nep-hea New Economics Papers
on Health Economics
Issue of 2015‒03‒27
25 papers chosen by
Yong Yin
SUNY at Buffalo

  1. Valuing the Effects of Air and Noise Pollution on Health Status in Turkey By Ozdamar, Oznur; Giovanis, Eleftherios
  2. Effect of simulation in training pharmacy students on correct inhaler technique By Iman Basheti
  3. Knowledge and Practice of Healthy Lifestyle Among Higher Institution Student By Anis Zakaria; Zaidatul Syahirah Zainal Abidin
  4. Body Weight and Labour Market Outcomes in Post-Soviet Russia By Sonya Huffman
  5. Empowering patients and professionals: case of Lithuanian e-health system By Aelita Skarzauskiene; Monika Maciuliene; Viktorija Stokaite; Taurimas Valys
  6. Impact of global financial crisis on healthcare expenditures in developed countries By Pawel Bialynicki-Birula
  7. Using lotteries to incentivize safer sexual behavior : evidence from a randomized controlled trial on HIV prevention By Nyqvist,Martina Björkman; Corno,Lucia; De Walque,Damien B. C. M.; Svensson,Jakob
  8. Formal professional relationships between general practitioners and specialists: possible associations with patient health and pharmacy costs By Lublóy, Ágnes; Keresztúri, Judit Lilla; Benedek, Gábor
  9. The Effect of Cancer on the Employment of Older Males: Attenuating Selection Bias using a High Risk Sample By David Candon
  10. The effects of Air Pollution on Health Status in Great Britain By Giovanis, Eleftherios; Ozdamar, Oznur
  11. Do “Consumer-Directed” Health Plans Bend the Cost Curve Over Time? By Amelia M. Haviland; Matthew D. Eisenberg; Ateev Mehrotra; Peter J. Huckfeldt; Neeraj Sood
  12. Education does not seem to improve health: Evidence from Indonesia By Parinduri, Rasyad
  13. A comparative study between observation- and parameter-driven zero-in ated Poisson model for longitudinal children hospital visit data By Shahariar Huda
  14. The Quality of Health Services in Bechar Public Hospital Institution By Hayat Belaid; Ahmed bouchenafa; Abd Elkader Barich; Karima Maazouzi
  15. Surveying relationship of Emotional Intelligence and mental health with achievement motivation in university students By Hossein Fakorihajiyar; Alireza Homayouni; Hossein Daeezadeh; Babak Hosseinzadeh
  16. Gender differences in mental health among student By Habibollah Naderi; M Zareh
  19. Job Embeddedness in Hospitality Industry: An Empirical Study in Alanya By Boran Toker; Sedat Çelik
  20. Public Health and Intellectual Property By Ricardo Sichel
  21. The Content of health News and Programs in Television in Turkey By Abdullah Kocak
  22. Osteosynthesis for Surgical Management of Fractures - An E-learning Approach to Education and Training in Biomechanics By Petar Molchovski; Keti Tokmakova; Mariya Tokmakova
  23. Success and failure in European environmental health policies By Julien Forbat
  24. Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in Nigeria By Rafael Cortez; Seemeen Saadat; Edmore Marinda; Odutolu Oluwole
  25. Has Subjective General Health Declined with the Economic Crisis? A Comparison across European Countries By Kevin Denny

  1. By: Ozdamar, Oznur; Giovanis, Eleftherios
    Abstract: This study explores the determinants of health status in Turkey. Moreover, this study explores the willingness to pay for reducing the air and noise pollution. The estimates are based on data from the annual Income and Living Conditions Survey (ILCS) in Turkey which took place in period 2006-2012. The effects of air and noise pollution on individuals’ health status and whether an individual suffers from chronic illness are estimated and their monetary value is calculated. This is the first study which examines the effects of noise and air pollution in Turkey using a great variety of econometric models as ordered Logit and binary Logit models for cross sectional data. Moreover using a pseudo panel data created based on age and region cohorts various panel data econometric approaches are followed. Regarding the health status the first model is the adapted Probit fixed effects, the “Blow-Up and Cluster” (BUC) and Ferrer-i-Carbonell and Frijters (FCF) estimators to account for intercept heterogeneity. The second approach is the Random Effects Generalized Logit Model to account for slope heterogeneity. Finally, two and three stage least squares instrumental variables approaches are followed using wind direction and regional complaint rates on air and noise pollution as instruments. Income and education are the most important determinants of health status. Based on the favoured estimates individuals who reported problems with air and noise pollution are willing to pay for air and noise quality improvement more by 20.00-21.00 Turkish Liras (TL) and 22.80-25.00 TL respectively than the individuals than did not report any complaint. Finally, the MWTP values of air and noise pollution effects on wages, working hours lost, house rents and expenses and moving dwelling are calculated.
