nep-geo New Economics Papers
on Economic Geography
Issue of 2019‒04‒29
three papers chosen by
Andreas Koch
Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung

  1. Lognormal city size distribution and distance By González-Val, Rafael
  2. The Magnification of a Lagging Region's Initial Economic Disadvantages on the Balanced Growth Path By Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Nijkamp, Peter
  3. Do Bus Rapid Transit Systems Improve Accessibility to Jobs?: The Case of Lima, Peru By Scholl, Lynn; Oviedo, Daniel; Innao, Marco; Pedraza, Lauramaría

  1. By: González-Val, Rafael
    Abstract: This paper analyses whether the size distribution of nearby cities is lognormally distributed by using a distance-based approach. We use data from three different definitions of US cities in 2010, considering all possible combinations of cities within a 300-mile radius. The results indicate that support for the lognormal distribution decreases with distance, although the lognormal distribution cannot be rejected in most of the cases for distances below 100 miles.
    Keywords: space, city size distribution, distance-based approach, lognormal distribution
    JEL: C12 C14 R12
    Date: 2019–04
  2. By: Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Nijkamp, Peter
    Abstract: We analyze aspects of long run economic growth in stylized lagging and leading regions. Both regions use physical capital, research and development (R&D), and knowledgeable workers to produce a final consumption good. The lagging region faces two key economic disadvantages. Specifically, the constant fractions of the output of the final consumption good that are saved to enhance the stocks of physical capital and R&D are assumed to be twice as large in the leading region as they are in the lagging region. In this scenario, we perform three tasks. First, we determine the ratio of the balanced growth path (BGP) value of output per knowledgeable worker in the leading region to its value in the lagging region. Second, we ascertain the ratio of the BGP value of R&D per knowledgeable worker in the leading region to its value in the lagging region. Finally, we show the extent to which the lagging region’s initial economic disadvantages are magnified on the BGP and then discuss some policy implications.
    Keywords: Economic Growth, Lagging Region, Leading Region, Magnification Effect
    JEL: O18 R11
    Date: 2019–01–15
  3. By: Scholl, Lynn; Oviedo, Daniel; Innao, Marco; Pedraza, Lauramaría
    Abstract: Investments in public transit infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean often aim to reduce spatial and social inequalities by improving accessibility to jobs and other opportunities. The Metropolitano, Lima’s BRT project at inception, had, as one of its central goals, to connect low income populations living in the peripheries to jobs in the city center. We examine the contribution of Lima’s Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system to accessibility to employment in the city, particularly for low-income public transit users. We build on secondary datasets of employment, household socio-demographics and Origin-Destination surveys before and after the BRT began operations to assess its effects on potential accessibility to employment. Findings suggest that the BRT line reduced travel times to reach jobs, in comparison with traditional public transport in the city, amongst populations living within walking distance of the system. However, we also find that the coverage of the BRT is minimal in areas with high concentrations of poor and extreme poor populations, limiting the equitability of the accessibility improvements. We present a reflection on the distributional effects of BRT infrastructure and services, discussing policy avenues that can improve the prospects for BRT system investments to include the poor in their mobility benefits.
    Date: 2019–02

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