nep-geo New Economics Papers
on Economic Geography
Issue of 2010‒06‒11
sixteen papers chosen by
Vassilis Monastiriotis
London School of Economics

  1. The evaluation of european structural funds on economic convergence with the application of spatial filtering technique By Francesco Pecci; Elisa Montresor; Nicola Pontarollo
  2. Regionale Arbeitsmärkte in der „Großen Rezession“: Dynamik regionaler Arbeitslosenquoten in Deutschland, Frankreich und Großbritannien im Krisenjahr 2009 By Reiner, Christian
  3. Rural development policies at regional level in the enlarged EU. The impact on farm structures By Francesco Pecci; Elisa Montresor; Nicola Pontarollo
  4. Inference Based on Alternative Bootstrapping Methods in Spatial Models with an Application to County Income Growth in the United States By Daniel C. Monchuk; Dermot J. Hayes; John Miranowski; Dayton M. Lambert
  5. The City is Flatter: Changing Patterns of Job and Labor Access in Minneapolis-Saint Paul, 1995-2005 By David Levinson; Bernadette Marion
  6. Regional efficiency of knowledge economy in the new EU countries: The Romanian and Bulgarian case By Roman, Monica
  7. University Education, Public Research and Employment Growth in Regions – An Empirical Study of Germany By Thomas Brenner; Charlotte Schlump
  8. Moderating Urbanization and Managing Growth: How Can Colombo Prevent the Emerging Chaos? By Dayaratne, Ranjith
  9. A Monocentric City With Discrete Transit Stations By Moez Kilani; Fabien Leurent; André De Palma
  10. What lessons to draw from multiple regional case studies: between comparability and specificity By Julie Pellegrin; Gelsomina Catalano
  11. Spatial Inequality in Social Progress in Bangladesh By Binayak Sen; Zulfiqar Ali
  12. EU cohesion aid to Spain: a data set. Part I: 2000-06 planning period By Angel de la Fuente; José Emilio Boscá
  13. The Role of Demographic and Cost-Related Factors in Determining Where Plants Locate - A Tale of Two Texas Cities By Ann Wolverton
  14. The Economic Effects of Bus Transit in Small Cities By Dagney Faulk; Michael Hicks
  15. Inventor collaboration over distance – a comparison of academic and corporate patents By Anja Dettmann; Sidonia von Proff
  16. Locating fire-stations: an integrated approach for Belgium By CHEVALIER, Philippe; THOMAS, Isabelle; GERAETS, David; GOETGHEBEUR, Els

  1. By: Francesco Pecci (Department of Economics (University of Verona)); Elisa Montresor (Department of Economics (University of Verona)); Nicola Pontarollo (Department of Economics (University of Verona))
    Date: 2010–05
  2. By: Reiner, Christian (University of Salzburg)
    Abstract: Regional labour markets in the „Great Recession“: The evolution of regional unemployment rates in Germany, France and the United Kingdom in 2009: Contrary to the already encompassing literature on the differentiated effects of the “Great Recession” on states, the article takes a regional economic perspective. The stated research question is “Which factors might explain the spatially unequal development of unemployment rates at the regional level?”. Using a cross-section data-set with the percentage point increase of regional unemployment rates between 2008 and 2009 as the dependent variable and a set of regional and national variables as independent variables, a multiple linear regression model is estimated. After detecting spatial autocorrelation for the OLS-estimators, the model is re-estimated and a spatial error model with ML-estimators is computed. It turns out that the share of low-skilled has a significant positive effect on the change of regional unemployment rates. Furthermore, the financial centres showed a significant better resilience than other regional economies. Because of the strong influence of the national variables in these models, separate models are estimated for France and UK. It is shown that the same variables have quite different effects. This questions the existence of a common explanation for regional unemployment dynamics in Europe.
