nep-geo New Economics Papers
on Economic Geography
Issue of 2013‒05‒22
twenty-six papers chosen by
Andreas Koch
Institute for Applied Economic Research

  1. Geography, Productivity and Trade: Does Selection Explain Why Some Locations Are More Productive than Others? By Antonio Accetturo; Valter Di Giacinto; Giacinto Micucci; Marcello Pagnini
  2. Reassessing the spatial determinants of the growth of Italian SMEs By Roberto Gabriele; Diego Giuliani; Marco Corsino; Giuseppe Espa
  3. Survival, Productivity and Growth of New Ventures across Locations By Lööf, Hans; Nabavi, Pardis
  4. Why space matters in technological innovation systems – the global knowledge dynamics of membrane bioreactor technology By Binz , Christian; Truffer , Bernhard; Coenen , Lars
  5. Renewal of mature industry in an old industrial region: regional innovation policy and the co-evolution of institutions and technology By Coenen , Lars; Moodysson , Jerker; Martin , Hanna
  6. Agglomeration effects of inter-firm backward and forward linkages: evidence from Japanese manufacturing investment in China By Nobuaki Yamashita; Toshiyuki Matsuura; Kentaro Nakajima
  7. Creative industries from an evolutionary perspective: A critical literature review By Jürgen Essletzbichler
  8. The internationalisation of R&D: sectoral and geographic patterns of cross-border investments By Castelli , Cristina; Castellani, Davide
  9. System Failures, Knowledge Bases and Regional Innovation Policies By Martin , Roman; Trippl , Michaela
  10. Urban Firm Location and Land Use Under Certainty and Under Product-Price and Land-Rent Risk By Joseph DeSalvo; Louis Eeckhoudt
  11. Differentiated Knowledge Bases and the Nature of Innovation Networks By Martin , Roman
  12. Path dependence, place dependence, and the evolution of a patchwork economy: Evidence from Western Australia, 1981-2008 By Paul Plummer; Matthew Tonts
  14. Measuring spatial effects in presence of institutional constraints: the case of Italian Local Health Authority expenditure By Vincenzo Atella; Federico Belotti; Domenico Depalo; Andrea Piano Mortari
  15. Strategic Clustering and Competition by Alcohol Retailers: An Emperical Anlysis of Entry and Location Decisions By Yi Deng; Gabriel Picone
  16. Rhomolo: A Dynamic Spatial General Equilibrium Model for Assessing the Impact of Cohesion Policy By Andries Brandsma; d’Artis Kancs; Philippe Monfort; Alexandra Rillaers
  17. Modelling Migration and Regional Labour Markets: An Application of the New Economic Geography Model RHOMOLO By Andries Brandsma; d’Artis Kancs; Damiaan Persyn
  18. Systematic anchoring of global innovation processes and new industry formation – the emergence of on-site water recycling in China By Binz , Christian; Truffer , Bernhard; Coenen , Lars
  19. Defining European ICT Poles of Excellence: A Literature Review By Giuditta De Prato; Daniel Nepelski
  20. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration (Vol. 1 of 2) By World Bank
  21. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration, Volume 2. Technical Annexes By World Bank
  22. Reshaping Egypt's Economic Geography : Domestic Integration as a Development Platform By World Bank
  23. Arab Republic of Egypt - Reshaping Egypt’s Economic Geography : Domestic Integration as a Development Platform, Volume 2. Technical Background Reports By World Bank
  24. Uganda - Promoting Inclusive Growth : Transforming Farms, Human Capital, and Economic Geography, Synthesis Report By World Bank
  25. Extracting spatial information from networks with low-order eigenvectors. By Cucuringu, Mihai
  26. Avaliando o Crescimento Econômico no Brasil em Múltiplas Escalas Espaciais com a Utilização de Modelos de Painel Espacial (1970 - 2000) By Guilherme Mendes Resende; Alexandre Xavier Ywata de Carvalho; Patrícia Alessandra Morita Sakowski

  1. By: Antonio Accetturo (Bank of Italy, Italy); Valter Di Giacinto (Bank of Italy, Italy); Giacinto Micucci (Bank of Italy, Italy); Marcello Pagnini (Bank of Italy, Italy)
    Abstract: Two main hypotheses are usually put forward to explain the productivity advantages of larger cities: agglomeration economies and firm selection. Combes et al. (2012) propose an empirical approach to disentangle these two effects and fail to find any impact of selection on local productivity differences. We theoretically show that selection effects do emerge when asymmetric trade and entry costs and different spatial scale at which agglomeration and selection may work are properly taken into account. The empirical findings confirm that agglomeration effects play a major role. However, they also show a substantial increase in the importance of the selection effect when asymmetric trade costs and a different spatial scale are taken into account.
