nep-hea New Economics Papers
on Health Economics
Issue of 2022‒10‒17
27 papers chosen by
Nicolas R. Ziebarth
Cornell University

  1. Improved Transportation Networks Facilitate Adaptation to Pollution and Temperature Extremes By Panle Jia Barwick; Dave Donaldson; Shanjun Li; Yatang Lin; Deyu Rao
  2. What Drives Risky Prescription Opioid Use? Evidence from Migration By Amy Finkelstein; Matthew Gentzkow; Dean Li; Heidi L. Williams
  3. The Downward Spiral By Jeremy Greenwood; Nezih Guner; Karen A. Kopecky
  4. Prenatal Sugar Consumption and Late-Life Human Capital and Health: Analyses Based on Postwar Rationing and Polygenic Scores By van den Berg, Gerard J.; von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie; Wang, R. Adele H.
  5. Native American "Deaths of Despair" and Economic Conditions By Akee, Randall K. Q.; Feir, Donn. L.; Gorzig, Marina Mileo; Myers Jr, Samuel
  6. How Much Do Retirees Spend on Uncertain Health Costs? By Karalos Arapakis
  7. The Effects of an Increase in the Retirement Age on Health - Evidence from Administrative Data By Barschkett, Mara; Geyer, Johannes; Haan, Peter; Hammerschmid, Anna
  8. Early Life Circumstances and the Health of Older Adults: A Research Note By Chen, Xi
  9. Dramatic Effects but Fast Adaptation: Changes in Life Satisfaction and Different Facets of Affective Well-being around the Death of a Partner and Death of a Child By Eva Asselmann; Jule Specht
  10. Work Comparative Regression Discontinuity and Regression Discontinuity as Alternatives to RCT for Estimating Average Treatment Effects By Duncan Chaplin; Charles Tilley; Denise Hoffman; John T. Jones
  11. A Framework for Evaluating the Adequacy of Disability Benefit Programs and Its Application to U.S. Social Security Disability By Duncan Chaplin; Zachary A. Morris
  12. Economics of attention: The gender-based bing communication study on depression By Yulin Hswen; Nguemdjo Ulrich; Yom-Tom Elad; Ventelou Bruno
  13. Policy-Making, Trust and the Demand for Public Services: Evidence from a Nationwide Family Planning Program By Gianmarco León-Ciliotta; Dijana Zejcirovic; Fernando Fernandez
  14. Child Labour Consequences on Education and Health: A Review of Evidence and Knowledge Gaps By Delphine BOUTIN; Marine JOUVIN
  15. Structural Change, Environmental Pollution and Health Expenditure: Evidence from a Global Panel By Dobdinga C. Fonchamnyo; Etoh-Anzah P. Angyie; Nges S. Afumbom; Gildas D. Dinga; Simplice A. Asongu
  16. International assessment of the use and results of patient-reported outcome measures for hip and knee replacement surgery: Findings of the OECD Patient-Reported Indicator Surveys (PaRIS) working group on hip and knee replacement surgery By Candan Kendir; Katherine de Bienassis; Luke Slawomirski; Niek Klazinga; Micheline Turnau; Michael Turner; Greg Webster; Eric Bohm; Brian Hallstrom; Ola Rolfson; J. Mark Wilkinson; Anne Lübbeke-Wolff
  17. Blurred Boundaries: A Day in the Life of a Teacher By Gibney, Victoria Hunter; West, Kristine L.; Gershenson, Seth
  18. Digital 'nudges' to increase childhood vaccination compliance: Evidence from Pakistan By Shehryar Munir; Farah Said; Umar Taj; Maida Zafar
  19. Estimating consumer preferences for different beverages using the BLP approach By Catherine Haeck; Nicholas Lawson; Crystal Poirier
  20. Who was impacted and how? COVID-19 pandemic and the long uneven recovery in India By Mrinalini Jha; Rahul Lahoti
  21. Moral Hazard on Productivity Among Work-From-Home Workers Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic By Jieun Lee
  22. Substance Abuse during the Pandemic: Implications for Labor-Force Participation By Jeremy Greenwood; Nezih Guner; Karen A. Kopecky
  23. Face Mask Use and Physical Distancing Before and After Mandatory Masking: No Evidence on Risk Compensation in Public Waiting Lines By Seres, Gyula; Balleyer, Anna; Cerutti, Nicola; Friedrichsen, Jana; Süer, Müge