    Keywords: Air pollution, Environmental valuation, Health Status, Noise, Pseudo-Panel
    JEL: I31 Q51 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2014–11
  2. By: Iman Basheti (University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: Objectives: To assess the effect of engaging pharmacy students in a simulated situation in which they counsel real asthma patients on their inhaler technique for Dry Powder Inhalers (Accuhaler and Turbuhaler) and Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI).Methods: This was a single blinded repeated measures parallel group design study, conducted in 2011, involving all 5th year students enrolled in the Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics course unit. All students were assessed on their inhaler technique at baseline based on previously published checklists for Accuhaler (ACC, 9 steps), Turbuhaler (TH, 10 steps) and MDI (9 steps). Students were randomly allocated to 2 Interventions, Intervention A ‘supervised hands-on education in groups + Peer assessment/education’; and Intervention B ‘supervised hands on education in groups + Peer assessment + simulated scenario counseling a real asthma patient. Patient counseling involved students in groups of 6, assessing three asthma patients on inhaler technique (each on one of the devices) then delivering an education (verbal information + physical demonstration) till the patient performed all steps in each checklist correctly. Student assessments on inhaler technique skills were repeated one week post-intervention.In addition, this is the first study to investigate students’ perceived barriers to demonstrating correct inhaler technique and future performance of their pre-education role in this area.Results: At baseline, none of the students in Intervention A (n =54) and Intervention B (n =55) performed correct technique for the three devices. One week following intervention, a significantly higher proportion of students in Intervention B demonstrated correct technique for the DIS, TH and MDI (60.0%;70.9%;69.1%) vs. Intervention A (27.8%;40.7%;42.6%, p<0.005,Chi Square test).Barriers perceived by the students towards their role in this area included mostly lack of practical training during undergraduate studies and lack of knowledge about the importance of this topic. No significant difference between the two Interventions was found with regards to the reported perceived barriers.Conclusion: Engaging pharmacy students with real asthma patients in a simulated scenario involving correct inhaler technique education can result in better student inhaler technique demonstration skills. Engaging pharmacy students in targeted practical training in this area would fulfill the needed highlighting of its importance and provide the skills required.
    Keywords: Simulation, pharmacy education, inhaler use
    JEL: I20 I21 I23
    Date: 2014–05
  3. By: Anis Zakaria (University Putra of Malaysia); Zaidatul Syahirah Zainal Abidin (University Putra of Malaysia)
    Abstract: The knowledge and practice on healthy lifestyle is very important to determine a good growth and mental development for students at the tertiary level. It is well established that a healthy lifestyle is of benefit in the prevention of diseases such as cancer and promotion of well-being. Unhealthy nutrition, physical inactivity, tobacco use and the use of alcohol and illicit drugs are among identified lifestyle-related risk factors(The European health report, 2002). It is well established that a healthy lifestyle is of benefit in promotion of well-being (WHO 1990). Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours particularly poor dietary practices, physical inactivity and smoking are major risk factors for conditions like overweight, obesity and chronic non-communicable diseases (Damasceno 2006) Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify and explore level, types and barrier in practicing healthy lifestyle among the students under Bachelor of Home Science and Agriculture Science Education program. This quantitative and qualitative research used questionnaires and interview as research instrument. 259 students were involved as sample for quantitative data and five informant were selected for quantitative data. Results showed that there were no significant result between knowledge and practice and selected types of healthy life style were detected at highly known and practiced. The barrier of practicing healthy life identified among the students were time constraint, work burden, weak in time management and consciousness about healthy life style. Several suggestions were given to promote healthy lifestyle among the students to highlight and improve good mental development and grown to be taken action by the students and university. This study showed a poor practice of healthy lifestyle among university students. Therefore universities should emphasize a healthy lifestyle in all faculties as a required subject.
    Keywords: Healthy lifestyle,higher education students
    JEL: I19 I29
    Date: 2014–05
  4. By: Sonya Huffman (Iowa State University)
    Abstract: This research focuses on the impacts of weight, measured by body mass index (BMI), on employment, wages, and missed work due to illness for Russian adults by gender using recent panel data (1994-2005) from the nationally representative Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS). We employ econometric techniques to control for unobserved heterogeneity and potential biases due to endogeneity in BMI. The results show an inverted U-shaped effect of BMI on probability of employment for men and women. We did not find evidence of wage penalty for higher BMI. In fact, the wages for overweigh men are higher. However, having a BMI above 28.3 increases the number of days missing work due to health problems for men. Overall, we find negative effects of obesity on employment only for women but not on wages. During the transition in Russia, the increasingly competitive pressure in the labour market combined with economic insecurity faced by the population has lead to a muted impact of an individual’s weight on labour market outcomes.
