nep-geo New Economics Papers
on Economic Geography
Issue of 2013‒12‒29
twenty-two papers chosen by
Andreas Koch
Institute for Applied Economic Research

  1. Determinants of entrepreneurship. Is it all about the individual or the region? By Backman, Mikaela; Karlsson, Charlie
  2. Which Types of Relatedness Matter in Regional Growth? -industry, occupation and education By Sofia Wixe; Martin Andersson
  3. The Spatial Distribution of Creative Industries and Cultural Heritage in The Netherlands By Karima Kourtit; Jan Möhlmann; Peter Nijkamp; Jan Rouwendal
  4. SPATIAL CLUSTERING OF ARTISTS By Andersson , Åke E.; Andersson , David E.; Daghbashyan, Zara; Hårsman, Björn
  5. The Role of Knowledge Variety and Intensity for Regional Innovative Capability By Tavassoli, Sam; Carbonara , Nunzia
  6. Strategic interactions in public R&D across European countries: A spatial econometric analysis By Hakim Hammadou; Sonia Paty; Maria Savona
  7. The Role of Knowledge Heterogeneity on the  Innovative Capability of Industrial Districts By Carbonara , Nunzia; Tavassoli, Sam
  8. Review of Diffusion Research By Sriwannawit , Pranpreya; Sandström, Ulf
  9. Can Tax Breaks Beat Geography? Lessons from the French Enterprise Zone Experience By Briant, Anthony; Lafourcade, Miren; Schmutz, Benoît
  10. FDI, Trade Costs and Regional Asymmetries By Darby, Julia; Ferrett, Ben; Wooton, Ian
  11. Night Lights and Regional GDP By Frank Bickenbach; Eckhardt Bode; Mareike Lange; Peter Nunnenkamp
  12. Inefficient Equilibrium Unemployment in a Duocentric Economy with Matching Frictions By Lehmann, Etienne; Montero Ledezma, Paola L.; Van der Linden, Bruno
  13. Where do foreign affiliates of Spanish multinational firms locate in developing and transition economies? By Roberto Josep Martí; Maite Alguacil; Vicente Orts
  14. What Drives the Urban Wage Premium? Evidence along the Wage Distribution By Matano, Alessia; Naticchioni, Paolo
  15. Regional income inequality in Italy in the long run (1871–2001). Patterns and determinants By Emanuele Felice
  16. A Two Stage Approach to Spatiotemporal Analysis with Strong and Weak Cross-Sectional Dependence By Natalia Bailey; Sean Holly; M. Hashem Pesaran
  17. Authenticity renewal – institutions, innovation systems, and Cognac evolution (when the rules of the game don’t change) By Moodysson , Jerker; Sack , Lionel
  18. Structural Equation Model of Successful Territorial Cooperation By Celińska-Janowicz, Dorota; Zawalińska, Katarzyna; Widła-Domaradzki, Łukasz
  19. Personal indebtedness, community characteristics and theft crimes By McIntyre, Stuart G
  20. Small and medium-sized firms' competitiveness and territorial characteristics/assets: The cases of Bari, Varna and Thessaloniki By METAXAS, THEODORE; KALLIORAS, DIMITRIS
  21. Transparenz von Clustern - nötig und unmöglich? By Jörg Bühnemann
  22. Modellierung der Erreichbarkeit öffentlicher Apotheken: Untersuchung zum regionalen Versorgungsgrad mit Dienstleistungen der Grundversorgung By Neumeier, Stefan

  1. By: Backman, Mikaela (Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS), Jönköping International Business School, & Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE)); Karlsson, Charlie (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Jönköping International Business School)
    Abstract: It is well established at whatever spatial level studied that economic actors exhibit a strong tendency to cluster. Despite this fact many explanations to entrepreneurship only considers the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs. This is certainly not a satisfactory state-of-the-art. It is obvious that the influence of spatial factors must be considered carefully. In this pa¬per we illustrate empirically that variations in the rate of entrepreneurship are explained not only in terms of characteristics of entrepreneurs, such as education, sector of employment, occupation, experience and income but also by the characteristics of i) the localities where they worked before they became entrepreneurs, ii) the localities where they currently started their firm and iii) the regions where these localities are situated. The characteristics of locali¬ties include size, population density, firm density and type of locality (metropolitan, urban, semi-rural or rural). The estimations use a multi-level approach to decipher the how much of the variance that can be explained by the different levels (individual, locality and region). The data used in this study is micro-level data for Sweden provided by Statistics Sweden.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; individual attributes; regional attributes; networks; micro-level; multi-level
    JEL: C21 J24 L26 R12
    Date: 2013–12–17
  2. By: Sofia Wixe; Martin Andersson
    Abstract: This paper provides a conceptual discussion of relatedness, which suggests a focus on individuals as a complement to firms and industries. The empirical relevance of the main arguments are tested by estimating the effects of related and unrelated variety in education and occupation among employees, as well as in industries, on regional growth. We show that for regional productivity growth, occupational and educational related variety matter over and above industry relatedness. This supports the conceptual discussion put forward. The potential of productive interactions between employees in a region is thus greater when there is related variety in their ‘knowledge base’. We also find that related variety in industries is positive for employment growth but negative for productivity growth.
