nep-geo New Economics Papers
on Economic Geography
Issue of 2010‒04‒17
twenty-six papers chosen by
Vassilis Monastiriotis
London School of Economics

  1. Location Determinants of Greenfield Foreign Investments in the Enlarged Europe: Evidence from a Spatial Autoregressive Negative Binomial Additive Model By Roberto Basile; Luigi Benfratello; Davide Castellani
  2. Specialization and risk sharing: evidence from European regions By Roberto Basile; Alessandro Girardi
  3. Does regional cost-of-living reshuffle Italian income distribution? By Riccardo Massari; M. Grazia Pittau; Roberto Zelli
  4. The Role of Knowledge in Regional Development. Theoretical Considerations and the Case of the Austrian-Hungarian Border Region By Melinda Smahó
  5. Productivity and the density of human capital By Jaison R. Abel; Ishita Dey; Todd M. Gabe
  6. Seeds of regional structural change. The role of entrepreneurs and expanding firms in shaping local path dependencies By Frank Neffke; Martin Henning
  7. The Geography and Co-location of European Technology-specific Co-inventorship Networks By Julian P. Christ
  8. Local Economies and General Elections: The Influence of Municipal and Regional Economic Conditions on Voting in Sweden 1985–2002 By Elinder, Mikael
  9. Spatial dynamics and convergence: the spatial AK model By Raouf Boucekkine; Carmen Camacho; Giorgio Fabbri
  10. "A Spatial Dynamic Panel Model with Random Effects Applied to Commuting Times" By Olivier Parent; James P. Lesage
  11. Music Scenes to Music Clusters - the economic geography of music in the U.S., 1970-2000 By Florida, Richard; Mellander, Charlotta; Stolarick, Kevin
  12. How does immigration affect native internal mobility? New evidence from Italy By Sauro Mocetti; Carmine Porello
  13. The Geography of Internet Infrastructure: An evolutionary simulation approach based on preferential attachment By Sandra Vinciguerra; Koen Frenken; Marco Valente
  14. On the best functions to describe city size distributions By González-Val, Rafael; Ramos, Arturo; Sanz-Gracia, Fernando
  15. Swedish regional GDP 1855-2000 : estimations and general trends in the Swedish regional system By Kerstin Enflo; Martin Henning; Lennart Schön
  16. The Export Base Model with a Supply-Side Stimulus to the Export Sector By Kim Swales; Soo Jung Ha
  17. Location Strategies for Agglomeration Economies By Juan Alcacer; Wilbur Chung
  18. A Comparison of Three Methods of Estimation in the Context of Spatial Modeling By Ghosh, Gaurav; Carriazo, Fernando
  19. Crime and arrests: deterrence or resource reallocation? By Thomas A. Garrett; Lesli S. Ott
  20. The fiscal impact of potential local option taxes in Massachusetts By Bo Zhao
  21. Neighbors and Co-Workers: The Importance of Residential Labor Market Networks By Judith K. Hellerstein; Melissa McInerney; David Neumark
  22. Global Metropolis - assessing economic activity in global centers based on nighttime satellite images By Florida, Richard; Mellander, Charlotta; Gulden, Tim
  23. Commuting, Residence and Workplace Location Attractiveness and Local Public Goods By Klaus Nowotny
  24. The Employment and Fiscal Effects of Michigan's MEGA Tax Credit Program By Timothy J. Bartik; George Erickcek
  25. What lessons to draw from multiple regional case studies: between comparability and specificity By Julie Pellegrin; Gelsomina Catalano
  26. The social construction of competences and the forms of transitions in industrial territories By Roberto Herranz; Ariel Mendez

  1. By: Roberto Basile (Institute for Studies and Economic Analysis, Rome); Luigi Benfratello (Department of Economics and Public Finance "G. Prato", University of Torino); Davide Castellani (Department of Economics, Finance and Statistics, University of Perugia)
    Abstract: This paper addresses two important methodological issues in the analysis of industrial location: spatial dependence and nonlinearities. To this end, we estimate a semi-parametric spatial autoregressive negative binomial model using data on the number of inward greenfield FDI occurred over the 2003-2007 period in 249 European regions. Results support the view that multinational firms’ location choices are very spatially dependent, even controlling for a large number of regional characteristics. A spatial lag model with a non-parametric spatial filter allows us to purge the residuals from spatial dependence and yields sensible changes in the magnitude of some estimated coefficients. We also provide robust evidence of nonlinearities. In particular, we find that the effect of agglomeration economies fades down as the density of economic activities reaches some limit value.