    Keywords: Regionale Arbeitsmärkte; Große Rezession; Arbeitslosigkeit; Räumliche Ökonometrie
    JEL: J64 R11 R23
    Date: 2010–06–02
  3. By: Francesco Pecci (Department of Economics (University of Verona)); Elisa Montresor (Department of Economics (University of Verona)); Nicola Pontarollo (Department of Economics (University of Verona))
    Date: 2010–05
  4. By: Daniel C. Monchuk; Dermot J. Hayes (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD); Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI)); John Miranowski; Dayton M. Lambert
    Abstract: This study examines aggregate county income growth across the 48 contiguous states from 1990 to 2005. To control for endogeneity we estimate a two-stage spatial error model and infer parameter significance by implementing a number of spatial bootstrap algorithms. We find that outdoor recreation and natural amenities favor positive growth in rural counties, densely populated rural areas enjoy stronger growth, and property taxes correlate negatively with rural growth. We also compare estimates from the aggregate county income growth model with per capita income growth and find that these two growth processes can be quite different.
    Keywords: county income growth, rural development, spatial bootstrapping. JEL codes: O18, R11, R58
    Date: 2010–05
  5. By: David Levinson (Nexus (Networks, Economics, and Urban Systems) Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota); Bernadette Marion
    Abstract: This study describes the measurement of accessibility by automobile for the Minneapolis - Saint Paul (Twin Cities) region over the period from 1995 to 2005. In contrast to previous analyses of accessibility, this study uses travel time estimates derived, to the extent possible, from actual observations of network performance by time of day. A set of cumulative opportunity measures are computed with transportation analysis zones (TAZs) as the unit of analysis for 1995 and 2005. Analysis of the changes in accessibility by location over the period of study reveals that, for the majority of locations in the region, accessibility increased over this period, though the increases were not uniform. A "flattening" or convergence of levels of accessibility across locations was observed over time, with faster-growing suburban locations gaining the most in terms of employment accessibility. An effort to decompose the causes of changes in accessibility into components related to transportation network structure and land use (opportunity location) reveal that both causes make a contribution to increasing accessibility, though the effects of changes to the transportation network tend to be more location-specific. Overall, the results of the study demonstrate the feasibility and relevance of using accessibility as a key performance measure to describe the regional transportation system.
    Keywords: Accessibility; Land Use; Travel Time; Travel Behavior; Twin Cities (Minnesota)
    JEL: R41 R48 Q41 R51
    Date: 2010
  6. By: Roman, Monica
    Abstract: The economic success is more and more based on upon the effective utilization of intangible assets such as knowledge, skills and innovative potential as the key resource for competitive advantage. For transition countries, such as Romania and Bulgaria, the efficiency of research and development activities is particularly important, since technological progress is one of the core aspects of economic growth. In this article we describe the common features of the two countries, but also the existing differences in respect with knowledge based economy. There are significant regional differences within the countries and marginal regions must close the gap with more developed regions. The paper analyzes research efficiency at the regional level for NUTS2 regions from Romania and Bulgaria between 2003 and 2005, applying a DEA framework. Our main finding is that Bulgarian regions are more efficient in R&D activities compared to Romanian ones. The only Romanian efficient region is Bucuresti Ilfov, while the other two efficient regions are rather small Bulgarian regions, with fewer resources. They show a remarkably high level of research efficiency, whereas some of the larger regions (both from Romania and Bulgaria) lag behind.
    Keywords: regions knowledge economy transition countries efficiency DEA
    JEL: R58 P27 R11 O31
    Date: 2010–02
  7. By: Thomas Brenner (Department of Geography, Philipps University Marburg); Charlotte Schlump (Department of Geography, Philipps University Marburg)
    Abstract: Universities and research institutes are seen as important drivers of the regional economy. Their impact on regional entrepreneurial and innovation activity is well documented. On the other hand, their influence on regional employment growth is less researched. This paper provides an extensive empirical analysis of the relationship between the education of university graduates and employees in research institutes and the growth of employment in a region. The analysis is done for nine industries separately. We find that university graduates have a significant influence on employment growth in several industries, while an influence of public research institutes is found only for a few industries. For most control variables the findings differ between manufacturing and service industries. Such a clear difference between the two types of industries is not found for university graduates and public research institutes.