    Keywords: Relatedness, variety, occupation, education, regional growth
    JEL: R12 R23 J24
    Date: 2013–12
  3. By: Karima Kourtit (VU University Amsterdam); Jan Möhlmann (VU University Amsterdam); Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam); Jan Rouwendal (VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: This paper aims to investigate whether the spatial pattern of creative industries in the Netherlands has a relationship with the presence of cultural heritage or, in a more general sense, cultural capital. It first shows how the creative sector developed between 1994 – 2009 in relation to other Dutch sectors. Additionally, it analyses the urban dimension of the creative industry by focussing on the four large urban agglomerations in the Netherlands. And finally, it addresses the question whether a relationship exists between the share of the creative industry and the stock of cultural heritage at the level of municipalities. The paper concludes that local cultural heritage provides a statistically significant contribution to the presence of the creative industry at a municipality level.
    Keywords: creative industries; cultural heritage; cultural industry
    JEL: R1 R12
    Date: 2013–12–09
  4. By: Andersson , Åke E. (Department of Economics, Finance and Statistics, Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden); Andersson , David E. (Department of Economics and Quantitative Methods, Nottingham University Business School, University of Nottingham, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China); Daghbashyan, Zara (Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm); Hårsman, Björn (Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm)
    Abstract: Surveys of artists’ location choices show that they disproportionately reside in large cities. This paper introduces a model that attempts to explain this urban preference. The model includes four factors: access to other artists, access to consumers, access to service jobs, and housing affordability. These four factors are combined in a spatial equilibrium model. Subsequently, the model is used for an econometric estimation of factor effects. The results show that access to other artists and local access to service jobs are important localization factors. Educated labor used as a proxy for consumer demand has a significant effect on artists' location choices.
    Keywords: location choice; artists; clustering; knowledge externalities
    JEL: R12 R14 R15 R23 Z11
    Date: 2013–12–16
  5. By: Tavassoli, Sam (Industrial Economics, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden and CIRCLE, Lund University, Sweden); Carbonara , Nunzia (Dept of Mechanical and Management Engineering, Politecnico di Bari, Italy)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effect of variety and intensity of knowledge on the innovative capability of regions. Employing data for Swedish functional regions, the paper tests the role of the variety (related and unrelated) and intensity of (i) internal knowledge generated within the region and also (ii) external knowledge networks flowing into the region in explaining regional innovative capability, as measured by patent applications. The empirical analysis provides robust evidence that both the variety and intensity of internal and external knowledge matter for regions’ innovative capability. When it comes to variety, related knowledge variety plays a superior role
    Keywords: Knowledge intensity; Knowledge variety; Related variety; Unrelated variety; Internal knowledge; External knowledge; Patent applications; Functional regions
    JEL: F14 O32 R12
    Date: 2013–12–18
  6. By: Hakim Hammadou (EQUIPPE, University of Lille, France); Sonia Paty (Universite de Lyon 2, Universite de Lyon, France); Maria Savona (SPRU, University of Sussex, UK)
    Keywords: Public R&D expenditures; Strategic interactions in public spending; National Systems of Innovation; private R&D; EU countries; spatial dynamic panel data
    JEL: H5
    Date: 2013–12
  7. By: Carbonara , Nunzia (Dept of Mechanical and Management Engineering, Politecnico di Bari, Italy); Tavassoli, Sam (Industrial Economics, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden and CIRCLE, Lund University, Sweden)
    Abstract: This paper seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate concerning the role of heterogeneity for the innovative capability of industrial districts. With this aim, using a knowledge-based approach, the paper focuses on different sources of industrial district knowledge heterogeneity and studies how the different level of heterogeneity affects the innovative capability of industrial districts. Four theoretical hypotheses concerning the effects of knowledge and knowledge heterogeneity on the Industrial District innovativeness are formulated. To test the hypotheses, an econometric analysis on 32 Italian District Provinces is applied. Empirical results show that knowledge heterogeneity matter for increasing the innovative capability of industrial districts.
