nep-geo New Economics Papers
on Economic Geography
Issue of 2013‒11‒29
24 papers chosen by
Andreas Koch
Institute for Applied Economic Research

  1. FDI Technology Spillovers and Spatial Diffusion in the People’s Republic of China By Lin, Mi; Kwan, Yum K.
  2. Are clusters more resilient in crises? Evidence from French exporters in 2008-2009 By Philippe MARTIN; Thierry MAYER; Florian MAYNERIS
  3. Economic development, growth, institutions and geography By Bhupatiraju, Samyukta; Verspagen, Bart
  4. Human capital, creative class and regional economic performance: A dynamic panel analysis By Esubalew Alehegn; Silvia Sacchetti; Ermanno Tortia
  5. Plant productivity dynamics and private and public R&D spillovers: Technological, geographic and relational proximity. By Belderbos, Rene; Ikeuchi, Kenta; Fukao, Kyoji; Kim, Young Gak; Kwon, Hyeog Ug
  6. Does medieval trade still matter? Historical trade centers, agglomeration and contemporary economic development By Wahl, Fabian
  7. Spatial Exploration of Age Distribution in Catalan Municipalities By Liviano Solís, Daniel; Arauzo Carod, Josep Maria
  8. Technological spillovers and industrial growth in Chinese regions By Wang, Lili; Meijers, Huub; Szirmai, Eddy
  9. Migration Determinants at a Local Level By Arauzo Carod, Josep Maria; Liviano Solís, Daniel
  10. City age and city size By Giesen, Kristian; Suedekum, Jens
  11. Technological competencies and firm performance: Analyzing the importance of internal and external competencies By Grillitsch, Markus; Nilsson , Magnus
  12. Smart Cities and a Stochastic Frontier Analysis: A Comparison among European Cities By Mundula, Luigi; Auci, Sabrina
  13. People, Places and Public Policy: Some Simple Welfare Economics of Local Economic Development Programs By Patrick Kline; Enrico Moretti
  14. Regional Equilibrium Unemployment Theory at the Age of the Internet By Vanessa LUTGEN; Bruno VAN DER LINDEN
  15. Optimal Harvesting of a Spatial Renewable Resource By Stefan Behringer; Thorsten Upmann
  16. Development at the border: policies and national integration in Côte d’Ivoire and its neighbors By Spielvogel, Gilles; Cogneau, Denis; Mesplé-Somps, Sandrine
  17. Regional systems of innovation in the Arab region By Nour, Samia Satti Osman Mohamed
  18. High-End Variety Exporters Defying Distance: Micro Facts and Macroeconomic Implications By Julien MARTIN; Florian MAYNERIS
  19. Regional Economic Links in Latin America: lessons from Asia and challenges from the regional links of other BRICS By Renato Baumann
  20. Summarizing large spatial datasets: Spatial principal components and spatial canonical correlation By Bhupathiraju, Samyukta; Verspagen, Bart; Ziesemer, Thomas
  21. Improved Tests for Spatial Correlation By Peter M Robinson; Francesca Rossi
  22. Improved Lagrange Multiplier Tests in Spatial Autoregressions By Peter M Robinson; Francesca Rossi
  23. Arbeitsmarkt- und Einkommensindikatoren für die Neuabgrenzung des GRW-Regionalfördergebietes ab 2014 : Gutachten im Rahmen der Gemeinschaftsaufgabe "Verbesserung der regionalen Wirtschaftsstruktur" (GRW). Studie im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Wirtschaft und Technologie By Schwengler, Barbara; Bennewitz, Emanuel
  24. Regionale Innovationssysteme: 20 Jahre "Regional Innovation System Studies" By Rehfeld, Dieter; Terstriep, Judith

  1. By: Lin, Mi (University of Lincoln); Kwan, Yum K. (Department of Economics & Finance, City University of Hong Kong)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the geographic extent of foreign direct investment (FDI) technology spillovers and diffusion in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). We employ spatial dynamic panel econometric techniques to detect total factor productivity (TFP) innovation clusters, uncover the spatial extent of technology diffusion, and quantify both the temporal and spatial dimensions of FDI spillovers. Our empirical results show that FDI presence (measured as employment share) in a locality will generate negative and significant impacts on the productivity performance of domestic private firms in the same location. Nevertheless, these negative intra-regional spillovers are found to be locally bounded. Domestic private firms enjoy positive FDI spillovers through interregional technology diffusion via labor market channels; these interregional spillovers appear in spatial feedback loops among higher-order neighboring regions. In the long run, the positive interregional spillovers outweigh the negative intra-regional spillovers, bestowing beneficiary total effects on domestic firms through labor market channels. FDI spillovers measured as sales income share, however, are negative in both intra-regional and interregional dimensions.
