nep-gth New Economics Papers
on Game Theory
Issue of 2019‒05‒13
twenty-one papers chosen by
Sylvain Béal
Université de Franche-Comté

  1. Conflict-free and Pareto-optimal Allocations in the One-sided Assignment Game: A Solution Concept Weaker than the Core By David Pérez-Castrillo; Marilda Sotomayor
  2. Sequential competition and the strategic origins of preferential attachment By Antoine Mandel; Xavier Venel
  3. Naïve imitation and partial cooperation in a local public goods model By Herings, P. Jean-Jacques; Peeters, Ronald; Tenev, Anastas; Thuijsman, Frank
  4. Analysis of Approval Voting in Poisson Games By François Durand; Antonin Macé; Matias Nunez
  5. Measuring Competitiveness and Cooperativeness By Thomas Demuynck; Christian Seel; Giang Tran
  7. Coalition Formation and History Dependence By Bhaskar Dutta; Hannu Vartiainen
  8. Efficient Partnership Formation In Networks By Francis Bloch; Bhaskar Dutta; Mihai Manea
  9. A Qualitative Theory of Conflict Resolution and Political Compromise By Joseph Abdou; Hans Keiding
  10. Cooperation and evolution of meaning in senders-receivers games By Claude Meidinger
  11. Marketing Agencies and Collusive Bidding in Online Ad Auctions By Decarolis, Francesco; Goldmanis, Maris; Penta, Antonio
  12. Identifying the Ranking of Focal Points in Coordination Games on the Individual Level By Schmidt, Robert J.
  13. Netflix Games: Local Public Goods with Capacity Constraints By Stefanie Gerke; Gregory Gutin; Sung-Ha Hwang; Philip Neary
  14. An experimental study of partnership formation in social networks By Francis Bloch; Bhaskar Dutta; Stéphane Robin; Min Zhu
  15. "Yogurt Cartel" of Private Label Providers in France: impact on prices and welfare By Bonnet, Céline; Bouamra-Mechemache, Zohra
  16. Characterizing non-myopic information cascades in Bayesian learning By Ilai Bistritz; Nasimeh Heydaribeni; Achilleas Anastasopoulos
  17. Conditions for the stability of a Cournot duopoly model with tax evasion and time delay By Raul Villafuerte-Segura; Eduardo Alvarado-Santos; Benjamin A. Itza-Ortiz
  18. Location and research activities organization: Could public/private cooperation be harmful? By Marie-Laure Cabon-Dhersin; Emmanuelle Taugourdeau
  19. Renewable Support, Intermittency and Market Power: An Equilibrium Investment Approach By Darudi, Ali; Weigt, Hannes
  20. Computing a Data Dividend By Eric Bax
  21. Coordination with communication under oath By Nicolas Jacquemet; Stéphane Luchini; Jason Shogren; Adam Zylbersztejn

  1. By: David Pérez-Castrillo; Marilda Sotomayor
    Abstract: In the one-sided assignment game any two agents can form a partnership and decide how to share the surplus created. Thus, in this market, an outcome involves a matching and a vector of payoffs. Contrary to the two-sided assignment game, stable outcomes often fail to exist in the one-sided assignment game. We introduce the idea of conflict-free outcomes: they are individually rational outcomes where no matched agent can form a blocking pair with any other agent, neither matched nor unmatched. We propose the set of Pareto-optimal (PO) conflict-free outcomes, which is the set of the maximal elements of the set of conflict-free outcomes, as a natural solution concept for this game. We prove several properties of conflict-free outcomes and PO conflict-free outcomes. In particular, we show that each element in the set of PO conflict-free payoffs provides the maximum surplus out of the set of conflict-free payoffs, the set is always non-empty and it coincides with the core when the core is non-empty. We further support the set of PO conflict-free outcomes as a natural solution concept by suggesting an idealized partnership formation process that leads to these outcomes. In this process, partnerships are formed sequentially under the premise of optimal behavior and two agents only reach an agreement if both believe that more favorable terms will not be obtained in any future negotiations.