    Keywords: Industrial district; innovative capability; knowledge heterogeneity
    JEL: F14 O32 R12
    Date: 2013–12–18
  8. By: Sriwannawit , Pranpreya (Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm); Sandström, Ulf (Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm)
    Abstract: Despite the fact that diffusion research has existed for more than one century, there is no quantitative review study that covers this subject in a broad and general context. This article reviews diffusion research by providing an extensive bibliometric and clustering analysis. We identify research trails and explain the characteristics of diffusion research using new methods. We contribute a methodology for the use of advanced mapping and clustering techniques in order to describe the research areas. This method produces a fairly good overview of diffusion research and can be applied to any knowledge field to replace or complement the traditional literature review.
    Keywords: adoption; bibliometric; cluster; labeling; publication analysis; quantitative; research front; technology transfer
    JEL: O30 O33
    Date: 2013–12–13
  9. By: Briant, Anthony; Lafourcade, Miren; Schmutz, Benoît
    Abstract: This paper demonstrates that geography matters to the effectiveness of place-based policies, using the French enterprise zone program as a case study. Using a series of indicators of spatial isolation for treated and non treated neighborhoods, we show that geographical heterogeneity determines the ability of the program to impact firms’ settlements, job creation and earnings. In particular, whereas a focus on the average impact of the program would lead to the conclusion that it mostly succeeded in displacing pre-existing firms, a lower level of spatial isolation was a clear determinant of the decision to create new firms from scratch.
    Keywords: enterprise zones; spatial isolation; transportation accessibility; urban severance
    JEL: H25 R34 R38 R58
    Date: 2013–12
  10. By: Darby, Julia; Ferrett, Ben; Wooton, Ian
    Abstract: We set up a trade model where three countries compete for an exogenous number of firms. Our innovation lies in the geography of the model. Of the three countries, one is the hub through which all trade takes place. First, we establish the natural geography of the region, which is given by the equilibrium distribution of industrial activity in the absence of taxes or subsidies. We then examine the implications for corporate taxes when the countries compete with each other to attract firms. We find that, even when all countries are the same size, the centrality of the hub gives it an advantage in tax setting, such that its equilibrium tax can be larger than that of the spokes and yet it still attracts a disproportionate share of industry. Thus geographic advantage in tax competition has a second dimension, centrality in addition to size.
    Keywords: corporate taxes, devolution, trade costs,
    Date: 2013
  11. By: Frank Bickenbach; Eckhardt Bode; Mareike Lange; Peter Nunnenkamp
    Abstract: Night lights could be a valuable proxy of economic activity at the subnational level when GDP data are lacking or of poor quality. Supplementing Henderson et al.’s (2012) analysis at the national level, we assess the stability of the elasticity of GDP with regard to night lights across regions in Brazil, India, the United States, and Western Europe. The relationship between regional GDP and night lights proves to be unstable, not only where regional GDP data may be unreliable but also where such data are of high quality. This suggests that night lights tend to be a poor proxy of regional economic activity
    Keywords: night lights, regional GDP data, stability of lights elasticities, emerging markets, developed economies
    JEL: R11 E01
    Date: 2013–12
  12. By: Lehmann, Etienne (CRED, Université Panthéon Assas Paris 2); Montero Ledezma, Paola L. (IRES, Université catholique de Louvain); Van der Linden, Bruno (IRES, Université catholique de Louvain)
    Abstract: This article examines unemployment disparities and efficiency in a densely populated economy with two job centers and workers distributed between them. We introduce commuting costs and search-matching frictions to deal with the spatial mismatch between workers and firms. In equilibrium, there exists a unique threshold location where job-seekers are indifferent between job centers. In a decentralized economy job-seekers do not internalize a composition externality they impose on all the unemployed. Their decisions over job-search are thus typically not optimal and hence the equilibrium unemployment rates are inefficient. We calibrate the model for Los Angeles and Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Simulations exercises suggest that changes in the workforce distribution have non-negligible effects on unemployment rates, wages and net output.