    Keywords: FDI spillovers; spatial diffusion; spatial dynamic panel; PRC economy
    JEL: F21 O33 R12
    Date: 2013–11–01
  2. By: Philippe MARTIN (Sciences-Po and CEPR); Thierry MAYER (Sciences-Po, CEPII and CEPR); Florian MAYNERIS (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches économiques et sociales (IRES) andCenter for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE))
    Abstract: Clusters have already been extensively shown to favor firm-level economic performance (productivity, exports, innovation etc.). However, little is known about the capacity of firms in clusters to resist economic shocks. In this paper, we analyze whether firms that agglomerate in clusters and firms that have been selected to benefit from the \competitiveness cluster" industrial policy, implemented in France in 2005, have performed better on export markets during the recent economic turmoil. We show that, on average, both agglomeration and the cluster policy are associated with a higher survival probability of firms on export markets, and conditioning on survival, a higher growth rate of their exports. However, these effects are not stronger during the 2008-2009 crisis; if anything, the opposite is true. We then show that this weaker resilience of competitiveness cluster firms is probably due to the fact that firms in clusters are more dependent on the fate of the \leader", i.e. the largest exporter in the cluster.
    Keywords: Clusters, Competitiveness clusters, Exports, Crisis, Resilience
    JEL: F1 R10 R11 R12 R15
    Date: 2013–09–19
  3. By: Bhupatiraju, Samyukta (UNU-MERIT / MGSoG); Verspagen, Bart (UNU-MERIT / MGSoG)
    Abstract: In this paper, we test the Rodrik et al (2004) framework to explain differences in development levels across countries by using a broader set of definitions for institutions, geography and economic variables. We use a multi-faceted database to measure institutions in an attempt to go beyond the single-dimension measures that are often employed. We find that institutions trump other factors (geography and trade) when we use GDP per capita as an independent variable. When we expand the dependent variable to include other aspects of development, such as growth and investment, we find that institutions, growth and geography are all important variables. In this case, institutions no longer trump the other factors. In this case, we also find that the same institutions variable that was positively associated to GDP per capita is now negatively correlated with the more dynamic development variable.
    Keywords: institutions, geography, openness, governance, economic development
    JEL: O1 O16 O17
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Esubalew Alehegn; Silvia Sacchetti; Ermanno Tortia
    Abstract: Though the measurement and implication of human capital on economic growth has been well established since the works of Becker in the 1960s, recently Florida has argued that creative class is superior to human capital in explaining economic growth. The underlying difference between the two scholars is a measurement approach in which while Becker uses education as indicator of human capital Florida employs occupation as an identifier of the creative class. We exploit administrative data from the Institute for Employment Research (IAB) over the years 1998-2008 and employ system GMM to estimate and compare the effects on regional economic performance of human capital and creative class in Germany where economic performance is measured by GDP growth, employment growth and wage growth. The estimation unveils that analysis of regional economy through creative class in place of human capital can be used as an alternative approach yet the creative class, as has been praised by Florida, is not found to be superior to human capital in explicating economic performance of regions. Indeed, albeit the share of creative class (creative core and creative professionals) and university graduates have positive and robust impacts on GDP growth it is by no means the share of university graduates that have a far greater impact on economic growth. The opposite holds for employment growth and is inconclusive for wage growth. This finding may imply that the creative class driven economic development is directed towards more labor intensive forms of development whilst human capital is directed towards the form of development characterized by specialization and high capital intensity.
