nep-hea New Economics Papers
on Health Economics
Issue of 2007‒06‒23
five papers chosen by
Yong Yin
SUNY at Buffalo, USA

  1. Democratization and Child Mortality By Kiessling, Johan
  2. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: Evidence from maternity leave mandates By Michael Baker; Kevin S. Milligan
  3. Parental altruism, life expectancy and dynamically inefficient equilibria By d'Albis, Hippolyte; Decreuse, Bruno
  4. Nurses wanted. Is the job too harsh or is the wage too low? By Di Tommaso Maria Laura; Strom Steinar; Saether Erik Magnus
  5. Scaling-up HIV/AIDS Financing and the Role of Macroeconomic Policies in Kenya By Degol Hailu

  1. By: Kiessling, Johan (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: The Millennium Development Goals call for a two-thirds reduction in under-five mortality rate by 2015. Can democratic reforms contribute to this goal? The focus of previous studies has mainly been on verifying the existence of a relationship between democracy and child mortality and not on the dynamics of the relationship. This paper addresses this question by empirically testing the dynamic effects of important changes in the level of democracy on the percentage change in child mortality using a distributed lag model. The findings are that during the 5 to 20 years following a democratic transition child mortality decreases significantly. Following this decrease, child mortality stabilizes at a new, lower level. Disaggregating democratic transitions into different subcomponents the finding is that the single most important aspect for child mortality is the competitiveness of executive recruitment. The results on the effects of an autocratic experience are more inconclusive. Initially the effects of a negative shock to the political system seem to mirror those of a positive shock, child mortality increases for a number of years but there is no conclusive sign of child mortality stabilizing at a new level and the results are not as stable as for positive democratic changes.
    Keywords: Human Development; Democratization; Child Mortality
    JEL: I10 O15
    Date: 2007–06–18
  2. By: Michael Baker; Kevin S. Milligan
    Abstract: Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. However, we find little impact on the self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data.
    JEL: I18 J13
    Date: 2007–06
  3. By: d'Albis, Hippolyte; Decreuse, Bruno
    Abstract: Macrodynamic models with finite lifetime and selfish individuals may feature (dynamically) inefficient equilibria, while models with infinite lifetime and altruistic individuals cannot. Do strong intergenerational altruism and high life expectancy prevent the occurence of inefficient equilibria? To answer this question, we present a continuous time OLG model which generalizes the Blanchard-Buiter-Weil model. Our main innovation relies on the introduction of parental altruism, whose intensity is variable. We show that parental altruism and life expectancy actually favor overaccumulation. Theoretical results are illustrated by a parametrization from US data. Our numerical exercises suggest that the US economy is dynamically inefficient, mainly because life expectancy is sufficiently short.
    Keywords: Overlapping generations model; Productive capital; Dynamic (in)efficiency; Intergenerational altruism
    JEL: D61 D90 E21
    Date: 2007–03
  4. By: Di Tommaso Maria Laura (University of Turin); Strom Steinar (University of Turin); Saether Erik Magnus
    Abstract: When entering the job market, nurses choose among different kínd of jobs. Each of these jobs is characterized by wage, sector (primary care or hospital) and shift (daytime work or shift). This paper estimates a multisector-job-type random utílity model of labor supply on data for Norwegian registered nurses in 2000. The empirical model implies that labor supply is rather inelastic; 10 percent increase in the wage rates for all nurses is estímaled to vield 3.3 percent íncrease in overall labor supply. This modest response shadows for much stronger inter job-type responses. Our approach differs from previous studíes in two ways: First, to our knowledge,it ís thefirst tíme that a model of labour supply for nurses ís estímated takíng explícíty ínto account the choices that RN's have regarding work place and type of job. Second, it differs from previous studies with respect to the measurement of the compensations for different types of work. So far, it has been focused on wage differentíals. But there are more attributes of a job than the wage. Based on the estimated random utílíty model we therefore calculate the expected value of compensatíon that makes a utílíty maxìmìzìng agent indifferent between types of jobs, here behween shift work and daytìme work. It turns out that Nondegian nurses working shifis may be willing to work shift relative to daytime work for lower wage than the current one.
    Date: 2007–04
  5. By: Degol Hailu (Policy Advisor, UNDP/BDP Caribbean SURF)
    Keywords: Poverty, HIV/AIDS, Kenya, Macroeconomic
    JEL: B41
    Date: 2007–06

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