    Keywords: Body Weight, Labour Market, Post-Soviet Russia, BMI
    Date: 2014–06
  5. By: Aelita Skarzauskiene (Mykolas Romeris University); Monika Maciuliene (Mykolas Romeris university); Viktorija Stokaite (Mykolas Romeris university); Taurimas Valys (Mykolas Romeris university)
    Abstract: New technologies change our social – economic everyday life by making considerable impact on its quality. The healthcare in the meantime is becoming more and more dependent on information and communication technologies, which enable the development of high quality healthcare services. The deployment of new ICTs has the potential to increase organisational efficiency of healthcare providers, change the processes of work organisation and create the conditions for electronic patient information exchange between healthcare providers according to the nationally agreed standards. The main idea of the paper is a proposition that the engagement of various stakeholder groups into the process of e-Health development has the potential to pave a more effective way of introducing innovation in healthcare sector and contribute to the greater sustainability of achieved changes. Quantitative research explored the extent and trends of the engagement and participation of stakeholder groups in the process of e-Health development in Lithuania.
    Keywords: e-Health, information technologies, social technologies, stakeholders, healthcare policy, public management,
    Date: 2014–07
  6. By: Pawel Bialynicki-Birula (Cracow University of Economics)
    Abstract: Current financial crisis, branded as global, has severely affected economies of developed countries. Revenue drops, high deficits and debt forced actions taken in many countries to seek savings and changes of socio-economic structures. This paper concerns the issue of consequences of the downturn for healthcare sector in developed countries. It aims at obtaining answers to questions concerning the course of adjustments with respect to financing health expenditures, and, in particular, scale and rate of their possible reduction in the situations of high-pressure from public finances. In order, the issues of trends in basic economic parameters at the time of crisis, and then the volumes and tendencies for respective categories of healthcare expenditures have been discussed. Determinants of creation of new health care policy instruments on international scale involving implementation of rescue (bailout) programs in countries affected by the crisis have been discussed.
    Keywords: financial crisis, financing healthcare, healthcare systems, health policy
    JEL: H51 E60 G01
    Date: 2014–07
  7. By: Nyqvist,Martina Björkman; Corno,Lucia; De Walque,Damien B. C. M.; Svensson,Jakob
    Abstract: Financial incentives are a promising HIV prevention strategy. This paper assesses the effect on HIV incidence of a lottery program in Lesotho with low expected payments but a chance to win a high prize conditional on negative test results for sexually transmitted infections. The intervention resulted in a 21.4 percent reduction in HIV incidence over two years. Lottery incentives appear to be particularly effective for individuals willing to take risks. This paper estimates a model linking sexual behavior to HIV incidence and finds that risk-loving individuals reduce the number of unprotected sexual acts by 0.3/month for every $1 increase in the expected prize.
    Date: 2015–03–18
  8. By: Lublóy, Ágnes; Keresztúri, Judit Lilla; Benedek, Gábor
    Abstract: This article investigates whether the strength of formal professional relationships between general practitioners (GPs) and specialists (SPs) affects either the health status of patients or their pharmacy costs. To this end, it measures the strength of formal professional relationships between GPs and SPs through the number of shared patients and proxies the patient health status by the number of comorbidities diagnosed and treated. In strong GP–SP relationships, the patient health status is expected to be high, due to efficient care coordination, and the pharmacy costs low, due to effective use of resources. To test these hypotheses and compare the characteristics of the strongest GP–SP connections with those of the weakest, this article concentrates on diabetes—a chronic condition where patient care coordination is likely important. Diabetes generates the largest shared patient cohort in Hungary, with the highest traffic of specialist medication prescriptions. This article finds that stronger ties result in lower pharmacy costs, but not in higher patient health statuses. Key points for decision makers • The number of shared patients may be used to measure the strength of formal professional relationships between general practitioners and specialists. • A large number of shared patients indicates a strong, collaborative tie between general practitioners and specialists, whereas a low number indicates a weak, fragmented tie. • Tie strength does not affect patient health—strong, collaborative ties between general practitioners and specialists do not involve better patient health than weak, fragmented ties. • Tie strength does affect pharmacy costs—strong, collaborative ties between general practitioners and specialists involve significantly lower pharmacy costs than weak, fragmented ties. • Pharmacy costs may be reduced by lowering patient care fragmentation through channelling a general practitioner’s patients to a small number of specialists and increasing collaboration between general practitioner and specialists. • Limited patient choice is financially more beneficial than complete freedom of choice, and no more detrimental to patient health.