    Keywords: Creative class, human capital, economic performance and dynamic panel.
    JEL: R11 O31 O52
    Date: 2013–11–11
  5. By: Belderbos, Rene; Ikeuchi, Kenta; Fukao, Kyoji; Kim, Young Gak; Kwon, Hyeog Ug
    Abstract: We examine the effects of R&D spillovers on total factor productivity in a large panel of Japanese manufacturing plants matched with R&D survey data (1987-2007). We simultaneously examine the role of public (university and research institutions) and private (firm) R&D spillovers, and examine the differential effects due to technological, geographic and relational (buyer-supplier) proximity. Estimating dynamic long difference models and allowing for gradual convergence in TFP and geographic decay in spillover effects, we find positive effects of technologically proximate private R&D stocks, which decay in distance and become negligible at around 500 kilometres. In addition to knowledge spillovers from technologically proximate R&D stocks, ‘relational’ spillovers from buyer and supplier R&D stocks exert positive effects on TFP growth that are similar in magnitude. The elasticity of TFP is highest for public R&D (corrected for industrial relevance), in particular for plants operated by R&D conducting firms. We do not find evidence of geographic decay in the impact of public and relational spillovers. Over time, declining R&D spillovers appear to be responsible for a substantial part of the decline in the rate of TFP growth. The exit of proximate plants operated by R&D intensive firms plays a notable role in this process and is an important phenomenon in major industrial agglomerations such as Tokyo, Osaka, and Kanagawa.
    Keywords: R&D; spillovers; plant productivity; distance;
    Date: 2013–11
  6. By: Wahl, Fabian
    Abstract: This study empirically establishes a link between medieval trade, agglomeration and contemporary regional development in ten European countries. It documents a statistically and economically significant positive relationship between prominent involvement in medieval trade and commercial activities and regional economic development today. Further empirical analyses show that medieval trade positively influenced city development both during the medieval period and in the long run; they also reveal a robust connection between medieval city growth and contemporary regional agglomeration and industry concentration. A mediation analysis indicates that a long-lasting effect of medieval trade on contemporary regional development is indeed transmitted via its effect on agglomeration and industry concentration. This research thus highlights the long-run importance of medieval trade in shaping the development of cities as well as the contemporary spatial distribution of economic activity throughout Europe. The path-dependent regional development processes caused by medieval commercial activities help explain the observed persistent regional development differences across the European countries considered. --
    Keywords: Medieval Trade,Agglomeration,Regional Economic Development,Path-Dependency,New Economic Geography
    JEL: F14 N73 N93 O18 R12
    Date: 2013
  7. By: Liviano Solís, Daniel; Arauzo Carod, Josep Maria
    Abstract: This paper takes the shelf and digs into the complex population’s age structure of Catalan municipalities for the year 2009. Catalonia is a very heterogeneous territory, and age pyramids vary considerably across different areas of the territory, existing geographical factors shaping municipalities’ age distributions. By means of spatial statistics methodologies, this piece of research tries to assess which spatial factors determine the location, scale and shape of local distributions. The results show that there exist different distributional patterns across the geography according to specific local determinants. Keywords: Spatial Models. JEL Classification: C21.
    Keywords: Anàlisi espacial (Estadística), 314 - Demografia, 32 - Política,
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Wang, Lili (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG); Meijers, Huub (School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University); Szirmai, Eddy (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the role of interregional technology spillovers in the process of industrial growth in Chinese regions in the period 1990-2005. Inflows of FDI increased rapidly from 1990 till 1998, slowing down thereafter. Domestic R&D investment accelerated after 1998. Regional industrial growth benefits from both interregional R&D spillovers and after 1998 from international FDI spillovers. However, in contrast to R&D spillovers, FDI spillovers contribute conditionally, mainly in areas where local R&D stocks are high enough. Interestingly, indirect interregional FDI spillover effects are negative. Foreign investment in one region attracts resources from regions with less FDI, thus having a negative influence on growth of industrial output in neighbouring regions.