    Keywords: matching, assignment game, core, Pareto-optimal outcome, conflict-free outcome
    JEL: C78 D78
    Date: 2019–04
  2. By: Antoine Mandel (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics); Xavier Venel (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: There exists a wide gap between the predictions of strategic models of network formation and empirical observations of the characteristics of socio-economic networks. Empirical observations underline a complex structure characterized by fat-tailed degree distribution, short average distance, large clustering coefficient and positive assortativity. Game theoretic models offer a detailed representation of individuals' incentives but they predict the emergence of much simpler structures than these observed empirically. Random network formation processes, such as preferential attachment, provide a much better fit to empirical observations but generally lack micro-foundations. in order to bridge this gap, we propose to model network formation as extensive games and investigate under which conditions equilibria of these games are observationally equivalent with random network formation process. In particular, we introduce a class of games in which players compete with their predecessors and their successors for the utility induced by the links they form with another node in the network. Such sequential competition games can represent a number of strategic economic interactions such as oligopolistic competition in supply networks or diffusion of influence in opinion networks. we show that the focal equilibrium that emerge in this setting is one where players use probability distributions with full support and target the whole network with probabilities inversely proportional to the utility of each node. Notably, when the utility of a node is inversely proportional to its degree, equilibrium play induces a preferential attachment process.
    Abstract: Les modèles stratégiques de formation de réseaux existants peinent à expliquer un certain nombre de propriétés empiriques. Pour combler ce manque, nous proposons de modéliser la formation de réseau comme un jeu extensif et caractérisons les conditions sous lesquelles les équilibres de ces jeux sont consistants avec des dynamiques aléatoires de formation de réseau dont les bonnes propriétés empiriques sont connues. En particulier, nous introduisons une classe de jeux où les joueurs sont en compétition avec leurs successeurs et à leurs prédécesseurs pour les bénéfices induits par des relations avec d'autres noeuds du réseau. Nous montrons que la stratégie d'équilibre focale dans ce jeu est de se lier aux nœuds existants du réseau avec une probabilité inversement proportionnelle à l'utilité qu'ils génèrent. Notamment, lorsque l'utilité générée par un nœud est inversement proportionnelle à son degré, la stratégie d'équilibre coïncide avec le processus "d'attachement préférentiel" de Barabasi-Albert.
    Keywords: Socio-economic networks,endogenous networks formation,game theory,Réseaux socio-économiques,formation endogène des réseaux,théorie des jeux,attachement préférentiel
    Date: 2018–10
  3. By: Herings, P. Jean-Jacques (General Economics 1 (Micro)); Peeters, Ronald (university of otago, dunedin); Tenev, Anastas (General Economics 1 (Micro)); Thuijsman, Frank (DKE Scientific staff)
    Abstract: In a local interaction model agents situated on a circle play bilateral prisoners’ dilemmas with their immediate neighbors and have three possible strategies: cooperate in all interactions (altruistic), defect in all interactions (egoistic), or cooperate with one immediate neighbor with probability 1=2 (partial cooperation). After each period the agents adopt the strategy with the highest average payoff in their observed local neighborhood (naïve imitation). The absorbing states of the process are outlined and analysed. There does not exist an absorbing state in which the partially cooperative strategy coexists with any of the other strategies. The partially cooperative strategy limits the diffusion of altruistic behavior in the population. Even though clustering of altruists is generally beneficial for sustaining altruism, relatively big groups of altruists at the onset actually enable the spread of the partially cooperative strategy.
    Keywords: altruism, public goods, imitation, local interaction
    JEL: C63 C70 C72 C73
    Date: 2019–04–25
  4. By: François Durand (Nokia Bell Labs [Espoo], LINCS - Laboratory of Information, Network and Communication Sciences - Inria - Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - SU - Sorbonne Université); Antonin Macé (PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - La plante et son environnement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INA P-G - Institut National Agronomique Paris-Grignon - UP11 - Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Matias Nunez (LAMSADE - Laboratoire d'analyse et modélisation de systèmes pour l'aide à la décision - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We analyze Approval Voting in Poisson games endowing voters with private values over three candidates. We firsts how that any stable equilibrium is discriminatory: one candidate is commonly regarded as out of contention. We fully characterize stable equilibria and divide them into two classes. In direct equilibria, best responses depend only on ordinal preferences. In indirect equilibria, preference intensities matter. Counter-intuitively, any stable equilibrium violates the ordering conditions, a set of belief restrictions used to derive early results in the literature. We finally use Monte-Carlo simulations to estimate the prevalence of the different sorts of equilibria and their likelihood to elect a Condorcet winner.