    Keywords: agglomeration economies, firm selection, market size, entry costs, openness to trade
    JEL: C52 R12 D24
    Date: 2013–05
  2. By: Roberto Gabriele; Diego Giuliani; Marco Corsino; Giuseppe Espa
    Abstract: The paper proposes a novel methodology to assess the role of ÒlocationÓ in shaping firm growth. Along with traditional determinants (e.g., age, size and financial constraints), geographical location is alleged to drive firm growth. The current literature typically relies on location variables that suffer from a lack of empirical robustness (Combes et al., 2008; Duranton and Overman, 2005; Arbia et al., 2012; Giuliani et al., 2012): indeed arbitrary definitions of the spatial observational units (such as provinces, regions or municipalities) introduce a statistical bias arising from the discretionally chosen definition of space. To address these shortcomings, we use the GetisÕ local K-function (Getis, 1984) at the firm level. This measure allows us to distinguish between Marshallian and Jacobs externalities. The analysis exploits a new database comprising single-unit Italian firms operating in the manufacturing sector. Empirical results show that firms exhibit a differential ability to grow due to different kinds of externalities: small firms benefit more from Marshallian externalities, while medium-large firms exploit also Jacobian externalities.
    Keywords: spatial concentration, GetisÕ local K-function, localization externalities
    JEL: L25 R11 O30
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Lööf, Hans (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Nabavi, Pardis (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: We assess the impact of the location of genuinely new ventures and spinoffs on these firms’ survival, productivity and growth. The study distinguishes between four different categories of locations: metro cities, metro regions, urban areas, and rural areas. Using a unique database covering more than 23,000 new entrants between 2000 and 2004 in Sweden and observing them for 5 years, several conclusions may be drawn from our study. First, there is a substantial difference in ex-post entry performance between the manufacturing and service sectors. Second, the proposed superiority of start-ups by ex-employees depends on the performance measures and the sector. Third, knowledge and technology intensity of the industry matter for the viability of the new firms.
    Keywords: Location; New ventures; Survival; Productivity; Growth
    JEL: L25 L26 M13 O47 R11
    Date: 2013–05–08
  4. By: Binz , Christian (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland); Truffer , Bernhard (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland); Coenen , Lars (CIRCLE, Lund University; Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU), Norway)
    Abstract: Studies on technological innovation systems (TIS) often set spatial boundaries at the national level and treat supranational levels as a geographically undifferentiated and freely accessible global technological opportunity set. This article criticizes this conceptualization and proposes instead to analyze relevant actors, networks and processes in TIS from a relational perspective on space. It develops an analytical framework which allows investigating innovation processes (or ‘functions’) of a TIS at and across different spatial scales. Based on social network analysis of a co-publication dataset from membrane bioreactor technology, we illustrate how the spatial characteristics of collaborations in knowledge creation vary greatly over relatively short periods of time. This finding suggests that TIS studies should be more reflexive on system boundary setting both regarding the identification and analysis of core processes as well as in the formulation of policy advice.