    Keywords: spatial mismatch, commuting, urban unemployment, externality, United States
    JEL: J64 R13 R23
    Date: 2013–12
  13. By: Roberto Josep Martí (Departament of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain); Maite Alguacil (Departament of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain); Vicente Orts (Departament of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain)
    Abstract: In this paper we examine how different host country characteristics affect the location decision of Spanish multinational firms in developing and transition countries, particular attention being paid to the sectoral composition of foreign direct investments (FDI). The estimation of a set of logit models allows us to consider different substitutability patterns among alternatives. The study focuses on a broad firm-level sample of 4,177 Spanish affiliates established in 52 countries over the period 1990 to 2010. The results suggest that Spanish FDI in developing and transition economies are driven by both market-seeking and efficiency-seeking factors. FDI is found to be positively related to the size of the market and negatively related to labor costs. The estimates also reveal that Spanish investment in developing and transition countries exhibit a pronounced agglomeration effect, although the intensity of these externalities depends on both the sort of activity and the nationality of competitors. Furthermore, our results show differences between manufactures and services in other local factors, such as human capital, macroeconomic instability, and financial risk, thereby confirming the idea that investors in each sector have different motivations for locating foreign affiliates in developing countries. The quality of infrastructures and institutions also appear to influence the location of FDI in these economies.
    Keywords: Location choice; Nested and Mixed Logit models; Developing and transition countries; Multinational firms
    JEL: F21 F23 R39
    Date: 2013
  14. By: Matano, Alessia (University of Barcelona); Naticchioni, Paolo (University of Rome 3)
    Abstract: This paper aims at disentangling the role played by different explanations on the urban wage premium along the wage distribution. We analyze the wage dynamics of migrants from lower to higher density areas in Italy, using quantile regressions and individual data. The results show that unskilled workers benefit more from a wage premium accruing over time, while skilled workers enjoy a wage premium when they migrate as well as a wage increase over time. Further, we find that for unskilled workers the wage growth over time is mainly due to human capital accumulation, consistently with the "learning" hypothesis, while for skilled workers it is the "coordination" hypothesis that matters.
    Keywords: urban wage premium, human capital, spatial sorting, wage distribution, quantile fixed effects
    JEL: J31 J61 R23
    Date: 2013–12
  15. By: Emanuele Felice (Departament d'Economia i d'Història Econòmica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona)
    Abstract: The chapter presents up-to-date estimates of Italy’s regional GDP, with the present borders, in ten-year benchmarks from 1871 to 2001, and proposes a new interpretative hypothesis based on long-lasting socio-institutional differences. The inverted U-shape of income inequality is confirmed: rising divergence until the midtwentieth century, then convergence. However, the latter was limited to the centrenorth: Italy was divided into three parts by the time regional inequality peaked, in 1951, and appears to have been split into two halves by 2001. As a consequence of the falling back of the south, from 1871 to 2001 we record s-divergence across Italy’s regions, i.e. an increase in dispersion, and sluggish ß-convergence. Geographical factors and the market size played a minor role: against them are both the evidence that most of the differences in GDP are due to employment rather than to productivity and the observed GDP patterns of many regions. The gradual converging of regional GDPs towards two equilibria instead follows social and institutional differences - in the political and economic institutions and in the levels of human and social capital - which originated in pre-unification states and did not die (but in part even increased) in postunification Italy.
    Keywords: Italy, regional convergence, long-run economic growth, geography, institutions
    JEL: O11 O18 O52 N13 N14
    Date: 2013–12
  16. By: Natalia Bailey; Sean Holly; M. Hashem Pesaran
    Abstract: An understanding of the spatial dimension of economic and social activity requires methods that can separate out the relationship between spatial units that is due to the effect of common factors from that which is purely spatial even in an abstract sense. The same applies to the empirical analysis of networks in general. We are able to distinguish between cross-sectional strong dependence and weak dependence. Strong dependence in turn suggests that there are common factors. We use cross unit averages to extract common factors and contrast this to a principal components approach widely used in the literature. We then use a multiple testing procedure to determine significant bilateral correlations (signifying connections) between spatial units and compare this to an approach that just uses distance to determine units that are neighbours. We apply these methods to real house price changes at the level of Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the USA, and estimate a heterogeneous spatiotemporal model for the de-factored real house price changes and obtain significant evidence of spatial connections, both positive and negative.