    Keywords: Approval voting,Poisson games,Stable equilibria,Monte-Carlo simulations
    Date: 2019–03
  5. By: Thomas Demuynck; Christian Seel; Giang Tran
    Abstract: We develop an index of competitiveness and cooperativeness which is based on the primitives of a normal-form game, i.e. players, strategies and payoffs. The index relies on a unique decomposition of a given game into a zero-sum game and a common-interest game. The index decreases in the distance to its zero-sum part and it increases in the distance to its common-interest part. Alternatively, the index increases if the share of variation in payoffs captured by the zero-sum part increases We compute our index for well-known classes of games such as Prisoner's Dilemma,games with Strategic Complements and Substitutes, All-pay auctions, Tullock contests, and Public Goods games. The comparative statics of our index coincide with economic intuition. The index does well in explaining experimental
    Keywords: Competitiveness, cooperativeness, index
    Date: 2019–05
  6. By: Ezra Einy (BGU); Ori Haimanko (BGU); David Lagziel (BGU)
    Keywords: strong robustness to incomplete information; Nash equilibrium; correlated equilibrium
    JEL: C62 C72 D82
    Date: 2019
  7. By: Bhaskar Dutta (Department of Economics, Ashoka University); Hannu Vartiainen (Department of Economics, Ashoka University)
    Abstract: Farsighted formulations of coalitional formation, for instance by Harsanyi (1974) and Ray and Vohra(2015), have typically been based on the von NeumannMorgenstern (1944) stable set. These farsighted stable sets use a notion of indirect dominance in which an outcome can be dominated by a chain of coalitional 'moves' in which each coalition that is involved in the sequence eventually stands to gain. Dutta and Vohra(2016) point out that these solution concepts do not require coalitions to make optimal moves. Hence, these solution concepts can yield unreasonable predictions. Dutta and Vohra (2016) restricted coalitions to hold common, history independent expectations that incorporate optimality regarding the continuation path. This paper extends the Dutta-Vohra analysis by allowing for history dependent expectations. The paper provides characterization results for two solution concepts corresponding to two versions of optimality. It demonstrates the power of history dependence by establishing nonemptyness results for all finite games as well as transferable utility partition function games. The paper also provides partial comparisons of the solution concepts to other solutions.
    Keywords: Coalition
    Date: 2018–07
  8. By: Francis Bloch (Department of Economics, Ashoka University); Bhaskar Dutta (Department of Economics, Ashoka University); Mihai Manea (Department of Economics, Ashoka University)
    Abstract: We analyze the formation of partnerships in social networks. Players need favors at random times and ask their neighbors in the network to form exclusive long-term partnerships that guarantee reciprocal favor exchange. Refusing to provide a favor results in the automatic removal of the underlying link. Players agree to provide the first favor in a partnership only if they otherwise face the risk of eventual isolation. In equilibrium, players essential for realizing every maximum matching can avoid this risk and enjoy higher payoffs than inessential players.Although the search for partners is decentralized and reflects local partnership opportunities, the strength of essential players drives efficient partnership formation in every network. Equilibrium behavior is determined by the classification of nodes in the Gallai-Edmonds decomposition of the underlying network.
    Keywords: networks, efficiency, decentralized markets, partnerships, favor exchange, maximum matchings, Gallai-Edmonds decomposition, under-demanded.
    Date: 2019–02
  9. By: Joseph Abdou (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics); Hans Keiding (KU - University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: We view political activity as an interaction between forces seeking to achieve a political agenda. The viability of a situation depends on the compatibility of such agendas. However even in a conflictual situation a compromise may be possible. Mathematically a political structure is modeled as a simplical complex and a viable configuration as a simplex. A represented compromise is a viable configuration obtained by the withdrawal of some agents in favor of some friendly representatives. A delegated compromise is a sophisticated version of a compromise obtained by the iteration of the withdrawal process. Existence of such solutions depends on the discrete topology of the simplicial complex. In particular we prove that the existence of a delegated compromise is equivalent to the strong contractibility of the simplicial complex.