    Keywords: general practitioners, specialists, formal professional relationships, patient sharing, strong vs. weak ties, patient health status, pharmacy costs
    JEL: C12 H51 I19
    Date: 2015–03–13
  9. By: David Candon (University College Dublin)
    Abstract: Estimating the unbiased effect of health shocks on employment is an important topic in both health and labour economics. This is particularly relevant to cancer, where improvements in screening and treatments have led to increases in survival for nearly all types of cancer. In order to address the issue of selection bias, I estimate the effect of cancer on employment for a high-risk cancer sample, male workers over the age of 65, thus attenuating the impact of many cancer risk factors. This identification strategy balances the covariates between the cancer and the non-cancer groups in numerous tests. Respondents who are diagnosed with cancer are 13.2 percentage points less likely to work than their non-cancer counterparts. The results also appear insensitive to omitted confounders.
    Keywords: Cancer; Employment; Labour market
    JEL: I10 I18 J21 J26
    Date: 2015–03–20
  10. By: Giovanis, Eleftherios; Ozdamar, Oznur
    Abstract: This study explores the effects of air pollution on self-reported health status. Moreover, this study explores the willingness to pay for improving the air quality in UK. The estimates are based on data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The effects of air pollution on individuals’ health status are estimated and their monetary value is calculated. In particular, two main air pollutants are examined; ground-level ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO). Moreover, various approaches are followed. The first approach refers to panel Fixed Effects regressions and specifically the Probit adapted Ordinary Least Squares (POLS) and the “Blow-Up and Cluster” (BUC) estimator. The second approach is the dynamic system Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM), while the last approach is the Generalized Ordered Probit with Random Effects model. The annual monetary values for ground level O3 range between £128-£149 for a drop of one unit, while the respective values for the CO range between £122-£141. In addition, the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for avoiding an inpatient day in hospital for a one unit reduction in pollution is £29. In the case where the fee of £20 per stay, proposed by a former Health minister in UK, will be implemented then the MWTP ranges between £530-£570. Based on the elective (planned) and non-elective (unplanned) inpatient stay cost per day which is £2,749 and is £2,197 respectively a 5 and 4 unit respectively decrease in air pollutants will lead to a MWTP equal to the inpatient day cost. Lastly, depending on the health status of the individual the MWTP for the number of General Practitioners (GP) ranges between £10-£60.
    Keywords: Air pollution, Environmental valuation, Health Status, Life satisfaction approach
    JEL: I31 Q51 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2014–10
  11. By: Amelia M. Haviland; Matthew D. Eisenberg; Ateev Mehrotra; Peter J. Huckfeldt; Neeraj Sood
    Abstract: “Consumer-Directed” Health Plans (CDHPs) combine high deductibles with personal medical accounts and are intended to reduce health care spending through greater patient cost sharing. Prior research shows that CDHPs reduce spending in the first year. However, there is little research on the impact of CDHPs over the longer term. We add to this literature by using data from 13 million individuals in 54 large US firms to estimate the effects of a firm offering CDHPs on health care spending up to three years post offer. We use a difference-in-differences analysis and to further strengthen identification, we balance observables within firm, over time by developing weights through a machine learning algorithm. We find that spending is reduced for those in firms offering CDHPs in all three years post. The reductions are driven by spending decreases in outpatient care and pharmaceuticals, with no evidence of increases in emergency department or inpatient care.
    JEL: I1 I13
    Date: 2015–03
  12. By: Parinduri, Rasyad
    Abstract: I examine the effects of education on health in Indonesia using an exogenous variation in education induced by an extension of Indonesia's school term length in 1978-1979, a natural experiment that fits a regression discontinuity design. I find the longer school year increases educational attainment and wages, but I do not find evidence that education improves health. I explore some mechanisms through which education may affect health, but education does not seem to promote healthy lifestyles, increase the use of modern healthcare services, or improve access to health insurance; if anything, education improves only cognitive capacity.
    Keywords: education, health, regression discontinuity design, Asia, Indonesia
    JEL: H52 I12 I15 I21 I25
    Date: 2015–03
  13. By: Shahariar Huda (KUWAIT UNIVERSITY)
    Abstract: Longitudinal count data with excessive zeros frequently occurs in social, biological, medical and health research. To model zero-inflated longitudinal count data, in literature, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models are commonly used after separating zero and positive responses. As longitudinal count responses are likely to be serially correlated, such separation may destroy the underlying serial correlation structure. To overcome this problem recently observation- and parameter-driven modelling approaches are proposed to model zero-inflated longitudinal count responses. In the observation-driven model, the response at a specific time point is modelled through the responses at previous times points after incorporating serial correlation into account. One limitation of the observation-driven model is that it fails to accommodate the presence of any possible over dispersion, which commonly occur in the count responses. To overcome this limitation, we introduce a parameter-driven model, where the serial correlation has been captured through the latent precess using random effects and compare the results with observation-driven model. A quasi-likelihood approach has been developed to estimate the model parameters. We illustrate the methodology with analysis of two real life data sets. To examine model performance we also compare the proposed model with the observation-driven ZIP model through the simulation study.