    Keywords: technological innovation system; relational space; system functions; knowledge creation; social network analysis; membrane bioreactor technology
    JEL: O31 Q55
    Date: 2013–03–16
  5. By: Coenen , Lars (Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU), Oslo; CIRCLE, Lund University); Moodysson , Jerker (CIRCLE, Lund University); Martin , Hanna (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to further insights on the potentials and barriers for industrial renewal in locked-in regions and industries. To do so, the paper analyzes the Swedish policy program ‘Biorefinery of the Future’ (BioF). This initiative is geared to develop a strong regional innovation environment for forestry-based biorefinery development in the area of Örnköldsvik and Umeå in Northern Sweden. Theoretically, the paper draws on concepts from evolutionary economic geography regarding path-dependence, related variety and lockin, and combines these with institutional approaches found in science and technology studies to explain disruptive shifts or transitions in socio-technical systems.
    Keywords: Regional Innovation Policy; Old Industrial Regions; Evolutionary Economic Geography; Socio-technical Transitions
    JEL: O33 O38
    Date: 2013–05–06
  6. By: Nobuaki Yamashita (La Trobe University, Melbourne); Toshiyuki Matsuura (Keio University, Tokyo); Kentaro Nakajima (Tohoku University, Sendai)
    Abstract: This paper examines the agglomeration effects of multinational firms on the location decisions of first-time Japanese manufacturing investors in China for the period 1995-2007. This is accomplished by exploiting newly constructed measures of inter-firm backward and forward linkages formed in a home country. The conditional and mixed logit estimates reveal that agglomeration by first-tier suppliers and customers draws subsequent investment into a location. However, such agglomeration effects are not pervasive and do not extend to the second and third tiers. Instead, we find that agglomeration by third-tier suppliers generates a countervailing force, making a location relatively unattractive.
    Date: 2013–03
  7. By: Jürgen Essletzbichler
    Abstract: This paper builds on and complements work by evolutionary economic geographers on the role of industry relatedness for regional economic development and extends this work into a number of methodological and empirical directions. First, while recent work defines relatedness through co-occurrence, this paper measures relatedness as intensity of input-output links between industry pairs. Second, this measure is employed to examine industry evolution in 360 U.S. metropolitan areas over the period 1977-1997. The paper confirms the findings of existing work: Industries are more likely to be members of and enter and less likely to exit a metropolitan industry portfolio if they are technologically related to those industries. Third, based on average industry relatedness in a metropolitan area, an employment weighted measure of metropolitan technological cohesion is developed. Changes in technological cohesion can then be decomposed into selection, entry and exit effects revealing that the change in technological cohesion is not only due to the entry and exit of related industries but employment growth in strongly related incumbent industries.
    Keywords: Evolutionary economic geography, industry relatedness, industrial branching, technological cohesion, selection, entry, exit
    Date: 2013–05
  8. By: Castelli , Cristina (Italian Trade Promotion Agency (ICE), Csil Milano); Castellani, Davide (University of Perugia, Italy; CIRCLE; Sweden; IWH and LdA)
    Abstract: This paper presents the sectoral and geographic distribution of R&D-related activities, in comparison with manufacturing activities, by analysing data (from the fDi Markets database) on the number of cross-border greenfield investment projects. Results show that crossborder R&D investments are concentrated in fewer sectors and countries (of origin and destination) than manufacturing, and they are less sensitive to the obstacles related with the distance between home and host countries. More than the two-thirds of all cross-border investments in R&D-related activities are in ICT/Electronic and Life Sciences/Chemicals sectors, but these sectors differ in their propensity towards R&D and Design, Development and Testing activities. Almost half of the investments is due to multinationals from North America, and over one third from Western Europe, but the two areas show a different sectoral specialization. Considering the areas of destination, Asia is the largest recipient, and specializes in the ICT/Electronics and Industrial Machinery, while Western Europe ranks second and attracts relatively more research investments in Life Sciences/Chemicals, as well as in the Machinery industry
    Keywords: Internazionalization of R&D; Multinational Firms; Europe; North America; Asia
    JEL: F23 L23 O30
    Date: 2013–03–03
  9. By: Martin , Roman (CIRCLE, Lund University); Trippl , Michaela (Department of Human Geography and CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: Regional innovation strategies rank on the top of public policy agendas today. There is a widespread consensus in both academic and policy circles that standardised “best practice” innovation policy models suffer from severe limitations and major shortcomings. The recent literature is replete with claims that regional innovation policies should be place-based and context-sensitive, taking into consideration the specificities of regions and their distinctive preconditions and capacities for innovation. Various conceptual approaches and theories support such a view. This paper discusses two concepts, which have a particularly strong potential for informing a differentiated regional innovation policy approach; the regional innovation system (RIS) theory and the knowledge base concept. The RIS literature highlights the importance of the organisational and institutional setting of a region and suggests that system deficiencies or failures should constitute the starting point for designing regional innovation policies. The differentiated knowledge base approach stresses that regional industries differ strongly in the underlying knowledge bases and, as a consequence, in their policy needs. We elaborate on the policy implications that originate from these concepts and argue that tailor-made regional innovation policies should consider both region-specific institutional set-ups and knowledge bases.
