nep-hap New Economics Papers
on Economics of Happiness
Issue of 2015‒02‒28
nine papers chosen by

  1. Share Capitalism and Worker Wellbeing By Alex Bryson ; Andrew E. Clark ; Richard B. Freeman ; Colin P. Green
  2. Activity, Time, and Subjective Happiness: An Analysis Based on an Hourly Web Survey By Hideaki Sakawa ; Fumio Ohtake ; Yoshiro Tsutsui
  3. Factors Influencing Employee Satisfaction in the Police Service: The Case of Slovenia By Tomaževič, Nina ; Seljak, Janko ; Aristovnik, Aleksander
  4. Do changes in regulation affect temporary agency workers' job satisfaction? By Busk, Henna ; Jahn, Elke J. ; Singer, Christine
  5. Does Retirement Make you Happy? A Simultaneous Equations Approach By Raquel Fonseca ; Arie Kapteyn ; Jinkook Lee ; Gema Zamarro
  6. Back To Bentham: Should We? LargeScale Comparison of Decision versus Experienced Utility for IncomeLeisure Preferences By Akay, Alpaslan ; Bargain, Olivier ; Jara, H. Xavier
  7. Mapping the occupational segregation of white women in the U.S.: Differences across metropolitan areas By Olga Alonso-Villar ; Coral del Rio
  8. Developing and Selecting Measures of Child Well-Being: Methodological Briefs - Impact Evaluation No. 11 By Howard White ; Shagun Sabarwal ; UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
  9. Satisfactory time use elasticities of demand and measuring well-being inequality through superposed utilities. By Okay Gunes ; Armagan Tuna Aktuna-Gunes