  24. Fiscal Multipliers During Pandemics By Mr. Tidiane Kinda; Andras Lengyel; Kaustubh Chahande
  25. Quantifying Excess Mortality Among Non COVID-19 Patients in Healthcare Settings By Fetzer, T.; Rauh, C.
  26. Too Healthy to Fall Sick? Longevity Expectations and Protective Health Behaviours during the First Wave of Covid-19 By Martina Celidoni; Joan Costa-i-Font; Luca Salmasi
  27. COVID-19 among migrant farmworkers in Canada employment strain in a transnational context By Vosko, Leah F.,; Basok, Tanya,; Spring, Cynthia,; Candiz, Guillermo,; George, Glynis,

  1. By: Panle Jia Barwick; Dave Donaldson; Shanjun Li; Yatang Lin; Deyu Rao
    Abstract: The social costs of pollution and climate change hinge critically on humans’ ability to adapt. Based on transaction records from the world’s largest payment network, this research compiles daily travel flows and documents that China's rapid expansion of high-speed railways (HSR) facilitates the use of intercity travel as an effective adaptation strategy. Access to HSR reduces travelers' exposure to extreme air pollution and temperature by 7% and 10%, leading to substantial health benefits. These reductions are attributed to both contemporaneous responses to unexpected adverse conditions and also longer-horizon changes in travel patterns.
    JEL: O18 Q53 Q54 R41
    Date: 2022–09
  2. By: Amy Finkelstein; Matthew Gentzkow; Dean Li; Heidi L. Williams
    Abstract: We investigate the role of person- and place-specific factors in the opioid epidemic by developing and estimating a dynamic model of risky prescription opioid use. We estimate the model using the relationship between cross-state migration and risky use among adults receiving federal disability insurance from 2006 to 2015. Event studies suggest that moving to a state with a 3.5 percentage point higher rate of risky use (roughly the difference between the 20th and 80th percentile states) increases the probability of risky use by 1.0 percentage point on-impact, followed by an additional increase of 0.30 percentage points per subsequent year. Model estimates imply large place effects in both the likelihood of transitioning to addiction and the availability of prescription opioids. A one standard deviation reduction in all place effects would have reduced risky use by two-thirds over our study period. Reductions in place effects on addiction have a larger cumulative effect than analogous reductions in place effects on availability. However, their relative efficacy is reversed in the first few years, suggesting a temporal tradeoff among policy options.
    JEL: H51 I12
    Date: 2022–09
  3. By: Jeremy Greenwood; Nezih Guner; Karen A. Kopecky
    Abstract: There have been more than 500,000 opioid overdose deaths since 2000. To analyze the opioid epidemic, a model is constructed where individuals, with and without pain, choose whether to misuse opioids knowing the probabilities of addiction and dying. These odds are functions of opioid use. Markov chains are estimated from the US data for the college and non-college educated that summarize the transitions into and out of opioid addiction as well as to a deadly overdose. A structural model is constructed that matches the estimated Markov chains. The epidemic's drivers, and the impact of medical interventions, are examined.
    Keywords: addiction, college/non-college educated, deaths, fentanyl, Markov chain, medical interventions, opioids, OxyContin, pain, prices, structural model
    JEL: D11 D12 E13 I12 I14 I31 J11 J17
    Date: 2022–02
  4. By: van den Berg, Gerard J. (University of Groningen); von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie (University of Bristol); Wang, R. Adele H. (University of Bristol)
    Abstract: Maternal sugar consumption in utero may have a variety of effects on offspring. We exploit the abolishment of the rationing of sweet confectionery in the UK on April 24, 1949, and its subsequent reintroduction some months later, in an era of otherwise uninterrupted rationing of confectionery (1942-1953), sugar (1940-1953) and many other foods, and we consider effects on late-life cardiovascular disease, BMI, height, type-2 diabetes and the intake of sugar, fat and carbohydrates, as well as cognitive outcomes and birth weight. We use individual-level data from the UK Biobank for cohorts born between April 1947–May 1952. We also explore whether one's genetic predisposition to the outcome can moderate the effects of prenatal sugar exposure. We find that prenatal exposure to derationing increases education and reduces BMI and sugar consumption at higher ages, in line with the "developmental origins" explanatory framework, and that the sugar effects are stronger for those who are genetically predisposed to sugar consumption.