    Keywords: regional innovation policy; regional innovation system; differentiated knowledge bases
    JEL: L52 O21 O25 R11 R58
    Date: 2013–04–18
  10. By: Joseph DeSalvo (Department of Economics, University of South Florida); Louis Eeckhoudt (Ieseg School of Management (Lille))
    Abstract: This paper introduces risk into location and land-use choices of a profit-maximizing urban firm. Although risk has been introduced into the location theories of Von Thünen, Weber, and Hotelling (Asami and Isard, 1989), it has not to our knowledge been incorporated into a firm’s choice of intraurban location and land use. We address this issue with a simple model of an urban firm, which chooses location (as distance from the CBD) and land input within an urban area. This model has antecedents in Aloa (1974), Moomaw (1980), and Cooke (1983) but is both simpler (in that it includes only one input, land) and more general (in that it assumes general functional forms and profit maximization). We start with choices under certainty, providing comparative static results on location and land use for changes in product price and land rent. We find location and land use directly related to product price and inversely related to land rent. We then turn to choice of location and land use under product-price and land-rent risk. Both product-price and land-rent risk lead the firm to choose less land and a location closer to the CBD than under certainty. The appendix extends the model to a mean-preserving increase in risk.
    Date: 2013–02
  11. By: Martin , Roman (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: It is argued in this paper that the nature of innovation networks can vary substantially with regard to the type of knowledge that is critical for innovation. Subject to the knowledge base of an industry, networks between companies can differ in various aspects, such as their geographical configuration, their structure, the type of actors holding a strategic position and the type of relations between actors. The paper comprises a conceptual discussion on social capital theory and networks, followed by a theoretically informed discussion on differentiated knowledge bases and innovation networks, which is subsequently illustrated with empirical material. The empirical analysis is based on social network analysis in association with exclusive data about patterns of cooperation and knowledge exchange in a number of regional industries located in different parts of Europe. The findings suggest that networks in analytical industries are not much constrained by geographical distance; knowledge is exchanged in a highly selective manner between research units and scientists in globally configured epistemic communities. Synthetic industries source knowledge within nationally or regionally configured networks between suppliers and customers, and within communities of practice. Symbolic industries rely on knowledge that is culturally defined and highly context specific, resulting in localised networks that are temporary and flexible in nature.
    Keywords: differentiated knowledge bases; regional innovation systems; social capital; social network analysis; knowledge networks
    JEL: B52 O25 P51 R11 R12 R58
    Date: 2013–05–03
  12. By: Paul Plummer; Matthew Tonts
    Abstract: This paper contributes to debates about that application and relevance of evolutionary concepts in the analysis of regional economies. In particular, we address the propostion that geography and history matter in shaping regional economic development by drawing on the concepts and methodology of dynamic econometrics, offering an analysis of Western Australia, 1981-2008. More specifically we test for path and place dependence using data on incomes per capita for regions within the State. The results provide evidence of both path and place dependence, although indicate that there is a degree of heterogeneity in how places are evolving and responding to shocks.
