New Economics Papers
on Economics of Happiness
Issue of 2010‒07‒31
four papers chosen by

  1. JUSTICE DE RESULTAT : De « l'économie du bien-être » à « l'égalitarisme libéral » By Claude Gamel
  2. Progress in human development: Are we on the right path? By Hippu Salk Kristle Nathan; Srijit Mishra
  3. Casting the net wide and deep: lessons learned in a mixed-methods study of poverty dynamics in rural Bangladesh By Peter Davis; Bob Baulch
  4. Monitoring Health Inequalities in France: A Short Tool for Routine Health SUrvey to Account for LifeLong Adverse Experiences By Emmanuelle Cambois; Florence Jusot

  1. By: Claude Gamel (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille II - Université Paul Cézanne - Aix-Marseille III - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - CNRS : UMR6579)
    Abstract: Sur la question de la justice sociale, le clivage « résultat »/«procédure» est fécond pour distinguer une approche d'inspiration utilitariste («économie du bien-être») d'une approche d'inspiration libérale («post-welfarisme»). Toutefois, dans cette seconde perspective, il reste insuffisant pour situer les innovations majeures du courant de «l'égalitarisme libéral», où des éléments de «justice de résultat» sont instillés dans une théorie «procédurale» de la justice. Tel est d'abord le positionnement atypique de Rawls (1971) comme précurseur de ce courant de pensée, en raison notamment du rôle clé joué par les deux volets de son second principe de la justice. Par la suite, sur le thème de l'égalité réelle des chances, Sen (1980), avec son «approche par les capacités», peut être considéré comme un disciple contestataire de Rawls, et, à propos du principe de différence, Kolm (2005), avec son concept de transferts redistributifs « ELIE » peut être perçu comme son exégète rigoureux.
    Keywords: Post-welfarisme, égalitarisme libéral, second principe de la justice, approche par les capacités, transferts redistributifs ELIE
    Date: 2010–07–16
  2. By: Hippu Salk Kristle Nathan (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Srijit Mishra (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)
    Abstract: The conventional measure of Human Development Index (HDI) is a linear average across dimensions, HDI1. Under this, poor attainments in any dimension gets perfectly compensated for better attainments in any other dimension HDI2, which is based on Euclidean distance measuring shortfall from the ideal, addresses the above anomaly. In our analysis of progress, we use HDI2 to develop the notion of an ideal path and penalty to capture deviation from this; and a measure of fluctuation. The measures are applied to 127 countries for the period 1990-2004. The results show that Sub-Saharan countries have suffered on account of sharp decline in health suggesting prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic. In case of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the income dimension got jolted in the nineties indicating their economic collapse after Soviet disintegration. We also find some of the emerging economies progressing well along the ideal path. On the eve of the 20th anniversary of Human Development Report, this paper is timely and would engage academia and public policy to have a critical look favouring a balanced development across the three dimensions of HDI - health, education and standard of living.
    Keywords: Human Development Index (HDI), Ideal path, Measure of fluctuation, Measure of normalized-change, Sub-Saharan, Commonwealth Independent States (CIS)
    JEL: C43 I00 O15
    Date: 2010–07
  3. By: Peter Davis; Bob Baulch
    Abstract: In this paper we reflect on lessons learned in developing a mixed-methods approach to the study of poverty dynamics in a three phase qual-quant-qual study of poverty dynamics in rural Bangladesh. We argue that a sequential but integrated approach has a number of advantages over single-method approaches or non-integrated studies. In particular, mixed-methods research strengthens our ability to make more reliable causal inferences, both in individual life trajectories, and in collective trends. We also examine how integrating qualitative and quantitative methods raises important issues for poverty dynamics research, including the way that concepts are developed and deployed, how field research is designed and conducted, how causation is identified, and how findings are analysed and presented. [Working Paper No. 155]
    Keywords: poverty dynamics Bangladesh mixed methods
    Date: 2010
  4. By: Emmanuelle Cambois (INED institut national d'études démographiques); Florence Jusot (IRDES institut for research and information in health economics)
    Abstract: Conventional health surveys focus on current health and social context but rarely address past experiences of hardship or exclusion. However, recent research shows how such experiences contribute to health status and social inequalities. In order to analyse in routine statistics the impact of lifelong adverse experiences (LAE) on various health indicators, a new set of questions on financial difficulties, housing difficulties due to financial hardship and isolation was introduced in the 2004 French National health, health care and insurance survey (ESPS 2004). Logistic regressions were used to analyze associations between LAE, current socioeconomic status (SES) (education, occupation, income) and health (self-perceived health, activity limitation, chronic morbidity), on a sample of 4308 men and women aged 35 years and older. In our population, LAE were reported by 1 person out of 5. Although more frequent in low SES groups, they concerned above 10% of the highest incomes. For both sexes, LAE are significantly linked to poor self-perceived health, diseases and activity limitations, even controlling for SES (OR>2) and even in the highest income group. This pattern remains significant for LAE experienced only during childhood. The questions successfully identified in a conventional survey people exposed to health problems in relation to past experiences. LAE contribute to the social health gradient and explain variability within social groups. These questions will be useful to monitor health inequalities, for instance by further analyzing LAE related health determinants such as risk factors, exposition and care use.
    Keywords: Health inequalities; Lifelong adverse experiences; Health surveys
    JEL: I12 I32
    Date: 2010–03

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