; flexible work arrangement; labor market demand; share of labor; income support program; transfer program benefit; corporate tax payments; corporate income tax; shorter work hours; Letter of Credit; demand for worker; workplace safety regulations; personal income tax; cash for training; unemployment insurance benefit; extension of contract; demand for labor; income support policy; labor market program; labor market income; effect on health; development cooperation; credit guarantee fund; social assistance; liquidity support; available data; social insurance; working condition; Labor Policies; regulatory adjustment; labor policy; labor income; leave policy; loan payment; tax relief; dismissal procedure; Learning and Innovation Credit; labor inspection; entrepreneurship support; credit facilities; wage worker; tax credit; informal worker; loan repayment; liquidity policy; public health; temporary suspension; outplacement assistance; mandatory training; mass layoff; electronic communication; mitigation policy; policy work; revolving loan; market condition; policy option; reallocating resource; social worker; retail credit; annex annex; tax liability; working schedule; unemployment figure; south sudan; social good; payment facility; regional variability; grace period; labor protection; leave request; month period; work schedule; electricity bill; working day; work permit; independent worker; annual leave; disposable income; implementing policy; use policy; market opportunity; labor inspector; overtime work; increase allowance; liquidity measure; severance payment; related subsidies; weekly rest; new business; workplace training; severance package; supply side; rent payment; irrigation infrastructure; public tender; targeting mechanism; remuneration policy; quantitative information; semi-skilled worker; Macroeconomic Policy; labor supply; present analysis; policy target; utility payment; joint product; Job Matching; rent transfer; take stock; psychological condition; agricultural worker; employment measure; unemployment assistance; collected data; labor transfer; cash wage; insurance policy; reduced work; work effort; short-term employment; liquidity assistance; low wage; wage labor; job rotation
    Date: 2021–03–23

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