    Keywords: nutrition, food consumption, gene-environment interplay, education, developmental origins
    JEL: I12 I18 I15 D45
    Date: 2022–09
  5. By: Akee, Randall K. Q. (University of California, Los Angeles); Feir, Donn. L. (University of Victoria); Gorzig, Marina Mileo (Mathematica); Myers Jr, Samuel (University of Minnesota)
    Abstract: Non-Hispanic whites who do not have a college degree have experienced an increase in "deaths of despair" – deaths caused by suicide, drug use, and alcohol use. Yet, deaths of despair are proportionally largest among Native Americans and the rate of increase of these deaths matches that of non-Hispanic white Americans. Native American women and girls face the largest differentials: deaths of despair comprise over 10% of all deaths among Native American women and girls – almost four times as high as the proportion of deaths for non-Hispanic white women and girls. However, the factors related to these patterns are very different for Native Americans than they are for non-Hispanic white Americans. Improvements in economic conditions are associated with decreased deaths from drug use, alcohol use, and suicide for non-Hispanic white Americans. On the other hand, in counties with higher labor force participation rates, lower unemployment, and higher ratios of employees to residents, there are significantly higher Native American deaths attributed to suicide and drug use. These results suggest that general improvements in local labor market conditions may not be associated with a reduction in deaths of despair for all groups.
    Keywords: Native American, public health, deaths of despair, economic conditions
    JEL: I14 J15 J16
    Date: 2022–09
  6. By: Karalos Arapakis
    Abstract: One source of financial risk that older Americans face is high health care expenses. Although the largest share of these expenses is due to predictable insurance premiums,retirees can pay sizable additional out-of-pocket costs as well. Medicare and Medicaid help reduce this risk, but Medicare does not cover every expense and Medicaid covers only households with very low income and assets. Thus, better understanding the extent of this coverage and the remaining burden on individuals is an important issue for retirees and policymakers alike. This brief is based on a recent paper that addresses the following question: How much do retirees pay in lifetime out-of-pocket health costs, excluding premiums and including long-term care? The analysis proceeds in two steps. It first calculates the distribution and evolution of total non-premium health care spending over the lifecycle of retired households. It then determines the amount covered by public and private insurers and subtracts this portion from the total to obtain out-of-pocket spending. By focusing on lifetime totals, this brief captures not only the risk of high expenses in a single year, but also the risk of moderate but persistent expenses that add up to a high cost burden over time. The discussion proceeds as follows. The first section provides a brief background on health care spending and insurance programs. The second section describes the data and methodology. The third section presents the results: total spending on health services, the portion covered by insurance, and what retirees pay out-of-pocket. The final section concludes that lifetime health care spending by retirees above and beyond predictable premiums is high and uncertain. However, Medicare, Medicaid, and other insurers cover a large portion of these expenditures. As a result, 65-year-old households pay, on average, $67,260 in out-of-pocket costs over their remaining lifetime, which is about one-fifth of total non-premium costs. Households at the 90th percentile of the health spending distribution pay twice this amount out-of-pocket, though it represents a similar share of the total.
    Date: 2022–08
  7. By: Barschkett, Mara (DIW Berlin and FU Berlin); Geyer, Johannes (DIW Berlin and Netspar); Haan, Peter (DIW Berlin, FU Berlin and Netspar); Hammerschmid, Anna (DIW Berlin)
    Abstract: This study analyzes the causal effect of an increase in the retirement age on health. We exploit a sizable cohort-specific pension reform for women using two complementary empirical approaches – a Regression Discontinuity Design and a Difference-in-Differences approach. The analysis is based on official records covering all individuals insured by the public health system in Germany and including all certified diagnoses by practitioners. This enables us to gain a detailed understanding of the multi-dimensionality in these health effects. The empirical findings reflect the multi-dimensionality but allow for deriving two broader conclusions. We provide evidence that the increase in the retirement age negatively affects health outcomes as the prevalence of several diagnoses, e.g., mental health, musculoskeletal diseases, and obesity, increases. In contrast, we do not find support for an improvement in health related to a prolonged working life since there is no significant evidence for a reduction in the prevalence of any health outcome we consider. These findings hold for both identification strategies, are robust to sensitivity checks, and do not change when correcting for multiple hypothesis testing.
