nep-hea New Economics Papers
on Health Economics
Issue of 2006‒08‒19
five papers chosen by
Yong Yin
SUNY at Buffalo, USA

  1. Mortality and Survivors' Consumption By Michael Grimm
  2. Does the Private Sector Care About AIDS? Evidence from Investment Climate Surveys in East Africa By Vijaya Ramachandran; Manju Kedia Shah; Ginger Turner
  3. Governance and Corruption in Public Health Care Systems By Maureen Lewis
  4. The Costs and Benefits of Front-loading and Predictability of Immunization By Owen Barder; Ethan Yeh
  5. A New Database of Health Professional Emigration from Africa By Michael A. Clemens; Gunilla Pettersson

  1. By: Michael Grimm
    Abstract: In developing countries illness shocks can have a severe impact on household income. Few studies have so fare examined the effects of mortality. The major difference between illness and mortality shocks is that a death of a household member does not only induce direct costs such as medical and funeral costs and possibly a loss in income, but that also the number of consumption units in the household is reduced. Using data for Indonesia, I show that the economic costs related to the death of children and older persons seem to be fully compensated by the decrease of consumption units. In contrast, when prime-age adults die, survivors face additional costs and, in consequence, implement coping strategies. It is shown that these are quite efficient and it seems that in terms of consumption households even overcompensate their loss, although they may face a higher vulnerability in the longer term. The results suggest that the implementation of general formal safety nets can give priority to the insurance of other types of risks, such as unemployment, illness or natural disasters.
    Keywords: Mortality, consumption smoothing, risk, micro-model of consumption growth, Indonesia.
    JEL: D12 I12 J12 O12
    Date: 2006
  2. By: Vijaya Ramachandran; Manju Kedia Shah; Ginger Turner
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the determinants of firms’ decision to provide HIV/AIDS prevention activities. Using data from 860 firms and 4,955 workers in Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya, it shows that larger firms, and firms with higher skilled workers tend to invest more in AIDS prevention. Firms where more than 50 percent of workers are unionized are also more likely to do more prevention activity. Finally, these characteristics are also significant in determining whether or not a firm carries out pre-employment health checks of its workers. The results shed light on the likelihood of private sector intervention and the gaps that will require public sector assistance.
    Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, private sector, public sector, investment climate
    JEL: H3 O1
    Date: 2006–01
  3. By: Maureen Lewis
    Abstract: What factors affect health care delivery in the developing world? Anecdotal evidence of lives cut tragically short and the loss of productivity due to avoidable diseases is an area of salient concern in global health and international development. This working paper looks at factual evidence to describe the main challenges facing health care delivery in developing countries, including absenteeism, corruption, informal payments, and mismanagement. The author concludes that good governance is important in ensuring effective health care delivery, and that returns to investments in health are low where governance issues are not addressed.
    Keywords: governance, corruption, health care, disease, absenteeism
    JEL: H0 O0 I1
    Date: 2006–01
  4. By: Owen Barder; Ethan Yeh
    Abstract: How can the international community save more children’s lives faster and more effectively in the 21st century? This Working Paper analyzes the extent to which “frontloading” and predictable vaccine funding, as proposed by the International Finance Facility for Immunization (IFFIm), is more effective in impacting vaccine coverage than spending vaccine funds equally throughout the lives of projects. The IFFIm is an initiative of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), and supported by the governments of the United Kingdom, France, Sweden, Italy, Spain and Norway. An initial IFFIm investment of $4 billion is expected to prevent 5 million child deaths by 2015, and more than 5 million future adult deaths. Using a stylized model, the authors quantify the positive and negative effects of predictable vaccine funds and frontloading, and finds IFFIm’s approach can increase the impact of vaccine coverage by 22%. This is because stable and long-term financing allows vaccine manufacturers and countries to plan for long periods of time, knowing that resources will be available. Front-loading helps to reduce the spread of disease and to immunize large groups of people faster.
    Keywords: frontloading, vaccine, immunization
    JEL: F0 I1 O0
    Date: 2006–02
  5. By: Michael A. Clemens; Gunilla Pettersson
    Abstract: The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to rich countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the issue has been hampered by lack of data. How many doctors and nurses have left Africa? Which countries did they leave? Where have they settled? As part of a larger study of the consequences of the international migration of African health professionals, we compiled a database of the cumulative bilateral net flows of African-born physicians and nurses to the nine most important destination countries. It is the first database of net bilateral migration flows specific to a skilled profession collected systematically for a large number of developing countries. In this note we make these data available to the research community.
    Keywords: migration, brain drain, Africa, health professionals
    JEL: I1 O0
    Date: 2006–08

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