    Keywords: Delegation,compromise,simplicial complex,contiguity,strong homotopy
    Date: 2018–07
  10. By: Claude Meidinger (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Whether there is a pre-existing common "language" that ties down the literal meanings of cheap talk messages or not is a distinction plainly important in practice. But it is assumed irrelevant in traditional game theory because it affects neither the payoff structure nor the theoretical possibilities for signaling. And when in experiments the "common-language" assumption is simplicitly implemented, such situations ignore the meta-coordination problem created by communication. Players must coordinate their beliefs on what various messages mean before they can use messages to coordinate on what to do. Using simulations with populations of artificial agents, the paper investigates the way according to which a common meaning can be constituted through a collective process of learning and compares the results thus obtained with those available in some experiments.
    Abstract: Le fait de savoir s'il existe ou non un « langage » commun préexistant qui détermine les significations littérales des messages cheap talk est manifestement important en pratique. Cependant ce fait est considéré comme non pertinent dans la théorie traditionnelle des jeux car il n'affecte ni la structure des gains ni les possibilités théoriques de signaler. Et quand dans les expériences l'hypothèse d'un « langage commun » est implicitement implémentée, de telles situations ignorent le problème de méta-coordination créé par la communication. Les joueurs doivent coordonner leurs croyances sur ce que signifient les différents messages avant d'utiliser les messages pour coordonner leurs actions. A l'aide de simulations au sein de populations d'agents artificiels, ce papier étudie la manière selon laquelle une signification commune de messages peut se constituer dans le cadre d'un processus collectif de learning et compare les résultats obtenus avec ceux résultant d'expériences.
    Keywords: Experimental Economics,Computational Economics,Signaling games,Economie expérimentale,Economie computationnelle,Jeux avec communication
    Date: 2018–12
  11. By: Decarolis, Francesco; Goldmanis, Maris; Penta, Antonio
    Abstract: The transition of the advertising market from traditional media to the internet has induced a proliferation of marketing agencies specialized in bidding in the auctions that are used to sell ad space on the web. We analyze how collusive bidding can emerge from bid delegation to a common marketing agency and how this can undermine the revenues and allocative efficiency of both the Generalized Second Price auction (GSP, used by Google and Microsoft-Bing and Yahoo!) and the of VCG mechanism (used by Facebook). We find that, despite its well-known susceptibility to collusion, the VCG mechanism outperforms the GSP auction both in terms of revenues and efficiency.
    Keywords: Collusion; Digital Marketing Agencies; Facebook; Google; GSP; Internet Auctions; Online Advertising; VCG.
    JEL: C72 D44 L81
    Date: 2019–04–23
  12. By: Schmidt, Robert J.
    Abstract: We propose a method to identify the ranking of focal points (Schelling, 1960) on the individual level. By contrast to conventional coordination, where subjects bet on only one alternative, subjects coordinate by the distribution of points. This allows them to invest in multiple alternatives and to weigh their choices. As a result, subjects not only reveal which alternative appears most focal to them, but the ranking of the available alternatives with regard to the degree of focality. In an experiment on the elicitation of social norms (Krupka and Weber, 2013), we compare the proposed mechanism with conventional coordination. The data confirms the theoretical predictions regarding coordination behavior and demonstrates that the proposed technique is suited to identify the heterogeneity of focal points on the individual level. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the proposed mechanism identifies focal points on the group level significantly more efficiently than ordinary coordination. Finally, we point to the possibility to use the mechanism as a simple and direct tool to measure the degree of strategic uncertainty on the individual level.