    Keywords: Multinational firms, greenfield FDI, count data, spatial econometrics, semiparametric econometrics
    JEL: C14 C21 F14 F23
    Date: 2010–03
  2. By: Roberto Basile (ISAE - Institute for Studies and Economic Analyses); Alessandro Girardi (ISAE - Institute for Studies and Economic Analyses)
    Abstract: Economic theory emphasizes that risk sharing makes it possible to exploit benefits from comparative advantages and economies of scale. Unlike previous studies we reject the assumption of parameter homogeneity across geographical units in measuring risk sharing. The estimated regional-specific index of risk sharing is then used as a covariate in a model of industrial specialization for the EU15 regions. By estimating a number of nonparametric additive spatial autocovariance models, allowing for nonlinearities and spatial dependence, we show that industrial specialization is positively affected by risk sharing measures even controlling for other relevant regressors.
    Keywords: Risk sharing, specialization, European regions, non-parametric methods, spatial econometrics.
    JEL: E21 F15 O40 C14 C31
    Date: 2009–12
  3. By: Riccardo Massari (Sapienza, University of Rome, Roma); M. Grazia Pittau (Sapienza, University of Rome, Roma); Roberto Zelli (Sapienza, University of Rome, Roma)
    Abstract: This paper examines how spatial price differentials affect income distribution in Italy. The distribution of household income is “reshuffled” after controlling for the purchasing power of households residents in different regions, but only when housing price variations are included in the PPP index. Poor households living in Southern Italy alleviate their relative condition, but concentration of poverty still holds in the Southern part of the country.
    Keywords: Income distribution, inequality, regional purchasing power parity, Italy.
    JEL: E31 D31 D63
    Date: 2010
  4. By: Melinda Smahó (Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre for Regional Studies, West-Hungarian Research Institute)
    Abstract: Economic growth and development theories have neglected the role of knowledge and space for a long time. However, it is widely accepted that knowledge has played a more and more important role in economic development, and – due to its spatial characteristics – also in regional development. The aim of this paper is to explore the role and some spatial characteristics of knowledge, as well as their impact on regional development, also in regard to border regions. After some theoretical considerations, the paper investigates some features and cross-border cooperations of knowledge holders in the Austrian-Hungarian border region.
    Keywords: knowledge, universities, cross-border cooperation, Austrian-Hungarian border region
    Date: 2010–01–22
  5. By: Jaison R. Abel; Ishita Dey; Todd M. Gabe
    Abstract: We estimate a model of urban productivity in which the agglomeration effect of density is enhanced by a metropolitan area's stock of human capital. Estimation accounts for potential biases due to the endogeneity of density and industrial composition effects. Using new information on output per worker for U.S. metropolitan areas along with a measure of density that accounts for the spatial distribution of population, we find that a doubling of density increases productivity by 2 to 4 percent. Consistent with theories of learning and knowledge spillovers in cities, we demonstrate that the elasticity of average labor productivity with respect to density increases with human capital. Metropolitan areas with a human capital stock one standard deviation below the mean realize no productivity gain, while doubling density in metropolitan areas with a human capital stock one standard deviation above the mean yields productivity benefits that are about twice the average.
    Keywords: Urban economics ; Labor productivity ; Labor market ; Population ; Demography
    Date: 2010
  6. By: Frank Neffke; Martin Henning
    Abstract: This article studies path dependent regional structural change using a quantitative framework. Based on an inter-relatedness indicator, the degree to which local skill-bases exist and force local economies onto a path-dependent development trajectory is studied. The main question is into which local industries new plants enter, while distinguishing between the plants of entrepreneurs and firms. Using a dataset on Swedish individuals and municipalities, it is found that entrepreneurs tend to reinforce established local industrial specializations, whereas new plants of already existing firms do less so. Moreover, outside actors deepen local economy's core specialization more than do local actors.