    Keywords: Serial correlation. Compound Poisson. ZIP models. Quasi-likelihood.
    JEL: C10
    Date: 2014–12
  14. By: Hayat Belaid (university of bechar); Ahmed bouchenafa (university of bechar); Abd Elkader Barich (The Higher School of Trade - Algiers); Karima Maazouzi (University of bechar)
    Abstract: The Heath sector became recently a great interest and at all levels, where the subject of quality of health services became of an international increasing interst, This Research coming to put the highlight on Possibility to Establishment the Dimensions of Quality Health Services, then the hospital consider Service organization responsible for provide health services Integrated , diagnose, Remedially, Educationally , and sereachical . and the hospital as Managerial System used human, technical ,physical , and financial increased It size and value continuous with healthy and technically advance . and increased the demands on health services for several factors , it important increase in numerous populations , increased road accidents , percentage of pollution , industrial accidents , and war causes . and agreement with that , appearance the challenge forward hospital management and employees in it to provide health service with excellence quality . where quality health service consider important element for extreme in scope of hospitals management where associated with important aspect from aspects human life and is it health . However , absolute our that stopping at this humanly required and give it our attention continuous trend possibility to establishment the dimensions of quality health services in our hospitals and through conceptual vision and operationally applying in our hospitals we see that there gap on level of concept and dimensions of quality health service ,so the hospital institutions tray to provide health services with a high quality to achieve the maximum possible satisfaction for the patient, this research aims at studing the fact of health service quality in public hospital institution for the town of bechar and impact on patient satisfaction, basing on the dimensions of quality of health services (Tangible, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance and Empathy).
    Keywords: Quality, Quality of health services, Dimensions of quality of health services, Patient satisfaction, Public hospital institution
    JEL: A14 D12 I18
    Date: 2014–05
  15. By: Hossein Fakorihajiyar (Department of Education, Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Iran); Alireza Homayouni (Department of Psychology, Bandargaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandargaz, Iran); Hossein Daeezadeh (Department of Education, Bandargaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandargaz, Iran); Babak Hosseinzadeh (Department of Education, Babol Branch, Islamic Azad University, Babol, Iran)
    Abstract: Introduction & Aim: Emotional intelligence (EQ) is the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions in positive ways to relieve stress, communicate effectively, empathize with others, overcome challenges, and defuse conflict. Emotional intelligence impacts many different aspects of your daily life, such as the way you behave and the way you interact with others. So, the present research investigated the relationship of emotional intelligence and mental health with achievement motivation in university students. Method: The sample comprised of 382 university students was taken from the university. Participants completed validated measures of Shutte self report emotional intelligence test (SSREIT), Goldberg general health questionnaire (GHQ) and Kamkar & Bahari achievement motivation scale. Results: Findings revealed positive significant correlation between emotional intelligence with achievement motivation. Although, there is correlation between mental health with achievement motivation, but the correlation was not significant. Conclusion: It means that increasing of emotional intelligence increase achievement motivation. Findings of the present research can have important psychological implications in the area of student counseling, adolescent and youth counseling, and personality development. Helping students and youth in regarding of emotional intelligence can improve their emotional competencies, decrease mental illness and help improving their quality of life and academic achievement.
    Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, mental health, achievement motivation, university students
    Date: 2014–05
  16. By: Habibollah Naderi (University of mazandaran); M Zareh (University)
    Abstract: The present study was designed to compare the relationship between emotional intelligence and mental health of students in Mazandaran province and carried out a study of the correlation Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire of 90 questions measuring tools - it is designed as a five- option Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire-28 and Hiller. Statistical analysis of the data using descriptive statistics (tables, charts, frequency) and inferential statistics. (Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test) was performed in statistical software spss. Evidence that there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and mental health of children. Ordinary boys and girls, there are differences between emotional intelligence. Mental health and boys and girls are different.