    Keywords: Technological spillovers, Interregional spillovers, R&D, Foreign direct investment, Industrial growth, Regional growth, Chinese industry
    JEL: F43 O14 O33 R11 R12
    Date: 2013
  9. By: Arauzo Carod, Josep Maria; Liviano Solís, Daniel
    Abstract: This paper is about determinants of migration at a local level. We use data from Catalan municipalities in order to understand what explains migration patterns trying to identify whether they are main explained by amenities or economic characteristics. We distinguish three typologies of migration in terms of distance travelled: short-distance, short-medium-distance and medium-distance and we hypothesize whether migration determinants vary across these groups. Our results show that, effectively, there are some noticeable differences, suggest that spatial issues must be taken into account and provide some insights for future research. Keywords: population dynamics, spatial econometrics. JEL codes: C21, R0, R23
    Keywords: Migració interna, Dinàmica de grups, Geografia humana -- Models matemàtics, 314 - Demografia, 32 - Política,
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Giesen, Kristian; Suedekum, Jens
    Abstract: There has been vast interest in the distribution of city sizes in an economy, but this research has largely neglected that cities also differ along another fundamental dimension: age. Using novel data on the foundation dates of more than 10,000 American cities, we find that older cities in the US tend to be larger than younger ones. To take this nexus between city age and city size into account, we introduce endogenous city creation into a dynamic economic model of an urban system. The city size distribution that emerges in our economy delivers a close fit to different types of US city size data. This evidence can resolve several recent debates, and build a bridge between different views in the literature on city size distributions. --
    Keywords: Zipf's law,Gibrat's law,city size distributions,city age,DPLN distribution
    JEL: R11 R12
    Date: 2013
  11. By: Grillitsch, Markus (CIRCLE, Lund University); Nilsson , Magnus (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the relationship between technological competencies (TC) and firm performance. Theoretically, the importance of TC is well established and widely accepted. Therefore, it is surprising that a number of empirical studies have been unable to confirm a substantial positive relationship between TC and firm performance. We identify two major reasons for this: [i] affected by the availability and choice of indicators existing studies are often biased towards large firms; and [ii] they frequently do not consider both internal and potential access to firm-external TC. This paper discusses conceptually the interplay between firm-internal and firm-external TC as well as the mediating effect of firm size. These relationships are then analyzed empirically using Swedish micro data on 15,682 firms in 290 Swedish municipalities. Novel indicators based on occupational statistics are combined with measures of time-distance accessibility to study internal and external TC. The results provide evidence for a positive relationship between firm growth and TC. In particular, the combination of firm-internal and firm-external competencies seems to be conducive for growth. Lastly, our study suggests that firm size is an important factor to further our understanding about these relationships. Based on this we identify a number of future research questions to be addressed.
    Keywords: technological competencies; firm performance; accessibility; knowledge; innovation; geography
    JEL: L25 O18 O30
    Date: 2013–09–19
  12. By: Mundula, Luigi; Auci, Sabrina
    Abstract: The level of interest in smart cities is growing, and the recent literature on this topic (Holland, 2008; Caragliu et al., 2009, Nijkamp et al., 2011 and Lombardi et al., 2012) identifies a number of factors that characterise a city as smart, such as economic development, environment, human capital, culture and leisure, and e-governance. Thus, the smartness concept is strictly linked to urban efficiency in a multifaceted way. A seminal research for European policy conducted by Giffinger et al. (2007) defines a smart city on the basis of several intangible indicators, such as a smart economy, smart mobility, smart environment, smart people, smart living, and smart governance. These authors’ methodology results in a ranking of 70 European cities in terms of their smartness. Our aim is to verify the robustness of these smartness indicators in explaining the efficiency of the same sample of European cities. Using the concept of output maximising, we built a stochastic frontier function in terms of urban productivity and/or urban efficiency by assessing the economic distance that separates cities from being smart. Moreover, this approach, which distinguishes between inputs and efficiency, allows us to incorporate the smartness indicators into the systematic component within the error term. As a result, our conclusions identify a different ranking of European cities with respect to Giffinger et al. (2007)’s analysis, thereby highlighting the need for a better and more robust definition of these indicators.