    Keywords: structural change, economic geography, path dependence, entrepreneurship, skill-relatedness, human capital
    JEL: R11 O18 J62
    Date: 2010–04
  7. By: Julian P. Christ
    Abstract: This paper contributes with empirical findings to European co-inventorship location and geographical coincidence of co-patenting networks. Based on EPO co-patenting information for the reference period 2000-2004, we analyze the spatial configuration of 44 technology-specific co-inventorship networks. European co-inventorship (co-patenting) activity is spatially linked to 1259 European NUTS3 units (EU25+CH+NO) and their NUTS1 regions by inventor location. We extract 7.135.117 EPO co-patenting linkages from our own relational database that makes use of the OECD RegPAT (2009) Files. The matching between International Patent Classification (IPC) subclasses and 44 technology fields is based on the ISI-SPRU-OST-concordance. We confirm the hypothesis that the 44 co-inventorship networks differ in their overall size (nodes, linkages, self-loops) and that they are dominated by similar groupings of regions. The paper offers statistical evidence for the presence of highly localized European co-inventorship networks for all 44 technology fields, as the majority of linkages between NUTS3 units (counties and districts) are within the same NUTS1 regions. Accordingly, our findings helps to understand general presence of positive spatial autocorrelation in regional patent data. Our analysis explicitly accounts for different network centrality measures (betweenness, degree, eigenvector). Spearman rank correlation coefficients for all 44 technology fields confirm that most co-patenting networks co-locate in those regions that are central in several technology-specific co-patenting networks. These findings support the hypothesis that leading European regions are indeed multi-field network nodes and that most research collaboration is taking place in dense co-patenting networks.
    Keywords: co-patenting, co-inventorship, networks, linkages, co-location, RegPAT
    JEL: C8 O31 O33 R12
    Date: 2009–06
  8. By: Elinder, Mikael (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: This paper presents a detailed analysis of voters’ responses to municipality and regional-level unemployment and economic growth, using panel data on 284 municipalities and 9 regions, covering Swedish general elections from 1982 to 2002. The preferred specification suggests that a reduction in regional unemployment by one percentage point is associated with an increase in the support for the national government by about 1.7 percentage points. The effect of growth, at the regional level, is substantial in size, but statistically insignificant. At the municipality level, unemployment has a smaller effect than at the regional level and growth has no effect on government support.
    Keywords: Elections; Voting; Local Economic Conditions
    JEL: H11 R11 R12 R58
    Date: 2010–01–05
  9. By: Raouf Boucekkine; Carmen Camacho; Giorgio Fabbri
    Abstract: We study the optimal dynamics of an AK economy where population is uniformly distributed along the unit circle. Locations only differ in initial capital endowments. Despite constant returns to capital, we prove that transition dynamics will set in. In particular, we prove that the spatio-temporal dynamics, induced by the willingness of the planner to give the same (detrended) consumption over space and time, lead to convergence in the level of capital across locations in the long-run.
    Keywords: Economic Growth, Inequality, Spatial Dynamics, Convergence
    JEL: C60 O11 R11 R12 R13
    Date: 2010–03
  10. By: Olivier Parent; James P. Lesage
    Abstract: A space-time filter is set forth for spatial panel data situations that include random effects. We propose a general spatial dynamic specification that encompasses several spatiotemporal models previously used in the panel data literature. We apply the model to the case of highway induced travel demand. The theory of induced travel demand asserts that increased highway capacity will induce growth in traffic for a number of reasons. Our model allows us to quantify the spatial spillover impacts of increased highway capacity at one location in the network on travel times in neighboring locations and in future time periods.
    Date: 2010
  11. By: Florida, Richard (Martin Prosperity Institute); Mellander, Charlotta (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Stolarick, Kevin (Martin Prosperity Institute)
    Abstract: Where do musicians locate, and why do creative industries such as music continue to cluster? This paper analyzes the economic geography of musicians and the recording industry in the U.S. from 1970 to 2000 to shed light on the locational dynamics of music and creative industries more broadly. We examine the role of scale and scope economies in shaping the clustering and concentration of musicians and music industry firms. We argue that these two forces are bringing about a transformation in the geography of both musicians and music industry firms, evidenced in a shift away from regionally clustered, genrespecific music scenes, such as Memphis or Detroit, toward larger regional centers like New York City and Los Angeles which offer large markets for music employment and concentration of other artistic and cultural endeavors which increase demand for musicians. We use population and income to probe for scale effects, and concentrations of other creative and artistic industries to test for scope effects, while including a range of control variables in our analysis. We use lagged variables to determine if certain places are consistently more successful at fostering concentations of musicians and the music industry and test for path dependency. We find some role for scale and scope effects and that both musicians and the music industry are concentrating in a relatively small number of large regional centers.