    Keywords: Keywords: emotional intelligence, mental health
    JEL: I29 I29 I29
    Date: 2014–05
  17. By: Musa ÖZATA (Selcuk University, Health Science Faculty, Konya); Ali Ä°mran Yılmaz (Konya Emergency Services,); Necmettin CihangiroÄŸlu (Gülhane Military Academy)
    Abstract: The present research which aims that determining the factors that affect the provision of 112 emergency services in the province of Konya, is a descriptive research. The present research was conducted in 2014. The universe of the present research is 800 health personnel working in 112 stations in the province of Konya and its districts. 210 voluntary participants form the sample of the research. The data of the research were collected using the questionnaire form developed by researchers. The questionnaire form consists of 88 items, 15 of them are socio-demographic. The answers to the questions are 1- Strongly disagree to 5-Strongly agree.Statistical analyses were evaluated by using SPSS program and descriptive statistics were used on the collected data. At the end of the study, it was concluded that negative working conditions, the lack of staff in terms of quantity and quality and some organizational problems affected the emergency services negatively.
    Keywords: Emergency Services, Ambulance Staff, Organizational Problems
    JEL: I10
    Date: 2014–06
  18. By: Yunus Emre Öztürk (Selcuk Universty); Onur Koksal (Selcuk Universty); Ramazan Kıraç (Selcuk Universty)
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship in health sector comes into more prominence day by day. Especially the increasing population sets the entrepreneurs in this sector in motion and encourages them to embark on different quests in order to offer better service in health sector. Therefore, educated individuals who can produce better and higher quality service, seize the opportunities in the sector, take positive and negative risks and develop new points of views in the health management sector are required. The purpose of the present research is developing a scientifically valid and reliable scale that measures the entrepreneurship of the health management department students. The work group of the present research is 291 health management department students studying at Selcuk University, Faculty of Health Sciences. The findings on the structural validity of the developed scale were handled with factor analysis. Principal component analysis showed that the items in the scale were accumulated in one single dimension. Cronbach alpha value was used for the reliability studies of the developed scale. Findings show that internal consistency coefficient of the scale is at a high level.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Health Management, Health Sector
    JEL: L26 M10 I19
    Date: 2014–06
  19. By: Boran Toker (Akdeniz University Alanya Faculty of Business); Sedat Çelik (Şırnak University School of Tourism and Hotel Management)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the hotel employees’ job embeddedness and to determine its relationship with links to community, links to organization, and demographic variables. As first introduced by Mitchell et al. (2001), job embeddedness theory suggests a new perspective of exploring why people leave or stay in an organization, and in this theory, it is considered in three factors namely, fit, links and sacrifice. The study, in which the questionnaire survey method was used, was applied on 210 employees that work at the five-star hotels in Alanya. The Job Embeddedness Inventory developed by Mitchell et al. was used in this study. As a result of the factor analysis used on data, there came out three dimensions towards job embeddedness under the names of “organization related sacrificeâ€, “fit to community†and “fit to organizationâ€. As a result of Anova and t-test analyses, however, it is determined that employees, who own their homes, live close to the family roots, that have someone of a family member and close friends near them fit into the organization much more. Besides that, employees, who are married, have a working spouse, live close to the family roots, have someone of a family member and close friends near them showed higher fit into the community. Furthermore, it is determined that mid-level employees had higher levels of organization related sacrifice. It is also determined that the participants, who work in the same position for 6 years or above, are mid-level employees, work in the same organization for 1-3 years and do not participate in any work group at workplace had higher fit into the community. In this case, it can be said that the longer the employees work in an organization, the more positive their fit into the community will be. Moreover, participants that work in the tourism sector for 11 years or above showed high fit into the organization and participants that work in the sector for long years have better fit into the community. It is seen that, as the age increase higher among the employees, their fit into the society increase higher as well.
    Keywords: Job embeddedness, Tourism, Hospitality, Turkey
    JEL: M12 J24 D23
    Date: 2014–06
  20. By: Ricardo Sichel (Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office)
    Abstract: As a consequence of the growing life expectancy there is a growing cost for public health policy, since there is a growing number of degenerative diseases. There are new diseases appearing and also the necessity of new medicaments in order to grant a better life quality for the population. But the cost to acquire these new medicaments is increasing and that doesn’t happen to the income, especially in developing countries. In order to satisfy the necessities of the society, the pharmaceutical industry has been trying to develop researches. Under these conditions the public policies must be oriented, but not in order to hinder the technological development; and one of these possibilities is the patent system. It must also be considered that new diseases appear and that the immunological system must be strengthened as a consequence of an acquired resistance to virus and bacteria to the used medicaments. The constant evolution of the health condition and the need of security in the use of new medicaments, which also include its cost, consist in a frequent dilemma of the policy makers. It must be considered that the simple fact of importing technology does not mean the capacity to develop it, which has to be done by establishing adequate policies in order to fulfil the international completion. This question becomes delicate, when considering the case of pharmaceutical products, where the patent protection has the objective of market domination. We must also consider that technology transfer will be hindered if there is the possibility of losing markets, by the implementation made by the importer, in order to develop local technological procedures. Technology has its economic importance, which originated from its capacity to improve equilibrium between social and economical development. Technological policies are one of the most relevant bases for economical development. This analysis involves two questions: how can the legal system grant the improvement of the pharmaceutical industry, in order to implement the necessary innovation with the aim of assuring life quality? How assure that the State has the necessary means to implement health policies that assure the objective of the first question?