    Keywords: smart cities, stochastic frontier, technical inefficiency
    JEL: D63 Q01 R11
    Date: 2013–11–10
  13. By: Patrick Kline; Enrico Moretti
    Abstract: Most countries exhibit large and persistent geographical differences in wages, income and unemployment rates. A growing class of "place based" policies attempt to address these differences through public investments and subsidies that target disadvantaged neighborhoods, cities or regions. Place based policies have the potential to profoundly affect the location of economic activity, along with the wages, employment, and industry mix of communities. These programs are widespread in the U.S. and throughout the world, but have only recently been studied closely by economists. We consider the following questions: Who benefits from place based interventions? Do the national benefits outweigh the costs? What sorts of interventions are most likely to be effective?To study these questions, we develop a simple spatial equilibrium model designed to characterize the welfare effects of place based policies on the local and the national economy. Using this model, we critically evaluate the economic rationales for place based policies and assess the latest evidence on their effects. We conclude with some lessons for policy and directions for future research.
    JEL: H1 H2 H3 H4 H7 J0 R0
    Date: 2013–11
  14. By: Vanessa LUTGEN (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES)); Bruno VAN DER LINDEN (FNRS, UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES), IZA and CESifo)
    Abstract: This paper studies equilibrium unemployment in a two-region economy where homogeneous workers and jobs are free to move and the housing market clears. Because of the Internet, searching for a job in another region without first migrating there is nowadays much simpler than in the past. Search-matching externalities are amplified by this possibility and by the fact that some workers can simultaneously receive a job offer from each region. The rest of the framework builds on Moretti (2011). We study numerically the impacts of various local shocks in a stylized US economy. Contrary to what could be expected, increasing matching effectiveness in the other region yields growing regional unemployment rates. We characterize the optimal allocation and conclude that the Hosios condition is not sufficient to restore efficiency. In the efficient allocation, the regional unemployment rates are much lower than in the decentralized economy and nobody searches in the other region.
    Keywords: Matching; Search then move; Spatial equilibrium; Regional economics; Unemployment differentials
    JEL: J61 J64 R13 R23
    Date: 2013–10–28
  15. By: Stefan Behringer; Thorsten Upmann
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate optimal harvesting of a renewable natural resource. While in the standard approach the resource is located at a single point in space we allow for the resource to be distributed over the plane. Consequently, an agent who exploits the resource has to travel from one location to another. For a fixed planning horizon we investigate the speed and the time path of harvesting chosen by the agent. We show that the agent adjusts the speed of movement so that he visits each location only once, even in the absence of travelling cost. Since he does not come back to any location for a second harvest, it is optimal for him to fully deplete the resource upon arrival. A society interested in conserving some of the resource thus has to take measures to limit the exploitative behaviour of the agent.
    Keywords: Optimal harvesting; spatial renewable resource; continuous time; market failure
    JEL: Q20 Q28 D21 C61
    Date: 2013–10–21
  16. By: Spielvogel, Gilles; Cogneau, Denis; Mesplé-Somps, Sandrine
    Abstract: By applying regression discontinuity designs to a set of household surveys from the 1980–90s, we examine whether Côte d’Ivoire’s aggregate wealth was translated at the borders of neighboring countries. At the border of Ghana and at the end of the 1980s, large discontinuities are detected for consumption, child stunting, and access to electricity and safe water. Border discontinuities in consumption can be explained by differences in cash crop policies (cocoa and coffee). When these policies converged in the 1990s, the only differences that persisted were those in rural facilities. In the North, cash crop (cotton) income again made a difference for consumption and nutrition (the case of Mali). On the one hand, large differences in welfare can hold at the borders dividing African countries despite their assumed porosity. On the other hand, border discontinuities seem to reflect the impact of reversible public policies rather than intangible institutional traits.