    Keywords: musicians; recording industry; agglomerations
    JEL: R11 R12 Z11
    Date: 2010–02–11
  12. By: Sauro Mocetti (Bank of Italy); Carmine Porello (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between native internal mobility and immigration in Italy, in order to gain a better understanding of the impact of immigration on local labour markets and to gauge the consequences for the socio-demographic composition of the local population. Native mobility is examined both with respect to residential displacements across regions and the demographic evolution of local labour markets. Endogeneity issues related to immigrant geographical distribution are addressed using proximity to “gateways” as the instrumental variable. We find that immigration is positively associated with inflows of highly-educated natives, suggesting the existence of potential complementarities. The impact is concentrated among young adults and is higher in more urbanized areas. We also find a displacement of low-educated natives; in particular, immigrant concentration in the northern regions has partially substituted the traditional South-North mobility of less-skilled natives.
    Keywords: Immigration, native mobility, distance
    JEL: J61 O15 R23
    Date: 2010–03
  13. By: Sandra Vinciguerra; Koen Frenken; Marco Valente
    Abstract: We model the evolution of infrastructure networks as a preferential attachment process. We assume that geographical distance and country borders provide barriers to link formation in infrastructure networks. The model is validated against empirical data on the European Internet infrastructure network covering 209 cities. We successfully simulate the average path length and average clustering coefficient of the observed network. Furthermore, the simulated network shows a significant correlation with the observed European Internet infrastructure network. We end with a discussion on the future uses of preferential attachment models in the light of the literature on world cities and global cities.
    Keywords: internet infrastructure, network, simulation, preferential attachment
    JEL: C63 O18 R1 L96
    Date: 2010–04
  14. By: González-Val, Rafael; Ramos, Arturo; Sanz-Gracia, Fernando
    Abstract: This paper analyses in detail the features offered by a function which is practically new to Urban Economics, the q-exponential, in describing city size distributions. We highlight two contributions. First, we propose a new and simple procedure for estimating their parameters. Second, and more importantly, we explain the characteristics associated with two traditional graphic methods (Zipf plots and cumulative density functions) for discriminating between functions. We apply them to the lognormal and q-exponential, justifying them as the best functions for explaining the entire distribution, and that the relationship between them is of complementarity.
    Keywords: city size distribution; q-exponential; lognormal
    JEL: C16 C13 R00
    Date: 2010–04–07
  15. By: Kerstin Enflo; Martin Henning; Lennart Schön
    Abstract: This paper uses a method devised by Geary and Stark to estimate regional GDPs for 24 Swedish provinces 1855-2007. In empirical tests, we find that the Swedish estimations yield results of good precision, comparable to those reported in the international literature. From the literature, we generate six expectations concerning the development of regional GDPs in Sweden. Using the GDP estimations, we test these expectations empirically. We find that the historical regional GDPs show a high correlation over time, but that the early industrialization process co-evolved with a dramatic redistribution of productive capacity. We show that the regional inequalities in GDP per capita were at their lowest point in modern history in the early 1980s. However, while efficiency in the regional system has never been as equal, absolute regional differences in scale of production has increased dramatically over our investigated period. This process has especially benefited the metropolitan provinces. We also sketch a research agenda from our results.
    Keywords: Industrialization, Regional inequality, Regional income, Economic growth
    JEL: N93 N94 R11
    Date: 2010–03
  16. By: Kim Swales (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde); Soo Jung Ha (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: In the export-base model, the level of a region’s economic activity is underpinned by the performance of its export sector (Daly, 1940; Dixon and Thirlwall, 1975; Kaldor, 1970; North, 1955). This theory is now almost universally represented as a primitive version of the familiar Input-Output (IO) or Keynesian demand-driven approach, where regional output is linked to regional exports through a rather mechanistic multiplier process (Romanoff, 1974). Further, in a standard IO inter-regional framework, the expansion of output in one region always generates positive impacts on other regions. That is to say, there is always a positive spread, and no negative backwash, effect. However, these models typically embody no supply-side constraints. What is more, the stimulus to the export sector is often thought to come through supply-side improvements (North, 1955; McCombie, 1992). Whilst accepting that the development of a healthy export base is generally central to promoting the growth of the regional economy, the relationship is likely to be much more complex than is usually thought. Also whilst an increase in regional exports typically increases economic activity in the target region, the effect on other regions is less straightforward (Myrdal, 1957). In this paper we begin by using a single-region IO analysis of the operation of a stylised export base model. The impact of a conventional increase in export demand is compared to a situation in which increased competitiveness underpins the improved export performance. This analysis is then extended through the use of an inter-regional (Scotland–Rest of the UK) Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. In simulation, different exogenous demand and supply side disturbances are calibrated so as to generate the same long-run expansion in Scottish manufacturing exports. The subsequent specific evolutions of regional GDP and employment in both Scotland and the rest of the UK (RUK) are then tracked.