    Keywords: coordination; focal points; game theory; methodology; social norms
    Date: 2019–03–27
  13. By: Stefanie Gerke; Gregory Gutin; Sung-Ha Hwang; Philip Neary
    Abstract: This paper considers incentives to provide goods that are partially excludable along social links. Individuals face a capacity constraint in that, conditional upon providing, they may nominate only a subset of neighbours as co-beneficiaries. Our model has two typically incompatible ingredients: (i) a graphical game (individuals decide how much of the good to provide), and (ii) graph formation (individuals decide which subset of neighbours to nominate as co-beneficiaries). For any capacity constraints and any graph, we show the existence of specialised pure strategy Nash equilibria - those in which some individuals (the Drivers, D) contribute while the remaining individuals (the Passengers, P) free ride. The proof is constructive and corresponds to showing, for a given capacity, the existence of a new kind of spanning bipartite subgraph, a DP-subgraph, with partite sets D and P. We consider how the number of Drivers in equilibrium changes as the capacity constraints are relaxed and show a weak monotonicity result. Finally, we introduce dynamics and show that only specialised equilibria are stable against individuals unilaterally changing their provision level.
    Date: 2019–05
  14. By: Francis Bloch (Department of Economics, Ashoka University); Bhaskar Dutta (Department of Economics, Ashoka University); Stéphane Robin (Department of Economics, Ashoka University); Min Zhu (Department of Economics, Ashoka University)
    Abstract: This paper reports on laboratory experiments on the formation of partnerships in social networks. Agents randomly request favors and turn to their neighbors to form a partnership where they commit to provide the favor when requested. The formation of a partnership is modeled as a sequential game, which admits a unique subgame perfect equilibrium resulting in the formation of the maximum number of partnerships. Experimental results show that a large fraction of the subjects (75%) play according to their subgame perfect equilibrium strategy and reveals that the efficient maximum matching is formed over 78% of the times. When subjects deviate from their best responses, they accept to form partnerships too early. The incentive to accept when it is optimal to reject is positively correlated with subjects' risk aversion, and players employ simple heuristics-like the presence of a captive partner-to decide whether they should accept or reject the formation of a partnership.
    Keywords: social networks, partnerships, matchings in networks, non-stationary networks, laboratory experiments
    Date: 2018–08
  15. By: Bonnet, Céline; Bouamra-Mechemache, Zohra
    Abstract: During the period 2006 to 2012, French competition authorities pressed charges against the country’s top 11 firms for engaging in a price-fixing cartel in the fresh dairy store brand segment. Using an empirical vertical bargaining model, this paper studies the effects of the "yogurt cartel" on the price of store brand and national brand products, on the profit sharing between dairy dessert companies and retailers, and consumer welfare. We find that data supports collusive behavior in the dairy dessert market. The cartel leads to price effects for store brands varying from 7.3% for other dairy desserts to 11.3% for yogurts, and those price effects would even be stronger if the cartel also affects the ability of retailers to negotiate with manufacturers. We also show that in a hypothetical situation without the collusion of private label providers, the prices of national brands would have been higher and manufacturers’ profits for the sales of their national brand products would have been lower. The cartel thus benefits manufacturers both in the national brand and private label markets. We show that the national brand dairy dessert market should be taken into account when evaluating the damages to the private label dairy dessert market, which the French competition authorities failed to do.
    Keywords: Yogurt cartel; private label; bargaining; profit sharing; food; collusion.
    JEL: L13 L41 L66
    Date: 2019–05–02
  16. By: Ilai Bistritz; Nasimeh Heydaribeni; Achilleas Anastasopoulos
    Abstract: We consider an environment where a finite number of players need to decide whether to buy a certain product (or adopt a trend) or not. The product is either good or bad, but its true value is not known to the players. Instead, each player has her own private information on the quality of the product. Each player can observe the previous actions of other players and estimate the quality of the product. A player can only buy the product once. In contrast to the existing literature on informational cascades, in this work players get more than one opportunity to act. In each turn, a player is chosen uniformly at random from all players and can decide to buy or not to buy. His utility is the total expected discounted reward, and thus myopic strategies may not constitute equilibria. We provide a characterization of structured perfect Bayesian equilibria (sPBE) with forward-looking strategies through a fixed-point equation of dimensionality that grows only quadratically with the number of players. In particular, a sufficient state for players' strategies at each time instance is a pair of two integers, the first corresponding to the estimated quality of the good and the second indicating the number of players that cannot offer additional information about the good to the rest of the players. We show existence of such equilibria and characterize equilibria with threshold strategies w.r.t. the two aforementioned integers. Based on this characterization we study informational cascades and show that they happen with high probability for a large number of players. Furthermore, only a small portion of the total information in the system is revealed before a cascade occurs.