    Keywords: Germany; retirement; pension reform; health; ICD-10; regression discontinuity design; difference-in-differences;
    JEL: I10 I12 I18 J14 J18 J26
    Date: 2021–11–29
  8. By: Chen, Xi (Yale University)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the latest evidence of the effects of early life circumstances on old-age health, distinguishing in utero exposures from childhood exposures to a wide range of environments. We then leverage the growing number of studies of the impact of the Great Chinese Famine (1959-1961) on the health of older adults to perform a meta-analysis and discuss potential mechanisms. Recent studies assembling multiple domains of early life circumstances are evaluated to better understand how various circumstances may coalesce and manifest in shaping long-term health.
    Keywords: early life circumstances, old-age health, famine, long-term health, meta-analysis, China
    JEL: I14 J14 J13 I18
    Date: 2022–08
  9. By: Eva Asselmann; Jule Specht
    Abstract: Although everyone would agree that bereavement is extremely stressful, surprisingly little is known about changes in different facets of affective well-being in the years surrounding the death of a loved one. On the basis of the Socio-Economic Panel Study, we examined changes in cognitive well-being (life satisfaction) and different facets of affective well-being (happiness, sadness, anxiety, and anger) in the years around the death of a partner (N =989) and child (N =276). Data on the death of a partner and child as well as cognitive and affective well-being were assessed yearly since 2007. Multilevel analyses revealed that both events were associated with very large well-being impairments (>1 SD) that were most pronounced for sadness, happiness, and life satisfaction in the first year of bereavement. Afterwards, bereaved individuals managed to recover impressively well: Levels of life satisfaction, happiness, and sadness were on average similar 5 years after losing a partner or child compared with 5 years before the respective loss. Our findings suggest (a) that many individuals tend to be capable to even cope with highly stressful loss experiences and (b) that Set-Point Theory not only applies to life satisfaction but also different facets of affective well-being around the death of a loved one.
    Keywords: Affect, bereavement, grief, life satisfaction, widowhood
    Date: 2022
  10. By: Duncan Chaplin; Charles Tilley; Denise Hoffman; John T. Jones
    Abstract: In this paper we use data from an evaluation of the Benefit Offset National Demonstration (BOND) to evaluate the efficacy of using comparative regression discontinuity (CRD) and regression discontinuity (RD) relative to a randomized controlled trial (RCT). BOND is a large demonstration intended to promote return to work among people with disabilities who receive Social Security Disability Insurance (DI). RD is known as a relatively rigorous non-experimental method but produces imprecise results that apply to small populations. CRD is a promising enhancement that addresses these issues. The CRD and RD methods are potentially attractive because they can be used in contexts in which RCTs are challenging or infeasible. However, the bias of findings from CRD and RD studies is unknown in the context of DI. In this paper, we estimate CRD and RD models using simulated assignment to the BOND treatment group based on the duration of DI receipt at the start of BOND. We compare the CRD and RD estimates to RCT estimates. While the findings are not intended to revise the well-established evidence evaluating BOND, they can be used to help interpret the results from CRD and RD studies on other income support interventions for people with disabilities and to inform future study designs. Our paper has two key limitations. First, our RD models are far from ideal. This limits the degree to which our RD results generalize to what would be found with state-of-the art RD models. Second, our results may not generalize to other populations. Our analysis was based on BOND beneficiaries who were representative of the larger DI population at the time of BOND random assignment but may not reflect the DI population in more recent years.
    Date: 2022–08
  11. By: Duncan Chaplin; Zachary A. Morris
    Abstract: This paper presents a framework for assessing the adequacy of disability benefit programs and then applies that framework to an analysis of two Social Security disability programs in the U.S.: Social Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income. The paper draws on survey data from the Health and Retirement Study linked to administrative records from the Social Security Administration, and further compares the U.S. estimates to those from 26 other countries using cross-nationally harmonized data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe.