    Keywords: Patent Publich Health Research Development Welfare
    JEL: H51 K33 L38
    Date: 2014–10
  21. By: Abdullah Kocak (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: It has been observed that publications on health in Turkey increased in recent times, also the number in criticism of this content has been increased. With the increase in publications, analysis and evaluation of the contents of these publications have become important.From this perspective, this study aims to determine which themes are presented in health news and programs on television and how they are broadcasted. Content analysis method has been used in order to reach the purpose determined above. The scope the study was constituted of the contents which were broadcasted in 2010. 51.291 video shoots were gained from TV’s with approximately 50 keywords of health field in 2010. Sample was taken every forth day of the year from 365 days media content as a universe by systematic random sampling method. Thus sample framework, which will represent the whole year in different terms at regular intervals, was contituted and 10408 shoots was taken into consideration. Content analysis coding guide was developed in order to gather the data for realizing the purpose of the study. In this guide 41 primary theme and 452 seperate sub category were coded. The distribution of 10408 shootings about health according to 4 different categories. It was determined that the content about health was broadcasted in the first three months of the year (28.3%); namely January, February and March. The 34,7% of the shootings were broadcasted in the morning whereas the percent of shotings in the afternoon was 21,5%. The percent of the evening broadcasts was 20,7%. Approximately half of the shootings (49,8%) were determined as news. This percent was followed by the health content broadcasts (27,9%). Almost all of the broadcasts were determined as informative type (99,3%). Over half of the broadcasts were found as recommendation (n=5.326; 51,2%).When the themes in the broadcasts were elaborated, the most elaborative subjects were nutrition (15,5%) and internal medicine / general surgery (14%). The follow-up subjects were beauty, care, losing weight and healthy life (9,8%), oncology and cancer (8,6%) and Ministry of Health (7,2%). When the sub categories of these primary themes were observed, it was determined that the general information was given (over 50%) in these informative expressions.
    Keywords: health communication, health news, content analysis
    JEL: I10
    Date: 2014–10
  22. By: Petar Molchovski (Medical University Plovdiv); Keti Tokmakova (Medical University Plovdiv); Mariya Tokmakova (Medical University Plovdiv)
    Abstract: Aim and object of the study: This project is aimed at adapting and integrating innovative training courses and results from previous Leonardo da Vinci project into continuing VET of medicine professionals (residents, surgeons) and professionals involved in implants development and manufacturing Methods: Each participating country has its own regulations, training practices and certification rules and this objective addresses the specific needs in the target country for the transfer of innovation. At the same time, the European collaboration will help to share experiences and best practices in osteosynthesis and can help the EU to harmonize the training of professionals and to progress towards some qualification standards. An E-learning course is presented and discussed in details, after being approved by an analysis of experience and needs or orthopaedic surgeons and residents in three participating countries. Results: An E-learning course for residents and orthopaedic surgeons in learning new techniques for osteosyntesis, management of fractures using implants, postoperative complications, requirements for implants design is presented. Definition of learning outcomes for surgeons' courses is performeed. Conclusion: The added value of this project will be in the improved quality and attractiveness of the continuing VET in the target countries by transferring existing innovations to new geographic environments and across the sectors of medicine and engineering. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the nformation contained therein. Project Number 2013-1-BG1-LEO05-08711
    Keywords: E-learning; Biomechanics; Education; Fractures; Osteosynthesis; Training
    JEL: I00
    Date: 2014–10
  23. By: Julien Forbat (University of Geneva)
    Abstract: Introduction This study was done in the framework of a PhD thesis on the environmental health public policies in Europe. Its specific aim was notably to determine how the existing conceptual links between environmental health and sustainable development translated into real case health policies in three countries, namely Switzerland, Germany and Belgium. Methods The study was mainly based on interviews conducted among experts of the environmental health policy process. The analysis describes the environmental health policy of the three countries from the mid-1990s until today, notably the links between their national environmental health action plans (NEHAP) and their national strategies of sustainable development (NSSD), from the agenda setting phase to the implementation of measures. Results The analysis shows contrasted results among the countries considered. Indeed, Switzerland is clearly lagging behind since its abandonment of its federal environmental health policy in 2007. In contrary, Germany has achieved a relatively well structured network of actors involved in the field of environmental health, allowing the country to be at the forefront of scientific research. However, the three countries face powerful drawbacks regarding the making of an efficient environmental health policy, such as limited political attention or a focus on scientific research rather than on the implementation of constraining measures. Discussion While these two concepts – environmental health & sustainable development – call for systemic and intersectoral approaches, the cases under study highlight common challenges and shortcomings in the making of an efficient and lasting environmental health policy. Indeed, whether the analysis highlights obstacles arising from budgetary constraints, political timing or administrative conflicts and discrepancy, they all tend to demonstrate the difficulty to translate interdisciplinary concepts with complex interactions into real world policies.