    Date: 2019–05
  17. By: Raul Villafuerte-Segura; Eduardo Alvarado-Santos; Benjamin A. Itza-Ortiz
    Abstract: We study a Cournot duopoly model with tax evasion and time delay. We prove that if the marginal production costs of both competing firms are equal then the equilibrium point is asymptotically stable and independent of time delay. As consequence, our model can not have bifurcations if the delay, as a parameter, is varied. It further imply that less tax evasion and higher public revenue can be achieved either by increasing the effectiveness of audits or by adjusting the penalties for tax evasion.
    Date: 2019–05
  18. By: Marie-Laure Cabon-Dhersin (CREAM - Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée à la Mondialisation - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - IRIHS - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire Homme et Société - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université); Emmanuelle Taugourdeau (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the organization and the distribution of research activities between nearby public and private laboratories. In a three-stage game, the 'size', 'location' and 'research effort' are determined under the assumption that public spillovers depend on the location of the private laboratory. We compare two scenarios in which the research efforts are decided either cooperatively or non-cooperatively. We show that for particular levels of subsidy granted to the public lab, higher funding favors spatial proximity and increases the total research effort in the cooperative case, while it diminishes the total effort in the non-cooperative one. Moreover, compared with the non-cooperative case, research cooperation i) may increase the distance between the two laboratories, ii) makes the public laboratory smaller, iii) increases the total research effort, but iv) is detrimental to the payoff of the whole research sector.
    Keywords: research cooperation,spatial location,public subsidy
    Date: 2018–11
  19. By: Darudi, Ali (University of Basel); Weigt, Hannes (University of Basel)
    Abstract: Renewable energy sources (RES) play an increasing role in many electricity systems thanks to climate and support policies and subsequent cost reductions in recent years. Compared to conventional generation technologies, RES has two main important distinctive features: First, their cost pattern is characterized by high investment and negligible variable costs and second, their operational decision is governed by weather conditions limiting their availability. In this paper, we aim to analyze the role of RES in electricity markets focusing on the interplay of investment and dispatch decisions under different levels of market competitiveness and different support schemes; namely, feed-in tariff, feed-in premium, and investment subsidies. To this end, we develop a two-stage model of endogenous investment and operation with both intermittent and conventional technologies to obtain analytical solutions for investment and operation decisions. We show that there are feedback effects between the investments of different firms, and between the different technologies of the same firm. Exercise of market power results in underinvestment in the conventional technology; but the effect on renewables is ambiguous due to the interplay of opposing investment incentives. The results furthermore highlight that for the optimal design of a support policy the underlying competiveness of the market needs to be considered.
    Keywords: renewable energy; electricity market; investment; renewable support; market power; two-stage game
    JEL: L94 C72 C73 L13 Q42
    Date: 2019–04–17
  20. By: Eric Bax
    Abstract: Quality data is a fundamental contributor to success in statistics and machine learning. If a statistical assessment or machine learning leads to decisions that create value, data contributors may want a share of that value. This paper presents methods to assess the value of individual data samples, and of sets of samples, to apportion value among different data contributors. We use Shapley values for individual samples and Owen values for combined samples, and show that these values can be computed in polynomial time in spite of their definitions having numbers of terms that are exponential in the number of samples.
    Date: 2019–05
  21. By: Nicolas Jacquemet (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics); Stéphane Luchini (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales, AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Jason Shogren (Departement of Economics and Finance, University of Wyoming - UW - University of Wyoming); Adam Zylbersztejn (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We focus on the design of an institutional device aimed to foster coordination through communication. We explore whether the social psychology theory of commitment, implemented via a truth-telling oath, can reduce coordination failure. Using a classic coordination game, we ask all players to sign voluntarily a truth-telling oath before playing the game with cheap talk communication. Three results emerge with commitment under oath: (1) coordination increased by nearly 50 percent; (2) senders' messages were significantly more truthful and actions more efficient, and (3) receivers' trust of messages increased.
    Keywords: Oath,Cheap talk communication,Coordination game
    Date: 2018–09

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