    Date: 2013–05
  13. By: Elizabeth Ananat; Shihe Fu; Stephen L. Ross
    Abstract: We demonstrate a striking but previously unnoticed relationship between city size and the black-white wage gap, with the gap increasing by 2.5% for every million-person increase in urban population. We then look within cities and document that wages of blacks rise less with agglomeration in the workplace location, measured as employment density per square kilometer, than do white wages. This pattern holds even though our method allows for non-parametric controls for the effects of age, education, and other demographics on wages, for unobserved worker skill as proxied by residential location, and for the return to agglomeration to vary across those demographics, industry, occupation and metropolitan areas. We find that an individual’s wage return to employment density rises with the share of workers in their work location who are of their own race. We observe similar patterns for human capital externalities as measured by share workers with a college education. We also find parallel results for firm productivity by employment density and share college-educated using firm racial composition in a sample of manufacturing firms. These findings are consistent with the possibility that blacks, and black- majority firms, receive lower returns to agglomeration because such returns operate within race, and blacks have fewer same-race peers and fewer highly-educated same-race peers at work from whom to enjoy spillovers than do whites. Data on self-reported social networks in the General Social Survey provide further evidence consistent with this mechanism, showing that blacks feel less close to whites than do whites, even when they work exclusively with whites. We conclude that social distance between blacks and whites preventing shared benefits from agglomeration isa significant contributor to overall black-white wage disparities.
    Keywords: Black White Wage Gap, Agglomeration Economies, Human Capital Externalities,Information Networks, Total Factor Productivity
    JEL: J15 J24 J31 R23 R32
    Date: 2013–04
  14. By: Vincenzo Atella (University of Rome "Tor Vergata"); Federico Belotti (University of Rome "Tor Vergata"); Domenico Depalo (Bank of Italy); Andrea Piano Mortari (University of Rome "Tor Vergata")
    Abstract: Over the last decades spatial econometrics models have represented a common tool for measuring spillover effects across different geographical entities (counties, provinces, regions or nations). Unfortunately, no one has considered that when these entities share common borders but obey to different institutional settings, ignoring this feature may induce misleading conclusions. In fact, under these circumstances, and if institutions do play a role, we expect to find spatial effects mainly \within" entities belonging to the same institutional setting, while the "between" effect across different institutional settings should be attenuated or totally absent, even if the entities share a common border. In this case, relying only on geographical proximity will then produce biased estimates, due to the composition of two distinct effects. To avoid these problems, we derive a methodology that partitions the standard contiguity matrix into within and between contiguity matrices, allowing to separately estimate these spatial correlation coefficients and to easily test for the existence of institutional constraints. In our empirical analysis we apply this methodology to Italian Local Health Authority expenditures, using spatial panel techniques. Results show a strong and significant spatial coefficient only for the within effect, thus confirming the importance and validity of our approach.
    Keywords: spatial, health expenditures, institutional setting, panel data
    JEL: H72 H51 C31
    Date: 2013–05–08
  15. By: Yi Deng (Department of Economics, University of South Florida); Gabriel Picone (Department of Economics, University of South Florida)
    Abstract: We develop and estimate a spatial game-theoretic model of entry and location choices to examine firms’ strategic clustering decisions. The model identifies two contradictory effects that determine firms’ geographical location choices: a competition effect and a clustering effect. We also separate firms’ strategic clustering incentives from the observed clustering behavior due to exogenous factors such as population and topographic desirability or constraints. In particular, we examine two closely related industries that share similar location limitations but have different strategic incentives to cluster, jointly estimate the Bayesian Nash equilibrium of a two-industry entry and location game, and quantify the strategic clustering incentives.
    JEL: L13 L81 R12 R30
    Date: 2013–01
  16. By: Andries Brandsma (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); d’Artis Kancs (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Philippe Monfort (European Commission – DG REGIO); Alexandra Rillaers (European Commission – DG REGIO)
    Abstract: The paper presents the newly developed dynamic spatial general equilibrium model of European Commission - RHOMOLO, in which the interplay of agglomeration and dispersion forces can be analysed in a novel and theoretically consistent way. A particular attention is paid to flows of goods, factors and services within and between regions that are generated by the stimulus to the regions. This will allow an assessment of the feedback to the Member States and regions and the possibility that in the longer run they will all benefit from the additional growth that is generated. In doing so, it sheds new light on how the success of cohesion policy can be measured.