    Keywords: environmental health, NEHAP, public policy, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium
    Date: 2014–07
  24. By: Rafael Cortez; Seemeen Saadat; Edmore Marinda; Odutolu Oluwole
    Abstract: Nigeria is the most populous country in sub-Saharan Africa. It also has a very young population. The majority of the population is below the age of 25 years, with 22 percent of the country?s population between the ages of 10-19 years. Data on sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes in Nigeria highlight the importance of focusing on adolescents. At 576 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, Nigeria accounts for roughly 14 percent of the global burden of maternal mortality (DHS 2013/WHO 2014). Global evidence shows that young girls bear a higher burden of maternal mortality and morbidity. Data show that the average age at sexual debut is roughly 15 years of age among adolescent mothers in Nigeria (DHS 2003, 2008, 2013). This note presents the findings of a recent study on Nigeria that examines determinants of adolescent sexual behavior and fertility, with a narrower focus on knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of adolescents aged 10-19 years old in Karu Local Government Authority (LGA), a peri-urban area near the capital city of Abuja.
    Keywords: abortion, Abortion Care, abortions, access to information, access to services, adolescence, ADOLESCENT, adolescent fertility, adolescent girls, adolescent health, adolescent ... See More + mothers, adolescent pregnancies, adolescent sexual behavior, adolescent women, adolescents, Age at marriage, age groups, aged, anemia, average age, child mortality, Child Rights, condoms, contraceptive knowledge, contraceptives, dangers, doctor, early marriage, early marriages, early pregnancies, Early sexual debut, emergency contraception, ethnic groups, Family Health, female, Female condoms, fertility rate, first sexual intercourse, focus group discussions, gender, Gender Policy, Health Care Services, health facility, health service, health services, Health Surveys, HIV, HIV Education, HIV Prevention, HIV Prevention Interventions, HIV/AIDS, hospitals, human capital, Induced Abortion, Intervention, Knowledge of contraception, life skills, live births, low birth weight, male condoms, Married Adolescent Women, maternal deaths, Maternal Health, Maternal Health Care, maternal mortality, maternal mortality ratio, medicine, medicine vendors, migrant, migrant populations, Ministry of Education, modern contraception, morbidity, natal care, National Policy, National Population, National Youth Policy, negative effects, Nutrition, Obstetric Complications, Obstetric Performance, older women, Peer Education, peer educators, Pills, Population Commission, Population Knowledge, populous country, PREGNANCY, Prevalence, Prevention Interventions, Primary Health Care, privacy, promiscuity, Public awareness, public health, public health services, Quality of Care, REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH, Reproductive Health Policy, reproductive health services, respect, Rhythm method, rights to health, risk of death, risky sexual behavior, School Health, School Health Policy, School students, schools, secondary education, Secondary School, self-image, service providers, services for adolescents, sexual intercourse, sexually active, sexually active adolescents, sexually active females, sexually active girls, single parents, skilled attendance, skilled birth attendance, Slum dwellers, social attitudes, Std, teen, teenage pregnancies, teenage years, teenagers, traditional healers, Unintended Pregnancy, Unmarried Adolescents, unmarried girls, unwanted pregnancies, use of condoms, use of contraception, use of contraceptives, Women's Health, young girls, Young People, Young Women, younger adolescents, youth, youth friendly services
    Date: 2015–03
  25. By: Kevin Denny (University College Dublin)
    Abstract: This note examines whether subjective general health in Europe has changed since the onset of the economic crisis. Subjective general health for Ireland, Spain and Portugal is compared before and after the onset of the recession. Two other European economies, Germany and United Kingdom, are also examined. The change in the proportion of respondents reporting good or very good health is also plotted against the change in the unemployment rate over the period 2007-2012. Subjective general health improves slightly in countries experiencing sharp recessions. Across European countries there is no link between changes in subjective general health and in unemployment: no evidence is found to suggest that the Great Recession has worsened morbidity in Europe.
    Keywords: unemployment, recession, health, Europe, morbidity
    JEL: I18 J60
    Date: 2015–03–20

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