    Date: 2022–08
  12. By: Yulin Hswen (UCSF - University of California [San Francisco] - University of California); Nguemdjo Ulrich (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LPED - Laboratoire Population-Environnement-Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AMU - Aix Marseille Université); Yom-Tom Elad (MSR - Microsoft Research, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology [Haifa]); Ventelou Bruno (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of personalized gender-based communication to encourage the screening of depression and seeking out mental health care consultation. An internet search engine advertisement was deployed on Bing, Microsoft during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns in the Provence–Alpes–Côte d'Azur (PACA) region in France during the month of May 2020, the height of the France lockdowns. A two-armed study was conducted with Arm A containing a non-personalized (control) advertisement and Arm B containing a personalized gender-based advertisement. 53,185 advertisements were shown between the two arms. Results show that receiving a personalized gender-based message increases the probability of clicking on the advertisement. However, upon clicking the advertisement, there was no significant difference in the completion of the depression questionnaire between the two groups. These results suggest that although personalized gender messaging is effective at drawing in a greater click rate, it did not increase, nor decreased, the conversion rate to monitor depression by self-assessment.
    Keywords: Personalized communication,Depression,Bing,COVID-19
    Date: 2022–03
  13. By: Gianmarco León-Ciliotta; Dijana Zejcirovic; Fernando Fernandez
    Abstract: Trust in institutions is a key driver of the demand for government services, and in turn, the way these services are delivered affects trust. We study a large-scale family planning campaign in which more than 300,000 Peruvian women were sterilized. Many of these are alleged to have been performed without appropriate or informed consent. Using a difference-in-difference strategy, we show that subsequent disclosures about the alleged sterilizations reduced usage of contraceptive methods, pre-natal and birth delivery services, and –more generally– the demand for medical services and that child health worsened as a result. The results persist for at least 17 years after the information disclosure and are mainly driven by those who strongly supported the government at baseline, i.e. disappointed voters, and not by those who share demographic characteristics with the alleged victims. Learning about government mistreatment of citizens undermined trust in institutions. Our results highlight the relevance of how policies are implemented and communicated to citizens for ensuring their long-term success.
    Keywords: trust, public policy, reproductive health
    JEL: O10 I14 I18 N36
    Date: 2022–06
  14. By: Delphine BOUTIN; Marine JOUVIN
    Abstract: Understanding and quantifying the consequences of child labour on children’s short- and longterm development is an important step in designing appropriate policies and programs to improve children’s well-being. We provide an updated review of the literature on the impact of child labour on children’s education and health. Specifically, this paper first explain the mechanisms by which child labour impacts children's education, physical health, and mental health, both in the short and long term. Second, we synthesize the available knowledge on the causal effect of child labour on education and health. We reviewed studies focusing on developing countries that investigate the consequences of child labour on education (25 studies selected), physical health (11 studies) and mental health (4 studies). Empirical evidence leaves no doubt about the negative impact of child labour on their physical and mental health. Although the consequences of child labour on education are mostly negative, working children could also benefit from learning additional skills. Finally, we highlight the methodological limitations and gaps of the current evidence, indicating that the empirical results reported are more an indication of potential effects than an actual quantification of the impacts of child labour.
    Keywords: Child Labour, Education, Physical Health, Mental Health
    JEL: I15 I25 J24
    Date: 2022
  15. By: Dobdinga C. Fonchamnyo (University of Bamenda, Cameroon); Etoh-Anzah P. Angyie (University of Bamenda, Cameroon); Nges S. Afumbom (University of Bamenda, Cameroon); Gildas D. Dinga (University of Bamenda, Cameroon); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study examined the effects of structural change and environmental pollution on health expenditure, while controlling for globalization. A panel data from 1995 to 2019 for 115 countries was used, while the estimation of results was done based on the Driscoll-Kraay technique. The estimation was conducted for different income levels as well as sub-regional groupings. The results revealed that two components of structural change, manufacturing value-added and service value-added significantly increased health expenditure in the world. Economic globalization and financial globalisation were also found to significantly reduce health expenditure while social globalisation, environmental pollution and interpersonal globalisation were found to significantly increase health expenditure in the world. The income level analysis revealed that manufacturing value-added significantly increased health expenditure in low-middle-income and upper-middle-income countries and in the different sub-regional groupings. The results also showed that agricultural value-added reduced health expenditure in low-middle-income countries and in Latin American countries. Service value added was found to reduce health expenditure in East Asian, Pacific, and South Asia and to increase health expenditure in the Middle East and North Africa. It is therefore recommended that green production techniques and better abatement policies should be utilized in the industrial and service sectors of all economies.