    Keywords: National Integration; Africa; Borders; Economic Geography; Welfare;
    JEL: O12 R12 P52
    Date: 2013–10
  17. By: Nour, Samia Satti Osman Mohamed (Faculty of Economic and Social Studies, Khartoum University, and UNU-MERIT/MGSoG)
    Abstract: This paper employs both the descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the definition of systems of innovation used in the literature to examine the existence, characteristics and implications of the regional systems of innovation in the Arab region. We examine three hypotheses, that the regional systems of innovation exist but are characterized by serious weaknesses in the Arab region compared with other world regions, that the structure of the economy has a significant effect in the performance of innovation systems in the Arab region, and that the poor Arab systems of innovation have serious implications in the Arab region. We explain two common characteristics of Arab regional systems of innovation concerning poor subsystems of education, S&T, R&D and ICT institutions in the Arab region and concentration of R&D activities within public and universities sectors and small contribution of the private sector in R&D activities. We find that the major implications are the poor performance of the Arab region in terms of S&T indicators, competitiveness indicators, technology achievement index and poor integration in the knowledge economy index. Therefore, it is essential for the Arab region to enhance the institutions of higher education, S&T, R&D and ICT to build the Arab regional systems of innovation and to achieve economic development in the Arab region.
    Keywords: Education, S&T, R&D, Systems of innovation, economic structure, Arab region
    JEL: O10 O11 O30
    Date: 2013
  18. By: Julien MARTIN (Department of Economics, Universite du Québec a Montreal); Florian MAYNERIS (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches économiques et sociales (IRES) and Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE))
    Abstract: We develop a new methodology to identify high-end variety exporters in French firm-level data. We show that they do not export to many more countries, but they export to more distant ones. This comes with a greater geographic diversification of their aggregate exports. These facts are explained by a lower sensitivity to distance of high-end variety export(er)s. We also show that high-end export(er)s are more sensitive to the average income of the destination country. Because of this different sensitivity to gravity variables, the within-product specialization of a country in the production of high-end varieties is likely to affect its export growth and volatility. We show that a higher sensitivity to per capita income tends to increase the volatility of high-end variety exports. However, a lower sensitivity to distance reduces volatility through a greater geographic diversification. Furthermore, we point out that a lower sensitivity to distance allows high-end varieties to benefit more from growth in more distant markets.
    Keywords: Gravity, Distance, Firm-level data, Growth, Volatility
    JEL: F14 F43 L15
    Date: 2013–10–31
  19. By: Renato Baumann
    Abstract: Since the early 1950s Latin American countries have made systematic efforts to foster regional transactions. Nevertheless, the indicators of relative importance of regional trade remain well below the corresponding figures in other regions. This paper argues that a process of integration should take into account the differences between what can be achieved by negotiating with closer neighbours and with geographically distant partners. Also, at present there is an increasing competition from Asian goods, which have negatively affected Latin American producers. Among the lessons from the recent Asian experience are the economic links among countries that have helped to improve competitiveness as well as to foster the degree of convergence of the GDP growth rates of the participating countries.
    Keywords: regional integration, productive complementarity, competitiveness and trade barriers
    Date: 2013–06
  20. By: Bhupathiraju, Samyukta (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG); Verspagen, Bart (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, and Maastricht University); Ziesemer, Thomas (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, and Maastricht University)
    Abstract: We propose a method for spatial principal components analysis that has two important advantages over the method that Wartenberg (1985) proposed. The first advantage is that, contrary to Wartenberg's method, our method has a clear and exact interpretation: it produces a summary measure (component) that itself has maximum spatial correlation. Second, an easy and intuitive link can be made to canonical correlation analysis. Our spatial canonical correlation analysis produces summary measures of two datasets (e.g., each measuring a different phenomenon), and these summary measures maximize the spatial correlation between themselves. This provides an alternative weighting scheme as compared to spatial principal components analysis. We provide example applications of the methods and show that our variant of spatial canonical correlation analysis may produce rather different results than spatial principal components analysis using Wartenberg's method. We also illustrate how spatial canonical correlation analysis may produce different results than spatial principal components analysis.