  1. By: Alex Bryson ; Andrew E. Clark ; Richard B. Freeman ; Colin P. Green
    Abstract: We show that worker wellbeing is not only related to the amount of compensation workers receive but also how they receive it. While previous theoretical and empirical work has often been pre-occupied with individual performance-related pay, we here demonstrate a robust positive link between the receipt of a range of group performance schemes (profit shares, group bonuses and share ownership) and job satisfaction. Critically, this relationship remains after conditioning on wage levels, which suggests these pay methods provide utility to workers in addition to that through higher wages. These findings survive a variety of methods aimed at accounting for unobserved individual and job-specific characteristics. We investigate two potential channels for this effect. We first demonstrate that half of the positive effect can be accounted for by employees' tendency to reciprocate in return for the "gift" of share capitalism. Second, we show that these 'share capitalist' modes of pay dampen the negative wellbeing effects of what we typically think of as "bad" aspects of job quality. Finally, share-capitalist pay methods also have positive wellbeing spill-over effects on co-workers.
    Keywords: Job satisfaction, wages, compensation methods, working conditions
    JEL: J28 J33 J54 J63 J81 M52
    Date: 2015–02
  2. By: Hideaki Sakawa ; Fumio Ohtake ; Yoshiro Tsutsui
    Abstract: This paper investigates how peoplefs happiness depends on their current activities and on time. We conducted an hourly web survey, in which 70 students reported their happiness every hour on one day every month from December 2006 to February 2008. This method is an extension of the experience sampling method (ESM), since it uses mobile phones and personal computers. Our new method has the same strength of ESM in that it can measure real-time happiness data and thus avoid reflection and memory bias. Using our new method, we can obtain diurnal happiness data of respondents and also grasp their behavior at each of their reporting times over 14 months. Analyzing the data of our survey, we found (a) happiness significantly depends on activities, hours, and months, (b) while most of the time-variation of happiness is attributable to the time pattern of activities, happiness varies predictably with the hour in a day, even when activities are controlled for, and (c) while activities affect both genders similarly, there are gender gaps in the diurnal happiness pattern after controlling for activities.
    Date: 2015–02
  3. By: Tomaževič, Nina ; Seljak, Janko ; Aristovnik, Aleksander
    Abstract: The paper has two purposes – first, to examine the dimensionality of employee satisfaction and, second, to identify the impact of the groups of factors on employee satisfaction. The measurement of satisfaction of all employees in the Slovenian Police based on the comprehensive on-line questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to formulate the facets of satisfaction. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of three facets of employee satisfaction. Three facets of employee satisfaction were determined and the influence of three types of factors (demographic, job-related and organizational-support-related factors) on them was investigated. The results show that worst assessed facet was (1) salary and security, whereas no significant differences were found between two other facets, namely (2) relationships and leadership and (3) tasks and working conditions. The three factors influenced employee satisfaction with different levels of intensity.
    Keywords: Employee satisfaction, Job, Police service, Salary, Leadership, Organizational support, Slovenia
    JEL: J0 J50 M50
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Busk, Henna ; Jahn, Elke J. (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany] ); Singer, Christine (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany] )
    Abstract: "This paper evaluates the impact on temporary agency workers' job satisfaction of a reform that considerably changed regulations covering the temporary help service sector in Germany. We isolate the causal effect of this reform by combining a difference- in-difference and matching approach and using rich survey data. We find that the change of the law substantially decreased agency workers' job satisfaction while regular workers' job satisfaction remained unchanged. Further analysis reveals that the negative effect on agency workers' job satisfaction can be attributed to a decrease in wages and an increase in perceived job insecurity. These results are also robust to the use of different specifications and placebo tests." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Zeitarbeit, Leiharbeit, Leiharbeitnehmer, Arbeitszufriedenheit, Arbeitnehmerüberlassungsgesetz - Reform
    JEL: J28 J41 J88
    Date: 2015–02–17
  5. By: Raquel Fonseca (Université du Québec à Montréal ); Arie Kapteyn (University of Southern California ); Jinkook Lee (University of Southern California ); Gema Zamarro (University of Southern California )
    Abstract: Continued improvements in life expectancy and fiscal insolvency of public pensions have led to an increase in pension entitlement ages in several countries, but its consequences for subjective well-being are largely unknown. Financial consequences of retirement complicate the estimation of effects of retirement on subjective well-being as financial circumstances may influence subjective well-being, and therefore, the effects of retirement are likely to be confounded by the change in income. At the same time, unobservable determinants of income are probably related with unobservable determinants of subjective wellbeing, making income possibly endogenous if used as control in subjective wellbeing regressions. To address these issues, we estimate a simultaneous model of retirement, income, and subjective well-being while accounting for time effects and unobserved individual effects. Public pension arrangements (replacement rates, eligibility rules for early and full retirement) serve as instrumental variables. We use data from HRS and SHARE for the period 2004-2010. We find that depressive symptoms are negatively related to retirement while life satisfaction is positively related. Remarkably, income does not seem to have a significant effect on depression or life satisfaction. This is in contrast with the correlations in the raw data that show significant relations between income and depression and life satisfaction. This suggests that accounting for the endogeneity of income in equations explaining depression or life satisfaction is important.
    Date: 2014–09
  6. By: Akay, Alpaslan (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University ); Bargain, Olivier (AixMarseille University ); Jara, H. Xavier (University of Essex )
    Abstract: Subjective wellbeing (SWB) is increasingly used as a way to measure individual wellbeing. Interpreted as "experienced utility", it has been compared to "decision utility" using specific experiments (Kahneman et al., 1997) or stated preferences(Benjamin et al. 2012). We suggest here an original largescale comparison between ordinal preferences elicited from SWB data and those inferred from actual choices(revealed preferences). Precisely, we focus on incomeleisure preferences, closely associated to redistributive policies. We compare indifference curves consistent with incomeleisure subjective satisfaction with those derived from actual labor supply choices, on the same panel of British households. Results show striking similarities between these measures on average, reflecting that overall, people’s decision are not inconsistent with SWB maximization. Yet, the shape of individual preferences differ across approaches when looking at specific subpopulations. We investigate these differences and test for potential explanatory channels, particularly the roles of constraints and of individual "errors" related to aspirations, expectations or focusing illusion. We draw implications of our results for welfare analysis and policy evaluation.<p>
    Keywords: decision utility; experienced utility; labor supply; subjective well being
    JEL: C90 D63
    Date: 2015–02
  7. By: Olga Alonso-Villar (Universidade de Vigo, Spain ); Coral del Rio (Universidade de Vigo, Spain and EQUALITAS )
    Abstract: This paper seeks to investigate the occupational segregation of white women in the U.S. at the local labor market level, exploring whether the segregation of this group is a homogeneous phenomenon across the country or there are important disparities in the opportunities that these women meet with across American urban areas. An important contribution of this paper is that, apart from quantifying the extent of segregation it also assesses the consequences of that segregation taking into account the ''quality'' of occupations that the group tends to fill or not to fill. The analysis shows that between 20% and 40% of white women working in a metropolitan area would have to shift occupations to achieve zero segregation in that area. Differences regarding the nature of that segregation are even stronger. In some metropolitan areas, the uneven distribution of white women across occupations brings them a per capita monetary gain of about 21% of the average wage of the area while in other metropolitan areas this group has a per capita loss of nearly 11%.
    Keywords: Occupational segregation, well-being, metropolitan areas, race, gender, U.S.
    JEL: R23 J15 J16 J71 D63
    Date: 2015–01
  8. By: Howard White ; Shagun Sabarwal ; UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
    Abstract: Indicators provide a signal to decision makers by indicating whether, and to what extent, a variable of interest has changed. They can be used at all levels of the results framework from inputs to impacts, and should be linked to the programme’s theory of change. Most important at the lower levels of the causal chain are monitoring indicators such as inputs (e.g., immunization kits supplied), activities (e.g., immunization days held) and outputs (e.g., clinics built). For higher-level indicators of outcomes and impact, however, monitoring tells us what has happened but not why it happened. To understand this, impact evaluation must be used to increase our understanding of the factors behind achieving or not achieving the goal.
    Keywords: indicators; monitoring; programme evaluation; research methods;
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Okay Gunes (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne ); Armagan Tuna Aktuna-Gunes (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne - Paris School of Economics )
    Abstract: In this article, the satisfactory consumption and labor supply elasticities of demand are measured through a model of time allocation that includes eight time assignment equations by using the full time use (the temporal values of the monetary expenditure plus time spent) concept obtained by matching the Classic Family Budget survey with the Time Use survey for Turkey. The cross-sectional data covers the period of 2003-2006 in Turkey. The elasticity results show a clear picture of the relationship between satisfactory consumption and working with commodity demands for Turkey. As a contribution to the literature, we explore the reasons behind the demand for satisfactory consumption through working decisions by measuring well-being inequality for each consumption group. In order to increase the robustness of our result, overall well-being inequality is measured by introducing the axiom of superposed utility of preferences. As expected, overall well-being inequality delcines to 0.26, which is 119 percentage points lower than the average rate of well-being inequality (0.57) in Turkey.
    Keywords: Time use, life satisfaction, well-being inequality, superposed utilities.
    JEL: C51 D03 J22 I31
    Date: 2015–02

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