nep-geo New Economics Papers
on Economic Geography
Issue of 2020‒02‒17
nine papers chosen by
Andreas Koch
Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung

  1. R&D and Knowledge Expertise of French Regions By Tan Tran
  2. It's the Way People Move! Labour Migration as an Adjustment Device in Russia By Pastore, Francesco; Semerikova, Elena
  3. Measuring Urban Sprawl using Land Use Data By Miriam Steurer; Caroline Bayr
  4. The role of key regions in spatial development By Becker, Raphael Niklas; Henkel, Marcel
  5. Night lights in economics: Sources and uses By John Gibson; Susan Olivia; Geua Boe-Gibson
  6. Does FDI benefit incumbent SMEs?: FDI spillovers and competition effects at the local level By Alexander C. Lembcke; Lenka Wildnerova
  7. A global map of amenities: Public goods, ethnic divisions and decentralization By Seidel, André
  8. The Role of Historical Christian Missions in the Location of World Bank Aid in Africa By Alpino,Matteo; Hammersmark,Eivind Moe
  9. Migration in Libya : A Spatial Network Analysis By Di Maio,Michele; Leone Sciabolazza,Valerio; Molini,Vasco

  1. By: Tan Tran
    Abstract: Within the literature of regional innovation systems, a growing stream of research emphasizes the role of differentiated knowledge bases. The employees’ occupations mainly measure the existing work on knowledge bases. Even though the conceptual theory highlights the importance of interactions across types of knowledge bases underlying innovation activities, they are separately measured and treated in most empirical studies. While few studies use the interaction term between knowledge bases, it does not reflects their actual relationships. In this study, an attempt is made to analysis and observe the regional knowledge for long periods of time. The study suggests suggesting to measure different types of expertise in science and technology of the region, as the fine-grained layers of regional knowledge bases, by using patent and publication datasets in France. Finally, we imply the new measurements to understand the relationships between regional R&D expenditure and their knowledge expertise. The results show that R&D expenditure has a positive relationship with the numbers of the scientific and technological expertise of the region; however, not to the level of expertise. The results also show that the level of technological expertise will increase if it is complementary to a specific science.
    Keywords: regions, science, technology, interdependence, R&D
    JEL: R11 O32 O34
    Date: 2020–02
  2. By: Pastore, Francesco (Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli); Semerikova, Elena (National Research University)
    Abstract: This paper aims to assess the role of migration as an adjustment mechanism device to favor convergence across states and regions of Russia. In contrast to previous studies, we use variations in the population of a region as a proxy of its net migration rate and apply spatial econometric methodology in order to distinguish the effect from the neighbouring regions. We provide descriptive statistical evidence showing that Russia has more/less/the same intense migration flows than the USA and EU. The econometric analysis shows that migration flows are sensitive to both regional income and regional unemployment differentials. Nonetheless, we find that internal migration is sensitive to regional unemployment and income differentials of neighbouring regions. Dependent on the welfare, pre- or after-crisis period, income in neighbouring regions can create out- or in-migration flows. The relatively high degree of internal mobility coupled with the low sensitivity of migration flows to the local unemployment rate of distant regions might explain why migration flows tends not to generate convergence, but rather divergence across Russian regions.
    Keywords: internal and international migration, adjustment mechanism, spatial econometrics, Russia
    JEL: F15 F22 J61 R23
    Date: 2020–01
  3. By: Miriam Steurer (University of Graz, Austria); Caroline Bayr (Joanneum Research, Policies, Graz, Austria)
    Abstract: Digital land use data, generally derived by remote sensing and often organized in grid form, have become widely available for even the most remote areas of the globe. Here we investigate how to use land use data to measure three of the most characteristic aspects of urban sprawl: low density, low continuity of land use type (scatteredness), and low compactness of the shape of the city. For each of these categories we present multiple urban sprawl indicators. Some of these indicators have been used in the literature before, others we developed ourselves. For density measurements we illustrate how simple changes to common density indicators can improve their meaningfulness. With respect to scatteredness we show that the interpretation of entropy measures can be ambiguous. Using a variant on Moran’s I index does a better job at measuring scatteredness. When it comes to measuring compactness, the grid structure of land use data can inflate the boundary of the measured area. We introduce new compactness indices that correct for this problem. To illustrate the discussed indices, we apply them to Graz, the second largest city in Austria, using data from the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) Project [1].
    Keywords: surban sprawl, density, entropy, GIS, remote sensing, urban dynamics, spatial analysis, compac
    JEL: R11 R52
    Date: 2020–02
  4. By: Becker, Raphael Niklas; Henkel, Marcel
    Abstract: We discuss the role of key regions in spatial development. Local productivity shocks can affect the entire economy as they expand via tight connections in the domestic production network and in uence the geographical allocation of labor. In particular, we identify the set of key regions with the highest potential to affect aggregate productivity, output, and welfare. Key regions are central locations with strong spatial linkages in the production network but are not too large and congested so they can still attract additional labor in response to positive productivity shocks without local rents and input costs rising too much. Using a spatial equilibrium model and data from German districts, we find that a relatively modest development of productivity in key regions lowered German output and welfare growth by a factor of two from 2010 to 2015.
