nep-geo New Economics Papers
on Economic Geography
Issue of 2014‒10‒13
five papers chosen by
Andreas Koch
Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung

  1. Assessing Polycentric Urban Systems in the OECD: Country, Regional and Metropolitan Perspectives By Monica Brezzi; Paolo Veneri
  2. The spatial persistence of population and wealth during apartheid: comparing the 1911 and 2011 censuses By Waldo Krugell
  3. Change and Persistence in the Economic Status of Neighborhoods and Cities By Stuart Rosenthal; Stephen L. Ross
  4. Cross-Hauling in Input-Output Tables: Comments on CHARM By Randall Jackson
  5. Le modèle de la « triple hélice » appliqué au territoire : problématique, limites et intégration de nouvelles variables explicatives The triple helix model applied to the territory: issue, limits and integration of new explanatory variables By Guillem ACHERMANN

  1. By: Monica Brezzi; Paolo Veneri
    Abstract: Contemporary urban systems in OECD countries are structured around functional regions, which often overcome established city boundaries. Reading space in terms of functional regions allows assessing changes in urban hierarchies and spatial structures, including the polycentricity of urban systems at national, regional and metropolitan scale. By using a harmonised definition of functional urban areas in OECD countries, this paper first provides a sound definition of polycentricity at each spatial scale, highlighting for each of them the different links with policy. Second, it provides measures of polycentricity and explores the economic implications of different spatial structures. Results show that relatively more monocentric regions have higher GDP per capita than their more polycentric counterparts. At country level, on the other hand, polycentricity is associated with higher GDP per capita.
    Keywords: polycentricity, urban system, Spatial structure
    JEL: R11 R12 R14 R58
    Date: 2014–04–14
  2. By: Waldo Krugell
    Abstract: This article examines the spatial distribution of people and wealth in South Africa over the period 1911 to 2011. Economic development is typically characterised by agglomeration, but Apartheid policies tried to separate people and disperse economic activity. Zipf’s Law is used to examine the balance of these forces. The results show that Apartheid’s interventions could not stop agglomeration, which seems to have continued to the point of over-concentration today. Wealth has become increasingly concentrated in places of initial white settlement and the large urban agglomerations.
    Keywords: apartheid, population, spatial development, Agglomeration, Zipf’s Law, South Africa
    JEL: N97 R12
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Stuart Rosenthal (Syracuse University); Stephen L. Ross (University of Connecticut)
    Abstract: This paper reviews recent literature that considers and explains the tendency for neighborhood and city-level economic status to rise and fall. A central message is that although many locations exhibit extreme persistence in economic status, change in economic status as measured by various indicators of per capita income is common. At the neighborhood level, we begin with a set of stylized facts, and then follow with discussion of static and dynamic drivers of neighborhood economic status. This is mirrored at the metropolitan level. Durable but slowly decaying housing, transportation infrastructure, and self-reinforcing spillovers, all influence local income dynamics, as do enduring natural advantages, amenities and government policy. Three recurring themes run throughout the paper: (i) Long sweeps of time are typically necessary to appreciate that change in economic status is common; (ii) history matters; and (iii) a combination of static and dynamic forces ensure that income dynamics can and do differ dramatically across locations but in ways that can be understood.
    Keywords: Neighborhood income dynamics, city income dynamics, durable housing, transportation infrastructure, spillovers, persistence, path dependence, cycles
    JEL: R10 R20 R30
    Date: 2014–09
  4. By: Randall Jackson (Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University)
    Abstract: This brief note draws further attention to cross-hauling in regional input-output table estimation, and specifically identifies conceptual issues associated with Kronenberg?s CHARM method for adjusting input-output regionalization methods. Despite the shortcomings of the CHARM approach as it now stands, this is a very important line of research. I believe that progress made on the CHARM method is encouraging, and hope that future work will resolve remaining issues.
    Keywords: Input-output, cross-hauling, CHARM, Regional Economics
    JEL: C67 O18 R15 R1
    Date: 2014–02
  5. By: Guillem ACHERMANN (Lab.RII, ULCO/Clersé-UMR8019, Université Lille Nord de France, RRI)
    Abstract: La diversité des dynamiques territoriales d’innovation invite les économistes à appréhender l’évolution des dynamiques locales. Le modèle de la « triple hélice » insiste sur les interactions entre sphères de l’université, de l’entreprise et de l’administration publique pour générer des dynamiques d’innovation. En présentant les limites de ce modèle dans l’analyse des dynamiques territoriales d’innovation, nous montrerons comment la « triple hélice », dans la mesure où les interactions entre les trois sphères sont renforcées par une politique d'innovation, peut être reconceptualisée comme une infrastructure dynamique des milieux innovateurs. The diversity of the territorial dynamics of innovation attracts attention from economists, who try to understand the evolution of those dynamics. The model of the “triple helix” insists on the interactions between the spheres of university, business and government, as well as the role that these interactions play in generating dynamics of innovation. By presenting the limits of this model in the analysis of the territorial dynamics of innovation, we will show how the "triple helix", in so far as the above mentioned interactions are enhanced by an innovation policy, could be re-conceptualized as a dynamic infrastructure of the innovative milieu.
    Keywords: triple hélice, milieu innovateur, système territorial d'innovation
    JEL: O31 O33
    Date: 2014–07

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