    Keywords: spatial principal components analysis, spatial canonical correlation analysis, spatial econometrics, Moran coefficients, spatial concentration
    JEL: R10 R15 C10
    Date: 2013
  21. By: Peter M Robinson; Francesca Rossi
    Abstract: We consider testing the null hypothesis of no spatial autocorrelation against the alternative of first order spatial autoregression. A Wald test statistic has good first order asymptotic properties, but these may not be relevant in small or moderate-sized samples, especially as (depending on properties of the spatial weight matrix) the usual parametric rate of convergence may not be attained. We thus develop tests with more accurate size properties, by means of Edgeworth expansions and the bootstrap. The finite-sample performance of the tests is examined in Monte Carlo simulations.
    Keywords: Spatial Autocorrelation, Ordinary Least Squares, Hypothesis Testing, Edgeworth Expansion, Bootstrap.
    JEL: C12 C21
    Date: 2013–05
  22. By: Peter M Robinson; Francesca Rossi
    Abstract: For testing lack of correlation against spatial autoregressive alternatives, Lagrange multiplier tests enjoy their usual computational advantages, but the(2) first-order asymptotic approximation to critical values can be poor in small samples. We develop refined tests for lack of spatial error correlation in regressions, based on Edgeworth expansion. In Monte Carlo simulations these tests, and bootstrap ones, generally significantly outperform 2􀀀 based tests.
    Keywords: Spatial autocorrelation, Lagrange multiplier test, Edgeworth expansion, bootstrap, finite-sample corrections.
    JEL: C29
    Date: 2013–10
  23. By: Schwengler, Barbara (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Bennewitz, Emanuel
    Abstract: "This paper presents the results of an expert opinion prepared by the Institute for Employment Research in cooperation with the Steinbeis Transfer Centre Applied System Analysis (STASA), Stuttgart, to calculate 'labour market and income indicators for identifying regions that are eligible for regional aid for the period starting 2014'. This expert opinion was commissioned by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology on behalf of the Joint Task 'Improvement of the Regional Economic Structure'. Together with two other regional indicators, a regional level of provision of infrastructure, prepared by the Federal Institute for Research on Building, Urban Affairs and Spatial Development (BBSR) within the Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning (BBR), and a forecast of the labour force, prepared by Prof. Bade of the University of Dortmund, these indicators are a basis for identifying regions that are eligible for regional aid for the period 2014-2020. This paper presents the regional results for several labour market and income indicators that were calculated for the last five years on the regional level of 402 districts and 258 labour market regions. Finally, a general indicator was built by four differently weighted indicators to find a ranking for the most eligible regions, and is presented in this paper as well. This general indicator includes the unemployment rate for the years 2009-2012, the average income per employee in 2010, an indicator of infrastructure and the forecast of the labour force for the years 2011 - 2018." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en)) Additional Information Hier finden Sie den Kartenanhang zum IAB-Forschungsbericht 13/2013
    Keywords: Fördergebiet - Indikatoren, Gemeinschaftsaufgabe Regionale Wirtschaftsförderung, Arbeitsmarktregion, Indikatorenbildung, Arbeitsmarktindikatoren, Bruttolohn, Arbeitslosenquote, Infrastruktur, Erwerbstätige
    Date: 2013–11–13
  24. By: Rehfeld, Dieter; Terstriep, Judith
    Abstract: Evolutionäre Ansätze bilden heute einen zentralen Baustein der regionalen Innovationsforschung. Im Fokus stehen dabei die Historie regionaler Innovationssysteme, daraus resultierende Routinen und Interaktionen sowie der Einfluss von Wissen, Institutionen und individuellen Akteuren auf Veränderungen regionaler Innovationspfade. Neue strukturpolitische Impulse wurden in den vergangenen Jahren vor allem durch die Europäische Kommission und die OECD gesetzt. Soziale Innovation, Intelligente Spezialisierung und die Ökologische Wende bilden aktuelle Diskussionslinien, die Veränderungen in regionalen Innovationssystemen nach sich ziehen werden. Welchen Beitrag INNO im Rahmen der Neujustierung leistet, wird in diesem Beitrag diskutiert. --
    Date: 2013

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