    Keywords: Regional trade,Input-output linkages,Labour mobility,Spatial economics,Economicgeography,Regional productivity,Sectoral productivity
    JEL: R10 R12 R15 F10 F1 F16 O4 O51
    Date: 2020
  5. By: John Gibson (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - Clermont Auvergne - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, University of Waikato [Hamilton]); Susan Olivia (University of Waikato [Hamilton]); Geua Boe-Gibson (University of Waikato [Hamilton])
    Abstract: Night lights, as detected by satellites, are increasingly used by economists, typically as a proxy for economic activity. The growing popularity of these data reflects either the absence, or the presumed inaccuracy, of more conventional economic statistics, like national or regional GDP. Further growth in use of night lights is likely, as they have been included in the AidData geo-query tool for providing sub-national data, and in geographic data that the Demographic and Health Survey links to anonymised survey enumeration areas. Yet this ease of obtaining night lights data may lead to inappropriate use, if users fail to recognize that most of the satellites providing these data were not designed to assist economists, and have features that may threaten validity of analyses based on these data, especially for temporal comparisons, and for small and rural areas. In this paper we review sources of satellite data on night lights, discuss issues with these data, and survey some of their uses in economics.
    Keywords: Density,Development,DMSP,Luminosity,Night lights,VIIRS
    Date: 2020–01–24
  6. By: Alexander C. Lembcke; Lenka Wildnerova
    Abstract: That global networks provide positive externalities to participating firms is a well‑documented fact. Less is known about how the performance of non-participating firms, especially those that are small or medium-sized, changes with exposure to an increase in the presence of globally integrated firms in their vicinity. With global trade being dominated by large firms, the benefits for SMEs are often indirect, e.g. through input relationships with larger companies or through knowledge spillovers that facilitate the adoption of best practices in firms with access to globally integrated peers. This paper combines industry and regional exposure to global links in form of foreign ownership. It uses firm-level microdata for 13 OECD countries, allowing for local spillovers (or crowding out) within the same industry and across industries. Foreign investment in the firm in the same region is associated with increasing productivity of local firms, especially in form of cross-sector externalities. Horizontal (same sector) externalities are negative, especially if they are coming from foreign firms locating in distanced regions. FDI tends to be associated with employment decline in manufacturing firms, but some growth in small firms.
    Keywords: Employment, FDI, Firms, Productivity, SME
    JEL: D22 F14 F23 F21 R12
    Date: 2020–02–12
  7. By: Seidel, André (University of Bergen, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper presents a new global dataset on the geocode locations of public amenities, e.g., schools, hospitals or libraries, based on OpenStreetMap data. Volunteered geocoded information can be systematically incomplete; therefore, we develop and study two new proxies for the degree of completeness of OSM data in first-level administrative regions. Using our new data, we study the effects of decentralization and ethnic divisions on the provision of public amenities associated with various public goods. We find strong evidence for the existence of collective action failure at the subnational Level worldwide. More autonomous regions with high degrees of ethnic fractionalization provide significantly fewer public amenities than others.
    Keywords: public goods; amenities; decentralization; ethnic fractionalization; OpenStreetMap
    JEL: C82 D72 H41 H75 H77 R53
    Date: 2019–09–20
  8. By: Alpino,Matteo; Hammersmark,Eivind Moe
    Abstract: This article documents a positive and sizable correlation between the location of historical Christian missions and the allocation of present-day World Bank aid at the grid-cell level in Africa. The correlation is robust to an extensive set of geographical and historical control variables that predict settlement of missions. The study finds no correlation with aid effectiveness, as measured by project ratings and survey-based development indicators. Mission areas display a different political aid cycle than other areas, whereby new projects are less likely to arrive in years with new presidents. Hence, political connections between mission areas and central governments could be one likely explanation for the correlation between missions and aid.
    Date: 2020–02–12
  9. By: Di Maio,Michele; Leone Sciabolazza,Valerio; Molini,Vasco
    Abstract: This paper provides the first systematic analysis of migration to, within, and from Libya. The data used in the analysis are from the Displacement Tracking Matrix data set of the International Organization for Migration. The analysis uses this unique source of data, combining several techniques to analyze various dimensions of migration in Libya. First, the paper provides a detailed description of the demographic characteristics and national composition of the migrant populations in Libya. Next, it discusses the determinants of migration flow within Libya. The findings show that migration in Libya can be characterized as forced migration, because conflict intensity is the main determinant of the decision to relocate across provinces. Finally, the paper describes the direction, composition, and evolution of international migration flows passing through Libya and identifies the mechanisms of location selection by migrants within Libya by identifying hotspots and cluster provinces.
    Keywords: Social Cohesion,Social Conflict and Violence,Armed Conflict,International Migration,Human Migrations&Resettlements,Migration and Development,Labor Markets
    Date: 2020–01–14

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