    Keywords: Universities, Research Institutes, Regional Employment Growth
    JEL: H52 I2 J20
    Date: 2010–05
  8. By: Dayaratne, Ranjith
    Abstract: This paper examines urbanization trends, the growth of Colombo and its present state of development. It looks at the approaches to the planned interventions in the city and demonstrates how a uni-directional urban development has had a detrimental impact
    Keywords: Colombo, urban development, managing urbanization, planning, housing,
    Date: 2010
  9. By: Moez Kilani (Université Paris-Est, LVMT - Université Paris-Est, Equippe/IUT B - Université Charles de Gaulle - Lille III); Fabien Leurent (LVMT - Laboratoire Ville, Mobilité, Transports - INRETS - Université Paris-Est - Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées); André De Palma (ENS Cachan - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan - École normale supérieure de Cachan - ENS Cachan, Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS : UMR7176 - Polytechnique - X, IUF - Institut Universitaire de France)
    Abstract: We extend the monocentric model by considering a discrete number of accessible mass transit stations. Households combine two modes for their daily home-to-work trip: a first mode for terminal access to stations and a second (long haul) mode which consists in radial mass transit axes. The urban equilibrium, i.e. city size and households' distribution, is derived as a function of the mass transit network and the distribution of land housing capacity. Then at the urban equilibrium the land rent is peaked at transit stations and decreases with the travel cost from the city center rather than with the distance to it. Accordingly, the housing lot size increases with the travel cost from the city center. These features distinguish our framework from previous monocentric models. Our analysis is based on the assumptions that land-owners are absent and city is open (the households' level of utility is given and the population size is endogenous). For numerical illustration, the model is calibrated to a selected rail network in the Paris area. A sensitivity analysis of the urban structure and land-use equilibrium is conducted with respect to the key model parameters.
    Date: 2010–06–02
  10. By: Julie Pellegrin (Centre for Industrial Studies (CSIL)); Gelsomina Catalano (Centre for Industrial Studies (CSIL))
    Abstract: Abstract This paper, presented at the Sixth European Conference on Evaluation of Cohesion Policy (Warsaw, 30 November-1 December 2009), addresses the specific case of regional case studies, i.e., case studies concerned with the effects of a SF programme implemented in a region. In the following, we draw on the concrete experience of the ex post evaluation of ERDF in 2000-06 (in particular Work package 4 Structural Change and Globalisation hereafter WP4) and other evaluations to review a set of principles that could help solve the dilemma between promoting specificity and making possible comparison and generalisation intrinsic to multiple case studies. The paper distinguishes three stages at which specific steps can be taken to ensure the final comparability and generalisation of findings: selection phase, implementation of the cases on the ground, and synthesis and generalisation. The intention is here to be deliberately concrete and useful, providing pragmatic solutions.
    Keywords: Case study, Cohesion Policy
    JEL: H72 O21 R58
    Date: 2010–01–12
  11. By: Binayak Sen; Zulfiqar Ali
    Abstract: The paper tracks spatial inequality in social progress in Bangladesh as evidenced from the district level data. It uses a multivariate framework to explore the differential pace of social progress at the spatial level. The “instructive†outliers and deviants are identified in terms of underachievers and overachievers compared with the benchmark predicted by the level of aggregate affluence. The paper then draws upon discussions to coalesce a local contextual story about the possible reasons for such unexpected deviations from the general pattern. The paper concludes that the extent of spatial inequality in social development has decreased over the second half of the nineties although the overall level of inequality remains considerable. Policy implications are drawn for attacking spatial chronic poverty.[PRCPB Working Paper No. 7]
    Keywords: spatial, inequality, multivariate framework, spatial level, instructive, benchmark, coalesce,
    Date: 2010
  12. By: Angel de la Fuente; José Emilio Boscá
    Abstract: In this paper we construct a data set on EU cohesion aid to Spain during the planning period 2000-06. The data are disaggregated by region, year and function and attempt to approximate the timing of actual executed expenditure on assisted projects.