    Keywords: Economic modelling, spatial dynamics, policy impact assessment, regional development, economic geography, spatial equilibrium, DSGE.
    JEL: C63 C68 D58 F12 H41 O31 O40 R13 R30 R40
    Date: 2013–05
  17. By: Andries Brandsma (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); d’Artis Kancs (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Damiaan Persyn (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The present paper describes the modelling approach of regional labour markets taken in the newly developed dynamic spatial general equilibrium model RHOMOLO, where the labour market equilibrium is determined by ?rms’ labour demand, a wage-curve with unemployment, and inter-regional labour migration. The RHOMOLO model is parameterised by estimating the key structural parameters econometrically. In order to illustrate the potential of the proposed dynamic spatial general equilibrium approach to inter-regionally integrated labour markets, we carry out simulations showing the e?ects of a reduction in ransportation cost, and assess the impact on regional labour markets. Our results con?rm that wages and unemployment are by far the most important channels of adjustment to macro-economic and policy shocks in the EU. In contrast, labour migration plays a secondary role in labour market adjustments in the EU. Our results also suggest that the relationship between market access, labour demand and labour supply is non-linear and spatially inter-dependent, which underlines the importance of the proposed dynamic spatial general equilibrium approach.
    Keywords: Dynamic spatial general equilibrium model, labour, migration, unemployment, wage, RHOMOLO, DSGE, new economic geography.
    JEL: C68 D58 F22 J20 J61 J64 O15
    Date: 2013–03
  18. By: Binz , Christian (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland); Truffer , Bernhard (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland); Coenen , Lars (CIRCLE, Lund University; Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU), Norway)
    Abstract: Understanding why and where emerging industries locate in today’s globalizing economy is a much debated topic, especially in the context of the recent evolutionary turn in economic geography. This paper proposes a new perspective based on the technological innovation system (TIS) approach. It argues that existing theories on industry formation could be extended with a systemic and multi-scalar view on the social construction processes in the very early industry formation phase. It hypothesizes that regions which successfully locate new industries combine the build-up of a territorial embedded TIS with drawing on innovation dynamics from other regions of a globally distributed TIS. A respective analytical framework is introduced and exemplified with a case study on on-site water recycling technology, based on interviews with 40 experts in Beijing, Shanghai and Xi’an, China. Our data suggests that a considerable on-site water recycling industry developed only in Beijing, which seen from existing theories on industry formation provided the least favorable initial conditions. Its success appears to be explainable with a local innovation system build-up process that recurrently and effectively anchored global TIS dynamics in its local context. We conclude by discussing how the proposed framework can enhance the understanding of industry formation and argue for a systemic innovation policy approach for supporting new industries
    Keywords: Industry formation; anchoring; technological innovation system; clean-tech industry; on-site water technology
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2013–03–03
  19. By: Giuditta De Prato (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre, European Commission); Daniel Nepelski (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre, European Commission)
    Abstract: The Commission Communication entitled "A Strategy for ICT R&D and Innovation in Europe: Raising the Game" proposes reinforcing Europe's industrial and technology leadership in ICT. Building on Europe's assets, the Communication anticipates a landscape where, by 2020, "(…) Europe has nurtured an additional five ICT poles of world-class excellence (…)". This study attempts to identify ICT R&D&I-related agglomeration economies in Europe that would meet world-level excellence, and to identify weak signals that would indicate the dynamics of a changing ICT-related economic geography in Europe. Both of those identification processes are based on quantitative data, built on a set of relevant criteria leading to measurable indicators. The study is developed around several tasks, the results of which are presented in a series of IPTS working papers. This first Working Paper synthesises the conclusions of the conceptual and empirical literature review that was carried out both at the beginning of the study. It summarises the most prominent concepts discussed in the relevant literature, the methods that were developed and leads to a definition of the European ICT Poles of Excellence that will guide later work.