    Keywords: firm entry institutions, firm heterogeneity, foreign competition, trade margins
    JEL: C31 E02 F12 F14 F15 F55
    Date: 2013–12–20
  17. By: Moodysson , Jerker (CIRCLE, Lund University); Sack , Lionel (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper draws on observations from a long-established network in France, located around the town of Cognac – site of distilled beverages with the same name. Firms within this network have been successful in developing new types of products in the past decades, drawing on and diverging from the conservative culture upon which the region and beverage have built their reputation. The paper reveals that a thick institutional setting, which has been in place for more than a century and is being maintained to preserve the quality and authenticity of the Cognac product, also serve as enablers for new development among local firms
    Keywords: institutions; innovation; new entrants; regional innovation systems; entrepreneurship
    JEL: D21 D22 L23 O31
    Date: 2013–12–18
  18. By: Celińska-Janowicz, Dorota; Zawalińska, Katarzyna; Widła-Domaradzki, Łukasz
    Abstract: Presented study was a part of ESPON TERCO project (European Territorial Cooperation as a Factor of Growth, Jobs and Quality of Life) and was aimed at verifying the hypothesis that territorial cooperation underpins socio-economic development. Based on the literature review a conceptual model of successful territorial cooperation was proposed, where this kind of cooperation was defined as bringing the highest joint socio-economic development to the cooperating territorial units. That theoretical model was verified empirically by structural equation modeling, based on data collected via electronic questionnaires (CAWIs) in 9 cross-border case studies. The results of the SEM analysis positively verified the main hypothesis and provided information about the role of particular ‘determinants and factors’ in achieving successful TC measured by several ‘impact’ indicators. It was also possible to access the extent to which particular ‘determinants and factors’ contributed to the successful TC as a whole and its particular ‘impacts’. The probability of success of territorial cooperation was the highest when TC projects were initiated by NGOs, local or regional government, funding came from own or EU sources, cooperation was based on simple forms of collaboration, and related to culture, economy, tourism, natural environment or physical infrastructure.
    Keywords: territorial cooperation; international cooperation; SEM; regional development
    JEL: O19 R11 R15 R58
    Date: 2013
  19. By: McIntyre, Stuart G
    Abstract: Becker (1968) and Stigler (1970) provide the germinal works for an economic analysis of crime, and their approach has been utilised to consider the response of crime rates to a range of economic, criminal and socioeconomic factors. Until recently however this did not extend to a consideration of the role of personal indebtedness in explaining the observed pattern of crime. This paper uses the Becker (1968) and Stigler (1970) framework, and extends to a fuller consideration of the relationship between economic hardship and theft crimes in an urban setting. The increase in personal debt in the past decade has been significant, which combined with the recent global recession, has led to a spike in personal insolvencies. In the context of the recent recession it is important to understand how increases in personal indebtedness may spillover into increases in social problems like crime. This paper uses data available at the neighbourhood level for London, UK on county court judgments (CCJ's) granted against residents in that neighbourhood, this is our measure of personal indebtedness, and examines the relationship between a range of community characteristics (economic, socio-economic, etc), including the number of CCJ's granted against residents, and the observed pattern of theft crimes for three successive years using spatial econometric methods. Our results confirm that theft crimes in London follow a spatial process, that personal indebtedness is positively associated with theft crimes in London, and that the covariates we have chosen are important in explaining the spatial variation in theft crimes. We identify a number of interesting results, for instance that there is variation in the impact of covariates across crime types, and that the covariates which are important in explaining the pattern of each crime type are largely stable across the three periods considered in this analysis.
    Keywords: Spatial econometrics, Theft crime, Personal debt default, Economic conditions,
    Date: 2013
    Abstract: The paper investigates the importance of territorial characteristics/assets (i.e. agglomeration economies, urban infrastructure, factors of labor and cost, development policies, qualitative factors, inter alia) on small- and medium-sized firms’ competitiveness. The analysis uses primary data from 374 small- and medium-sized firms located in Bari (Italy), Varna (Bulgaria) and Thessaloniki (Greece). These firms operate in the sectors of industry, commerce and services. Through the use of exploratory factor analysis and econometric analysis, the importance of particular factors for the competitiveness of firms has been analyzed, coming out in valuable conclusions not only for the firms and the areas considered but also for firms and areas with similar characteristics.
