nep-hea New Economics Papers
on Health Economics
Issue of 2006‒02‒05
nine papers chosen by
Yong Yin
SUNY at Buffalo, USA

  1. Health Insurance and the Wage Gap By Helen Levy
  2. The Health Care Safety Net and Crowd-Out of Private Health Insurance By Anthony T. Lo Sasso; Bruce D. Meyer
  3. The U.S. Health Care System and Labor Markets By Brigitte Madrian
  4. Endogenous Mortality, Human Capital and Endogenous Growth By Osang, Thomas; Sarkar, Jayanta
  5. Determinants of Skills Shortages and Hard-to-Fill Vacancies in the Hospitality Sector By Andrés J. Marchante; Bienvenido Ortega; Ricardo Pagán
  8. Neighbourhood inequality, relative deprivation and self-perceived health status By Hou, Feng; Myles, John
  9. Health of Canadians living in census metropolitan areas By Gilmore, Jason

  1. By: Helen Levy
    Abstract: Estimates of labor market inequality usually focus only on wages, even though fringes account for almost one-third of total compensation. Using data from the Current Population Survey, I analyze coverage by own-employer health insurance coverage among full-time workers for women versus men, blacks versus whites and Hispanics versus whites. I find significant gaps in coverage for each of these groups. About two-thirds of the gap for blacks or Hispanics is explained by differences in observable characteristics (primarily education and occupation). The gap for women is not explained by controlling for observables. Looking over the 20 year period from 1980 to 2000, I find that the adjusted gap in own-employer coverage for women has been relatively flat over this period and is consistently much smaller than the male/female wage gap (about half as large), so that measuring inequality in wages plus health insurance would result in a smaller estimate of male/female compensation inequality than measuring wages alone. The same is generally true for blacks although their health insurance gap is much closer in magnitude to their wage gap. For Hispanics, the health insurance gap is nearly identical to the wage gap and both are increasing over time.
    JEL: I1 J3
    Date: 2006–01
  2. By: Anthony T. Lo Sasso; Bruce D. Meyer
    Abstract: There is an extensive literature on the extent to which public health insurance coverage through Medicaid induces less private health insurance coverage. However, little is known about the effect of other components of the health care safety net in crowding out private coverage. We examine the effect of Medicaid and uncompensated care provided by clinics and hospitals on insurance coverage. We construct a long panel of metropolitan area and state-level data on hospital uncompensated care and free and reduced price care offered by Federally Qualified Health Centers. We match this information to individual level data on coverage from the Current Population Survey for two distinct groups: children aged 14 and under and single, childless adults aged 18 to 64. Our results provide mixed evidence on the extent of crowd-out. Hospital uncompensated care does not appear to crowd-out health insurance coverage and health center uncompensated care appears to crowd-out private coverage for adults and, in some specifications, children.
    JEL: I10 I11 I18
    Date: 2006–01
  3. By: Brigitte Madrian
    Abstract: This paper provides a broad and general overview of the relationship between the U.S. health care system and the labor market. The paper first describes some of the salient features of and facts about the system of health insurance coverage in the U.S., particularly the role of employers. It then summarizes the empirical evidence on how health insurance impacts labor market outcomes such as wages, labor supply (including retirement, female labor supply, part-time vs. full-time work, and formal vs. informal sector work), labor demand (including hours worked and the composition of employment across full-time, part-time and temporary workers), and job turnover. It then discusses the implications of having a fragmented system of health insurance delivery--in which employers play a central role--on the health care system and health care outcomes.
    JEL: I10 J3 J6
    Date: 2006–01
  4. By: Osang, Thomas (Department of Economics, Southern Methodist University); Sarkar, Jayanta (Department of Economics, Southern Methodist University)
    Abstract: We consider growth and welfare effects of lifetime-uncertainty in an economy with human capital-led endogenous growth. We argue that lifetime uncertainty reduces private incentives to invest in both physical and human capital. Using an overlapping generations framework with finite-lived households we analyze the relevance of government expenditure on health and education to counter such growth-reducing forces. We focus on three different models that differ with respect to the mode of financing of education: (i) both private and public spending, (ii) only public spending, and (iii) only private spending. Results show that models (i) and (iii) outperform model (ii) with respect to long-term growth rates of per capita income, welfare levels and other important macroeconomic indicators. Theoretical predictions of model rankings for these macroeconomic indicators are also supported by observed stylized facts.
    Keywords: Health, Life Expectancy, Human Capital, Public Spending, Endogenous Growth
    JEL: I1 I2 O1 H5
    Date: 2005–09–01
  5. By: Andrés J. Marchante; Bienvenido Ortega; Ricardo Pagán
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the regional determinants of hard-to-fill vacancies and skills shortages in the hospitality sector. The data source for this study was generated in the year 2000 and includes information on 181 hotels and 121 restaurants in Andalusia. The results of the estimations show that hourly net wages are the main instrument firms use to reduce hard-to-fill vacancies and skills shortages. However, there are several factors affecting the conditions of local labour markets — such as unemployment rates, the level of business activity, real estate prices and the location of the firm in relation to the main regional tourism destinations — that have a significant effect on the probability of having hard-to-fill vacancies and skills shortages.
    Date: 2005–08
  6. By: David Cantarero; Marta Pascual
    Abstract: In this paper we report an analysis of income related health inequalities at the regional level in Spain. We use among others the self assessed health measure and explain the observed differences across Spanish regions due to the effect of socioeconomic characteristics. New data from the Spanish National Health Survey have been used. The results have important implications for health policies and provide empirical evidence about the relationship between health and socioeconomic factors in Spain which should affect the decisions about health care financing system.
    Date: 2005–08
  7. By: Marta Pascual; David Cantarero
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse socio-economic inequalities in the European Union and their influence on health care. The empirical analysis is based mainly on data from the European Community Household Panel which contains data homogeneous across European Union countries and make comparisons possible. In addition, the functional form of the relationship between income and health, considering the impact of socioeconomic status among individuals whose medical needs are similar, is studied.
    Date: 2005–08
  8. By: Hou, Feng; Myles, John
    Abstract: This study examines the relationship between individuals' health status and the socio-economic composition of the neighbourhoods in which they live. It combines individual microdata from Statistics Canada's 1996-97 National Population Health Survey (NPHS) with neighbourhood-level characteristics estimated from the 1996 Census of Canada.
    Keywords: Social conditions, Health, Families, Health status indicators
    Date: 2004–09–27
  9. By: Gilmore, Jason
    Abstract: This report examines the health of residents of census metropolitan areas (CMAs) through measures such as life expectancy, self-rated health, smoking, heavy drinking, obesity, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, life stress, depression, self-perceived unmet health care needs and number of general physicians and family practitioners per 100,000 population.
    Keywords: Health, Health status indicators
    Date: 2004–07–28

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