    Keywords: Structural change, environmental pollution, Health expenditure, Driscoll-Kraay technique
    Date: 2022–01
  16. By: Candan Kendir (OECD); Katherine de Bienassis (OECD); Luke Slawomirski (OECD); Niek Klazinga (OECD); Micheline Turnau (Canadian Institute for Health Information); Michael Turner (Canadian Institute for Health Information); Greg Webster (Canadian Institute for Health Information); Eric Bohm (International Society of Arthroplasty Registries); Brian Hallstrom (International Society of Arthroplasty Registries); Ola Rolfson (International Society of Arthroplasty Registries); J. Mark Wilkinson (International Society of Arthroplasty Registries); Anne Lübbeke-Wolff (International Society of Arthroplasty Registries)
    Abstract: Osteoarthritis impacts 7% of the global population, affecting more than 500 million people worldwide. As populations of OECD countries age, an increasing number of hip and knee replacement surgeries calls for further work on assessment of quality of care, particularly from patients’ point of view. Thirteen programmes from nine countries participated in the PaRIS Hip and Knee PROMs comparative reporting in 2020-21 by collecting and submitting data by generic and condition-specific PROMs. All programmes showed improvements in patient outcomes though the relative improvement varied. Crosswalks from SF-12 to EQ-5D provided valuable lessons on conversion errors. Results of this work call for improving the use of data for comparative reporting as well as further collaboration on utilising patient-reported metrics in quality-of-care improvement and policymaking.
    JEL: I10
    Date: 2022–09–30
  17. By: Gibney, Victoria Hunter (American University); West, Kristine L. (St. Catherine University); Gershenson, Seth (American University)
    Abstract: The burnout, stress, and work-life balance challenges faced by teachers have received renewed interest due to the myriad disruptions and changes to K-12 schooling brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, even prior to the pandemic relatively little was known about teachers' time use outside of the classroom, the blurring of work and home boundaries, and how teachers compare to similar professionals in these regards. We use daily time-diary data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) for 3,227 teachers and 1,947 professionals in similarly prosocial occupations from 2003 to 2019 to examine occupational differences in time use. Compared to observationally similar non-teachers, teachers spend significantly more time volunteering at their workplace and completing work outside the workplace. On average, teachers spend 12 more minutes working outside of the workplace on weekdays than observably similar non-teachers, and 39 more minutes on weekends. The weekend disparity is particularly large among secondary school teachers. This suggests that before the widespread switch to online and hybrid learning necessitated by the COVID pandemic, teachers were already navigating blurrier work-life boundaries than their counterparts in similar professions. This has important implications for teacher turnover and for the effectiveness and wellness of teachers who remain in the profession.
    Keywords: teacher labor supply, time use
    JEL: I2 J22
    Date: 2022–09
  18. By: Shehryar Munir; Farah Said; Umar Taj; Maida Zafar
    Abstract: Pakistan has one of the lowest rates of routine childhood immunization worldwide, with only two-thirds of infants 2 years or younger being fully immunized (Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2019). Government-led, routine information campaigns have been disrupted over the last few years due to the on-going COVID-19 pandemic. We use data from a mobile-based campaign that involved sending out short audio dramas emphasizing the importance of vaccines and parental responsibilities in Quetta, Pakistan. Five out of eleven areas designated by the provincial government were randomly selected to receive the audio calls with a lag of 3 months and form the comparison group in our analysis. We conduct a difference-in-difference analysis on data collected by the provincial Department of Health in the 3-month study and find a significant 30% increase over the comparison mean in the number of fully vaccinated children in campaign areas on average. We find evidence that suggests vaccination increased in UCs where vaccination centers were within a short 30-minute travel distance, and that the campaign was successful in changing perceptions about vaccination and reliable sources of advice. Results highlight the need for careful design and targeting of similar soft behavioral change campaigns, catering to the constraints and abilities of the context.