    Keywords: firms’ competitiveness, territorial characteristics/assets, exploratory factor analysis, econometric analysis
    JEL: O18 R11 R50
    Date: 2013
  21. By: Jörg Bühnemann (Faculty of Economics and Management, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg)
    Abstract: Die Unterstützung von Wirtschaftsclustern spielt in der Politik eine zentrale Rolle. Rückschlüsse auf positive Wachstumseffekte dieser Maßnahme können bislang nur vermutet, aber nicht empirisch nachgewiesen werden. Ursächlich dafür sind einerseits eine unscharfe Clusterdefinition in der Theorie und andererseits mangelhafte Evaluierungsmechanismen in der praktischen Umsetzung des Konzeptes durch die Politik. Innerhalb dieses Forschungsbeitrages wird erstmalig ein Ansatz zur Clusteranalyse auf Basis von F&E-Indikatoren präsentiert und somit die Konzepte des Innovationsprozesses und der Clustertheorie miteinander verknüpft. Auf der Grundlage wissenschaftlich fundierter Kennzahlen können die F&E-Aktivitäten von Institutionen in Clustern transparent aufgearbeitet und bewertet werden. Darüber hinaus trägt die übertragbare Methodik zur Entwicklung eines praktikablen Evaluierungskonzeptes bei. Im Ergebnis sind Kausalzusammenhänge zwischen wirtschaftlicher Entwicklung und politischer Einflussnahme ableitbar. Grenzen und Implikationen des Ansatzes sowie notwendige Erweiterungen werden zum Abschluss diskutiert.
    Keywords: Innovation, F&E-Indikatoren, Cluster, Evaluierung
    Date: 2013–12
  22. By: Neumeier, Stefan
    Abstract: Erreichbarkeit spielt sowohl für Standortentscheidungen und die regionale Entwicklung als auch für die individuelle Lebenssituation der Bürger eine wichtige Rolle, denn Erreichbarkeitsverhältnisse bestimmen neben der Qualität des Infrastrukturangebots den regionalen Versorgungsgrad mit Infrastruktur. Auch für die aktuelle Diskussion über die Sicherung der Daseinsvorsorge sind aktuelle Informationen über die Erreichbarkeit von Einrichtungen der Daseinsvorsorge notwendig, um sich vor dem Hintergrund des normativen Anspruches der Aufrechterhaltung gleichwertiger Lebensbedingungen in allen Landesteilen ein sachliches und realistisches Bild über die derzeitige Situation als Ausgangsbasis für ggf. notwendige Politikmaßnahmen/-interventionen machen zu können. Vor diesem Hintergrund befasst sich die vorliegende Studie mit der Erreichbarkeit öffentlicher Apotheken als eine - insbesondere in ländlichen Räumen - wichtige Schlüsseldienstleistung für die individuelle Gesundheitsversorgung der Bürger anhand der Analyse der Erreichbarkeit öffentlicher Apotheken auf Basis eines rasterbasierten GIS-Erreichbarkeitsmodells. Als Ergebnis lässt sich festhalten, dass, obwohl in Deutschland die Anzahl der Apotheken seit 2003 stetig zurückgeht und die Apothekendichte in Deutschland leicht unter dem europäischen Durchschnitt liegt, im Durchschnitt eine öffentliche Apotheke innerhalb von 4 Minuten PKW-Fahrzeit erreicht wird. Obwohl eine regionalisierte Betrachtung zeigt, dass sehr wohl Regionen, v. a. in ländlichen Räumen, existieren, bei denen Entfernungen größer als 15 km in Kauf genommen werden müssen, um die dem Wohnort nächstgelegene öffentliche Apotheke zu erreichen, hat eine Abschätzung der davon betroffenen Bevölkerung ergeben, dass dies nur für einen sehr kleinen Anteil von ca. 0,16 % der Bürger zutrifft. Obwohl öffentliche Apotheken relativ gut mit dem PKW erreicht werden können, hat die Analyse aber auch gezeigt, dass eine wohnortnahe fußläufige Erreichbarkeit (
    Keywords: Entwicklung ländlicher Räume,Nahversorgung,Supermärkte,Discounter,Rasterbasierte GIS Erreichbarkeitsanalyse,Rural development,Local supply,Supermarkets,Discounter,Raster based GIS accessi-bility analysis
    JEL: F11 R12
    Date: 2013

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