    Keywords: Export base, efficiency improvement, regional growth
    JEL: R11 R13 R58
    Date: 2010–03
  17. By: Juan Alcacer (Harvard Business School, Strategy Unit); Wilbur Chung (R.H. Smith School of Business, University of Maryland)
    Abstract: Geographically concentrated industry activity creates pools of skilled labor and specialized suppliers, and increases opportunities for knowledge spillovers. The strategic value of these agglomeration economies may vary by firm, depending upon the relative value of each economy, and upon firm and agglomeration economy traits. To better determine when a firm will be attracted to agglomeration economies, we develop a three-layer framework. The first layer assesses the relative importance of skilled labor, suppliers, and knowledge spillovers. The second layer considers whether firms can benefit from geographic concentration without co-locating. The final layer examines why some firms are more inclined to co-locate than others based upon firm and agglomeration economy traits. We test our framework on the U.S. location choices of new manufacturing entrants between 1985 and 1994 and find that firms are far more attracted to skilled labor and specialized suppliers than they are to potential knowledge spillovers, even in R&D intensive industries. We also find that leading firms will be more attracted to pools of labor, suppliers, and potential knowledge spillovers when their own contributions are less fungible, and cannot be easily leveraged for strategic advantage by proximate competitors.
    Keywords: agglomeration economies, location choice, firm strategy
    JEL: R30 R12 L21
    Date: 2010–02
  18. By: Ghosh, Gaurav (E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN)); Carriazo, Fernando (Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture)
    Abstract: We empirically compare the accuracy and precision of representative Least Squares, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods of estimation. Using an approach similar to the jackknife, each method is repeatedly applied to subsamples of a data set on the property market in Bogotá, Colombia to generate multiple estimates of the underlying explanatory spatial hedonic model. The estimates are then used to predict prices at a fixed set of locations. A nonparametric comparison of the estimates and predictions suggests that the Bayesian method performs best overall, but that the Likelihood method is most suited to estimation of the independent variable coefficients. Significant heterogeneity exists in the specific test results.
    Keywords: Spatial Econometrics; Bayesian Statistics; Hedonic Valuation
    Date: 2009–11
  19. By: Thomas A. Garrett; Lesli S. Ott
    Abstract: We use monthly time-series data for 20 large U.S. cities to test the deterrence hypothesis (arrests reduce crimes) and the resource reallocation hypothesis (arrests follow from an increase in crime). We find (1) weak support for the deterrence hypothesis, (2) much stronger support for the resource reallocation hypothesis, and (3) differences in city-level estimates suggest much heterogeneity in the crime and arrest relationship across regions.
    Keywords: Crime ; Cities and towns
    Date: 2010
  20. By: Bo Zhao
    Abstract: This paper examines the potential impact of local-option taxes on meals, general sales, income, and payroll on revenue-raising capacity in Massachusetts municipalities. It finds that, while new local-option taxes would generate considerable additional revenues from untapped sources, revenue capacity is not evenly distributed across municipalities. Indeed, local-option taxes are likely to exacerbate fiscal disparities, because municipalities with low existing revenue-raising capacity often lack the tax bases for new local-option taxes. Policymakers could consider increasing equalizing state aid to offset these fiscal disparities. If more aid is not forthcoming, this paper proposes that the state change aid formulas to reflect differences across municipalities in local-option tax capacity, and to better target fiscally distressed communities. These strategies - explored in the Massachusetts context - could also be useful in other states.
