nep-geo New Economics Papers
on All new papers
Issue of 2014‒09‒08
six papers chosen by
Andreas Koch
Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung

  1. Does Regional Economic Growth Depend on Proximity to Urban Centres? By Rudiger Ahrend; Abel Schumann
  2. Towards an evolutionary perspective on regional resilience By Boschma, Ron
  3. Benchmark Value Added Chains and Regional Clusters in German R&D Intensive Industries By Reinhold Kosfeld; Mirko Titze
  4. The effect of external knowledge sources and their geography on innovation in Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS) SMEs; some Implications for de-industrialised regions in the UK By Maja Savic; Helen Lawton Smith; Ioannis Bournakis
  5. How scale and institutional setting explain the costs of small airports? -An application of spatial regression analysis By Tolga Ülkü; Vahidin Jeleskovic; Jürgen Müller
  6. LEffekte der Hochschulen am Standort Gießen aus regionalökonomischer Sicht By Sebastian Bredl; Ingo Liefner; Christian Teichert; Peter Winker

  1. By: Rudiger Ahrend; Abel Schumann
    Abstract: This paper analyses the spatial patterns of regional economic growth in Europe over the 1995 to 2010 period. It finds that regions, which contain large urban agglomerations, have been growing significantly faster than those that do not. Furthermore, proximity to large urban agglomerations has been positively correlated to economic growth. Halving travel time to a large urban agglomeration is associated with a 0.2 to 0.4 percentage points increase in annual per capita growth. More generally, the study also shows that measures of population density are positively correlated to growth. Among the different measures, by far the best predictor of growth between 1995 and 2010 is the maximum population density of a region.
    Keywords: regional growth, spatial distribution of economic activity, population distribution and economic growth
    JEL: R11 R12
    Date: 2014–07–30
  2. By: Boschma, Ron (CIRCLE, Lund University and Department of Economic Geography, Urban and Regional research centre Utrecht, Utrecht University)
    Abstract: This paper proposes an evolutionary perspective on regional resilience. We conceptualize resilience not just as the ability of a region to accommodate shocks, but we extend it to the long-term ability of regions to develop new growth paths. We propose a comprehensive view on regional resilience, in which history is key to understand how regions develop new growth paths, and in which industrial, network and institutional dimensions of resilience come together. Resilient regions are capable of overcoming a trade-off between adaptation and adaptability, as embodied in their industrial (related and unrelated variety), network (loosely coupled) and institutional (loosely coherent) structures.
    Keywords: regional resilience; related variety; networks; institutions; evolutionary economic geography
    JEL: B52 D85 L16 O18 R11
    Date: 2014–08–23
  3. By: Reinhold Kosfeld (University of Kassel); Mirko Titze (IWH)
    Abstract: Although the phase of euphoria seems to be over, policymakers and regional agencies have maintained their interest in cluster policy. Modern cluster theory provides reasons for positive external effects that may accrue from interaction in a group of proximate enterprises operating in common and related fields. While there is some progress in locating clusters, in most cases only limited knowledge on the geographical extent of regional clusters is established. The present paper presents a hybrid approach to cluster identification. While dominant buyer-supplier relations are derived by qualitative input-output analysis (QIOA) from national I-O tables, potential regional clusters are identified by spatial scanning. This procedure is employed to identify clusters of German R&D intensive industries. In a sensitivity analysis, good robustness properties of the hybrid approach are revealed with respect to variations in the quantitative cluster composition.
    Keywords: National cluster templates, regional clusters, qualitative input-output analysis (QIOA), spatial scanning
    JEL: R12 R15
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Maja Savic (Department of Economics and International Development); Helen Lawton Smith (Department of Management, Birkbeck University of London); Ioannis Bournakis (Department of Management, Birkbeck University of London)
    Date: 2014–08
  5. By: Tolga Ülkü (University of Berlin); Vahidin Jeleskovic (University of Kassel); Jürgen Müller (University of Berlin)
    Abstract: One of the main pillars of efficient airport operations is cost-minimization. Unit costs of operation with respect to the level of passengers served are a possible proxy to measure the cost efficiency of an airport. Due to compound production framework and sophisticated political-economic environment of airports, estimation of airport costs requires detailed specifications. Airport cost functions should be able to explain the total costs with the main inputs labor, material and capital as well as by taking the airport specific characteristics into account. In this paper, we apply such an approach and focus on airport specific characteristics. We use a spatial regression methodology to explain how these drive the unit costs and analyze the spatial relationship among the dependent variables. Two separate data samples from Norwegian and French airports are used in this research to test various hypotheses. Because a large number of regional airports in both countries cannot reach financial break-even, our first research question deals with the effects of subsidies, which often follow regional and political considerations. One must therefore find an efficient way to maintain these airports without any distortions on the incentives. When evaluating the relationship between subsidies and unit costs, we find negative effect of subsidies on airport cost efficiency. Second, we evaluate the importance of economies of scale by focusing on the relationship between airport size and unit costs. Finally, the results of spatial regression show that a denser spatial distribution of airports results in higher unit costs as a consequence of lower capacity utilization, indicating the negative effect of spatial competition on airport unit costs within an airport network.
    Keywords: Airport costs, airport subsidies, spatial regression, scale economies
    JEL: C23 C51 R11 R42
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Sebastian Bredl (University of Gießen); Ingo Liefner (University of Gießen); Christian Teichert (University of Gießen); Peter Winker (University of Gießen)
    Abstract: Universitäten und andere Hochschulen haben prägende Wirkung auf die Städte und Regionen, in denen sie angesiedelt sind. Neben unmittelbaren Effekten als großer Arbeitgeber und Nachfrager nach Gütern und Dienstleistungen ergeben sich mittelbare Effekte durch die Ausgaben der Beschäftigten und Studierenden, die zumindest teilweise ebenfalls regional wirksam werden. Darüber hinaus ergeben sich strukturelle Wirkungen, unter anderem auf die demographische Entwicklung, die regionale Akkumulation von Humankapital, das Gründungsgeschehen und weitere „weiche“ Standortfaktoren wie etwa das kulturelle Angebot. Dieser Beitrag ist auf die Nachfrageeffekte fokussiert. Für die Stadt Gießen mit der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen und dem Hauptstandort der Technischen Hochschule Mittelhessen werden diese Nachfrageeffekte quantifiziert, wobei auch auf die Unsicherheiten derartiger Berechnungen eingegangen wird. Es zeigt sich, dass – selbst bei einer relativ kleinen Hochschulregion mit entsprechend ausgeprägten Verflechtungen nach außen – die unmittelbaren und mittelbaren Effekte am Standort das Volumen der eingesetzten öffentlichen Mittel deutlich übersteigen.
    Keywords: Nachfrageeffekte von Hochschulen; regionalökonomische Analyse; regionaler Multiplikator; regionale Strukturwirkungen von Hochschulen
    Date: 2013

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