    Keywords: Structural Funds, EU Cohesion policy
    JEL: R58
    Date: 2010–06–02
  13. By: Ann Wolverton
    Abstract: In the environmental justice literature, evidence of disproportionate siting in poor or minority neighborhoods is decidedly mixed. Some allege this is due to the difference in whether the study looks at evidence at the national, state, or city level. Here, I compare results from two of the largest cities in Texas to results for the state overall to discern whether important demographic or other differences are evident at the city level that may be masked at a more aggregate level of analysis. I examine four possible hypotheses for why plants may locate in poor or minority neighborhoods: profit maximization (or cost minimization); relatively low willingness-to-pay for environmental amenities; a lower propensity for collective action by the community; and finally, the desire on the part of the firm to discriminate against particular groups of people. Specifically, I match the location of manufacturing plants that reported to the Toxic Release Inventory to US Census information at the census tract level at the time when the siting decision occurred. I then combine this information with a variety of other data, including voter participation, wages, and crime rates at the county-level. The main findings of this paper is that the principle driver of plant location decisions is profit maximization and that variables associated with the collective action and discrimination hypotheses are largely not significant, population density excepted. These findings appear to hold both at the city and state level. Variables associated with willingness-to-pay for environmental amenities appear somewhat sensitive to geographic scope: poverty is sometimes significant at the state level but never significant at the level of the city.
    Keywords: Plant location, environmental justice
    Date: 2009–06
  14. By: Dagney Faulk (Center for Business and Economic Research, Miller College of Business, Ball State University); Michael Hicks (Center for Business and Economic Research, Miller College of Business, Ball State University)
    Abstract: This research investigates how public transit affects economic outcomes in counties with small to medium-sized cities. Our objectives are to answer: Do counties with bus transit have lower growth in transfer payments such as food stamps, Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF), or higher income growth, employment growth, and population growth? Public transit is commonly viewed as a social service; this analysis explores the economic impact of this public investment. We find that relative to counties without bus transit, counties with bus systems have significantly lower unemployment rates, lower growth in family assistance, lower growth in food stamp payments, and higher population and employment growth. Yet the poverty rate is higher in counties with bus transit systems and the effect on income is ambiguous. The positive impact on job access which reduces payments for family assistance and food stamps is tempered by lack of discernable effects on income likely driven by supply side effects in the labor market.
    Keywords: Employment, Transit, Bus, Spatial Mismatch
    JEL: R42 R58 H54 R11 R49
    Date: 2010–06
  15. By: Anja Dettmann (Department of Geography, Philipps University Marburg); Sidonia von Proff (Department of Geography, Philipps University Marburg)
    Abstract: The paper compares academic and corporate patents in Germany to shed light on the geographical distribution of the inventors. The residences of the inventors show different patterns in the two datasets. Furthermore, we analyze the spatial distance between inventors for patents invented in collaboration and give insights into the distance’s change over a time period of 14 years. The distance between collaborating inventors of corporate patents exceeds that of inventors of academic patents. In spite of the rise of ICT and cheap passenger transportation the collaboration distances have not increased. This supports earlier literature on the importance of proximity in innovation.
    Keywords: inventor networks, Germany, academic patents, research collaboration
    JEL: R12 O34 L14
    Date: 2010–05
  16. By: CHEVALIER, Philippe (UniversitŽ catholique de Louvain, CORE and Louvain School of Management, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium); THOMAS, Isabelle (UniversitŽ catholique de Louvain, CORE and Department of Geography (Fund for Scientific Research), B-1348 Louvain- la-Neuve, Belgium); GERAETS, David (Experian Business Strategies SA, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium); GOETGHEBEUR, Els (Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science and Center for Statistics, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium)
    Abstract: This paper demonstrates the potential of a decision-support system developed for Belgium by a consortium of universities and a private firm, in the framework of a public call by the Ministry of the Interior. The system is designed to provide the Belgian emergency management administration with a complete decision-aid tool for the location of fire-stations. The originality of the project is that it includes a risk-modeling approach developed at a national scale. This analysis involves a multiscale GIS system which includes a thorough representation of the physical, human and economic spatial realities, a risk modeling approach, an adequate optimal location and allocation model (taking into account both queuing and staffing problems). The final result is an interactive operational tool for defining locations, equipment allocations, staffing, response times, the cost/efficiency trade-off, etc. which can be used in an assessment as well as a prospective context. It has numerous functionalities including rapid modification of the modeling conditions to allow for quick scenario analysis, multiscale analysis, and prospective analysis.
    Keywords: ocation-allocations, GIS, fire-stations, Belgium
    JEL: C61 R53
    Date: 2010–02–01

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