    Keywords: ICT, excellence, poles of excellence
    Date: 2013–01
  20. By: World Bank
    Keywords: International Economics and Trade - Trade and Regional Integration Health, Nutrition and Population - Population Policies Economic Theory & Research Private Sector Development - Emerging Markets Transport Economics Policy & Planning Macroeconomics and Economic Growth Transport
    Date: 2012–06
  21. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Health, Nutrition and Population - Population Policies Finance and Financial Sector Development - Debt Markets Economic Theory and Research Private Sector Development - Emerging Markets Transport Economics Policy and Planning Macroeconomics and Economic Growth Transport
    Date: 2012–06
  22. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Health, Nutrition and Population - Population Policies Housing & Human Habitats Poverty Reduction - Rural Poverty Reduction Transport Economics Policy & Planning Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Communities and Human Settlements Health Nutrition and Population Transport
    Date: 2012–06
  23. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Health, Nutrition and Population - Population Policies Health Monitoring and Evaluation Poverty Reduction - Rural Poverty Reduction Economic Theory and Research Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Health, Nutrition and Population
    Date: 2012–06
  24. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Poverty Reduction - Rural Poverty Reduction Economic Theory and Research Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Poverty Reduction - Achieving Shared Growth
    Date: 2012–02
  25. By: Cucuringu, Mihai
    Date: 2013
  26. By: Guilherme Mendes Resende; Alexandre Xavier Ywata de Carvalho; Patrícia Alessandra Morita Sakowski
    Abstract: O objetivo deste estudo consiste em avaliar os resultados de estimações de crescimento econômico regional em múltiplas escalas espaciais, utilizando modelos de painel espacial. As escalas espaciais examinadas são áreas mínimas comparáveis, microrregiões, mesorregiões e estados no período entre 1970 e 2000. Modelos alternativos de painel espacial com efeitos fixos foram estimados sistematicamente nestas escalas espaciais para demonstrar que os coeficientes estimados variam de acordo com a escala utilizada. Os resultados mostram que as conclusões obtidas a partir de regressões de crescimento dependem da escolha da escala espacial. Primeiramente, a hipótese de convergência de clube não pode ser rejeitada, sugerindo haver diferenças nos processos de convergência entre o norte e o sul do Brasil. Além disso, quanto mais agregada for a escala espacial utilizada, maior será o coeficiente positivo da média de anos de escolaridade. O efeito de custos de transporte é positivo e estatisticamente significante para o crescimento econômico apenas no nível do estado. Os coeficientes da densidade populacional mostram que áreas mais densamente povoadas são prejudiciais para o crescimento econômico, sugerindo efeitos de congestionamento no nível de áreas mínimas comparáveis (AMCs), microrregiões e mesorregiões, mas a magnitude destes coeficientes varia de acordo com a escala geográfica. Finalmente, os coeficientes de transbordamento espacial também variam conforme a escala espacial sob análise. Em geral, estes coeficientes são estatisticamente significantes nos níveis de AMC, microrregião e mesorregião; mas, no nível estadual, deixam de ser estatisticamente significantes, sugerindo que transbordamentos espaciais são limitados no espaço. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the results of regional economic growth estimates at multiple spatial scales using spatial panel data models. The spatial scales examined are minimum comparable areas, micro-regions, meso-regions and states over the period between 1970 and 2000. Alternative spatial panel data models with fixed effects were systematically estimated across those spatial scales to demonstrate that the estimated coefficients change with the scale level. The results show that the conclusions obtained from growth regressions are dependent on the choice of spatial scale. First, club convergence hypothesis cannot be rejected suggesting there are differences in the convergence processes between the north and south in Brazil. Moreover, the positive average-years-of-schooling coefficient gets larger as more aggregate spatial scales are used. Transportation costs effect is positive and statistically significant to economic growth only at the state level. Population density coefficients show that higher populated areas are harmful to economic growth demonstrating somehow that congestion effects are operating at the MCA, micro-regional and meso-regional spatial scales, but their magnitudes vary across the geographic scales. Finally, the values of spatial spillovers coefficients also vary according to the spatial scale under analysis. In general, such coefficients are statistically significant at the MCA, micro-regional and meso-regional levels; but, at state level those coefficients are no longer statistically significant suggesting that spatial spillovers are bounded in space.
    Date: 2013–04

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