    Date: 2022–09
  19. By: Catherine Haeck (Department of Economics, University of Quebec in Montreal); Nicholas Lawson (Department of Economics, University of Quebec in Montreal); Crystal Poirier (Department of Economics, University of Quebec in Montreal)
    Abstract: The overconsumption of sugar is a significant problem in many jurisdictions, and one possible method to remedy this problem is the taxation of sugar- sweetened beverages (SSBs). To be able to implement an optimal tax, it is important to know the preferences and price sensitivity of consumers. This article therefore estimates the price elasticity of demand for different beverages in Quebec, using the Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (BLP) random parameter logistic demand model, combined with Nielsen data from 2010 to 2016 and the 2016 Canadian Census. The results suggest that the average consumer prefers high-calorie beverages containing fruits and vegetables, and the estimated price elasticities are between -4.40 (energy drinks) and -1.59 (regular soft drinks). As a result, consumers of energy drinks appear to reduce their consumption the most in the face of rising prices, whereas consumers of soft drinks will decrease their consumption the least. However, at a general level, the implementation of a tax on SSBs in Quebec should generate a significant reduction in consumption.
    Keywords: sugar-sweetened beverages, price elasticity of demand, BLP, taxation
    JEL: I12 I18 D12 H23
    Date: 2022–03
  20. By: Mrinalini Jha; Rahul Lahoti
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on income levels, poverty, and inequality in both the immediate aftermath and during the uneven recovery until December 2021 using high-frequency household survey data from India. We find that the average household incomes dropped sharply during the months of the nationwide lockdown. The subsequent recovery remained incomplete and was unevenly spread over the population even 22 months after the start of the pandemic. Poverty more than doubled during the lockdown and even after almost two years was slightly higher than before the pandemic.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Poverty, Inequality, Income distribution, India
    Date: 2022
  21. By: Jieun Lee
    Abstract: After the outbreak of COVID 19, firms appear to monitor Work From Home (WFH) workers more than ever out of anxiety that workers may shirk at home or implement moral hazard at home. Using the Survey of Working Arrangements and Attitudes (SWAA, Barrero et al., 2021), the evidence of WFH workers' ex post moral hazard as well as its specific aspects are examined. The results show that the ex post moral hazard among the WFH workers is generally found. Interestingly, however, the moral hazard on specific type of productivity, efficiency, is not detected for the workers at firms with WFH friendly policy for long term. Moreover, the advantages & challenges for the WFH culture report that workers with health or disability issues improve their productivity, whereas certain conditions specific to the WFH environment must be met.
    Date: 2022–09
  22. By: Jeremy Greenwood; Nezih Guner; Karen A. Kopecky
    Abstract: The labor-force participation rates of prime-age U.S. workers dropped in March 2020—the start of the COVID-19 pandemic—and have still not fully recovered. Could increased substance abuse during the pandemic be an important contributing factor? Substance-abuse deaths were elevated during the pandemic relative to trend indicating an increase in the number of substance abusers, and abusers of opioids and crystal methamphetamine have lower labor-force participation rates than non-abusers. A range of estimates of the number of additional substance abusers during the pandemic indicate that increased substance abuse can account for 9 to 30 percent of the decline in prime-age labor force participation between February 2020 and June 2021.
    Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, substance abuse, labor-force participation
    JEL: I12 J11 J21
    Date: 2022–03
  23. By: Seres, Gyula (HU Berlin); Balleyer, Anna (University of Groningen); Cerutti, Nicola (Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change)); Friedrichsen, Jana (HU Berlin, FU Berlin, WZB Berlin and DIW Berlin); Süer, Müge (HU Berlin)
    Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the introduction of mandatory face mask usage triggered a heated debate. A major point of controversy is whether community use of masks creates a false sense of security that would diminish physical distancing, counteracting any potential direct benefit from masking. We conducted a randomized field experiment in Berlin, Germany, to investigate how masks affect distancing and whether the mask effect interacts with the introduction of an indoor mask mandate. Joining waiting lines in front of stores, we measured distances kept from the experimenter in two treatment conditions – the experimenter wore a mask in one and no face covering in the other – in two time spans – before and after mask use becoming mandatory in stores. We find no evidence that mandatory masking has a negative effect on distance kept toward a masked person. To the contrary, masks significantly increase distancing and the effect does not di↵er between the two periods. However, we show that after the mandate distances are shorter in locations where more non-essential stores, which were closed before the mandate, had reopened. We argue that the relaxations in general restrictions that coincided with the mask mandate led individuals to reduce other precautions, like keeping a safe distance.
    Keywords: COVID-19; face masks; social distancing; risk compensation; field experiment; health policy;
    JEL: I12 C93
    Date: 2021–11–16
  24. By: Mr. Tidiane Kinda; Andras Lengyel; Kaustubh Chahande
    Abstract: Many countries have deployed substantial fiscal packages to cushion the economic fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic. A historical look at past pandemics and epidemics highlights concomitant public sector support in response to health crises. This paper assesses how fiscal multipliers could vary during health crises, particularly how factors such as social distancing and uncertainty could lower contemporaneous (T) multipliers and increase near-term (T+1 and T+2) multipliers as economies re-open, including due to pent-up demand. Based on Jorda’s (2005) local projection methodology, the paper shows that cumulative fiscal multipliers one year after a health crisis is about twice larger than during normal times, particularly in advanced economies. These results suggest that large-scale fiscal support deployed at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic could have larger than usual lingering impacts on economic activity, which need to be accounted for when calibrating policies.
    Keywords: Fiscal multipliers; fiscal policy; health crises.; health crisis; fixed capital capital formation; pandemic state; transmission channel proxy; pandemic regime; COVID-19; Fiscal stimulus; Global; Middle East; multipliers in the pandemic state; pandemic indicator function; contemporaneous multiplier; containment measure
    Date: 2022–07–22
  25. By: Fetzer, T.; Rauh, C.
    Abstract: COVID-19 drastically increased demand- and supply pressures faced by healthcare systems. Increased pressures may have negative spillovers into non COVID-19 care which can cause preventable excess deaths among patients seeking medical help for reasons unrelated to COVID-19. This paper finds substantial and robust evidence of such non COVID-19 excess deaths among hospital patients leveraging data from an integrated public healthcare system: the NHS in England. We find that there is at least one additional preventable death among hospital patients seeking medical help for reasons unrelated to COVID-19 for every 30 deaths that can be linked to COVID-19. In aggregate, there were 4,003 such excess deaths during the first twelve months of the pandemic. At the healthcare provider level, the increase in non COVID-19 excess deaths is sharply increasing in COVID-19 induced pressures on hospitals.
    Keywords: congestion effects, COVID-19, excess mortality, externalities, pandemic, public health
    Date: 2022–09–09
  26. By: Martina Celidoni; Joan Costa-i-Font; Luca Salmasi
    Abstract: Longevity expectations (LE) are subjective assessments of future health status that can influence a number of individual health protective decisions. This is especially true during a pandemic such as COVID-19, as the risk of ill health depends more than ever on such protective decisions. This paper exploits differences in LE to examine the causal effect of LE on protective health behaviours and a number of decisions around access to health care, using data from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe. We draw on an instrumental variable strategy exploiting individual level information on parental age at death. Consistent with the too healthy to be sick hypothesis, we find that individuals with higher expected longevity are more likely to engage in protective behaviours, and are less likely to forgo medical treatment. We estimate that a one standard deviation increase in expected longevity increases the probability to comply always with social distancing by 0.6%, to meet people less often by 0.4% and decreases the probability to forgo any medical treatment by 0.6%. Our estimates vary depending on the availability of health care, as well as individuals' gender and pre-existing health conditions.
    Keywords: longevity expectations, private information, health behaviours, forgone medical treatment, health capital, SHARE, Europe, instrumental variables
    JEL: I12 I18
    Date: 2022
  27. By: Vosko, Leah F.,; Basok, Tanya,; Spring, Cynthia,; Candiz, Guillermo,; George, Glynis,
    Abstract: This study analyzes the conditions that migrant farmworkers in Canada endured prior to and during theCOVID-19 pandemic (January 2020-March 2022). It draws on policy analysis and open-ended interviews with workers in Canada’s Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP), as well as non-status migrants employed in agriculture. It evaluates policies and measures adopted by Canadian authorities to address labour shortages in agriculture and protect the health of migrant farmworkers
    Keywords: agricultural worker, migrant worker, COVID-19, working conditions, hazardous work, labour shortage, precarious employment, occupational safety, occupational health, occupational injury
    Date: 2022

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