    Keywords: Taxation - Massachusetts ; Local finance - Massachusetts
    Date: 2010
  21. By: Judith K. Hellerstein; Melissa McInerney; David Neumark
    Abstract: We specify and implement a test for the presence and importance of labor market network based on residential proximity in determining the establishments at which people work. Using matched employer-employee data at the establishment level, we measure the importance of these network effects for groups broken out by race, ethnicity, and various measures of skill. The evidence indicates that these types of labor market networks do exist and play an important role in determining the establishments where workers work, that they are more important for minorities and the less-skilled, especially among Hispanics, and that these networks appear to be race-based.
    Date: 2010–03
  22. By: Florida, Richard (Martin Prosperity Institute); Mellander, Charlotta (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Gulden, Tim (Center for International and Security Studies at the University of Maryland School of Public Policy)
    Abstract: This research provides new data and insight metropolitan areas worldwide. It summarizes new data, derived from satellite images of the world at night, to provide systematic estimates of the economic activity generated by cities and metropolitan areas worldwide. It identifies 681 global metropolitan areas each with more than 500,000 people. Taken as a whole, these large global metropolitan regions house 24 percent of world population but produce 60 percent of global output, measured as light emissions. Asia leads the way in global economic urbanization according to our findings, followed by North America, the emerging economies, and Europe.
    Keywords: Metro regions; Globalization; Urbanization; Nighttime lights
    JEL: O18 R10
    Date: 2010–02–11
  23. By: Klaus Nowotny (WIFO)
    Abstract: Being at the heart of today's working life, commuting is of central interest to geographers, policy makers, transport planners and economists alike. This article analyses aggregate commuting using various groups of variables. A special focus is on the questions whether and how the provision of local public goods, such as educational institutions or health care facilities, and local amenities affect commuting decisions on the aggregate level and to what extent commuting can be explained by labour market characteristics at the source and target units. The empirical investigation analyses aggregate commuting flows between municipalities of an Austrian province using censored regression and count data models.
    Keywords: commuting, gravity model, censored regression
    Date: 2010–02–22
  24. By: Timothy J. Bartik (W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research); George Erickcek (W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research)
    Abstract: This paper estimates that Michigan's MEGA tax credit program to attract and retain businesses has large employment and fiscal benefits. MEGA provides discretionary tax credits to businesses, with the tax credit tied to the personal income taxes paid by employees on the new or retained jobs. We estimate the economic effects of MEGA using the Upjohn Institute's REMI model, and the research literature on how business location decisions respond to taxes. We estimate the fiscal effects of MEGA based on the research literature on how government spending and revenue respond to state personal income and population. The estimates suggest a lower bound to MEGA's effectiveness of being decisive in a little over 8 percent of the MEGA projects. Even with this modest success rate, MEGA is estimated to have fiscal benefits that offset about two-thirds of its gross fiscal costs. The net fiscal costs per job created of MEGA average less than $4,000 per job-year, which is less than the labor market benefits of job creation.
    Keywords: State and local economic development policy, tax incentives, fiscal impact analysis, labor market benefits, regional multipliers
    JEL: R11 R23 R30 R58 H70
    Date: 2010–03
  25. By: Julie Pellegrin (Centre for Industrial Studies (CSIL)); Gelsomina Catalano (Centre for Industrial Studies (CSIL))
    Abstract: Abstract This paper, presented at the Sixth European Conference on Evaluation of Cohesion Policy (Warsaw, 30 November-1 December 2009), addresses the specific case of regional case studies, i.e., case studies concerned with the effects of a SF programme implemented in a region. In the following, we draw on the concrete experience of the ex post evaluation of ERDF in 2000-06 (in particular Work package 4 Structural Change and Globalisation hereafter WP4) and other evaluations to review a set of principles that could help solve the dilemma between promoting specificity and making possible comparison and generalisation intrinsic to multiple case studies. The paper distinguishes three stages at which specific steps can be taken to ensure the final comparability and generalisation of findings: selection phase, implementation of the cases on the ground, and synthesis and generalisation. The intention is here to be deliberately concrete and useful, providing pragmatic solutions.
    Keywords: Case study, Cohesion Policy
    JEL: H72 O21 R58
    Date: 2010–01–12
  26. By: Roberto Herranz (FCE - Facultad des Ciencas Economicas - Universidad de Santiago de Compostela); Ariel Mendez (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - CNRS : UMR6123 - Université de Provence - Aix-Marseille I - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille II)
    Abstract: The purpose of this communication is to present some reflexions on the transformation and the evolution of three industrial regions located in three Mediterranean countries (France, Spain and Italy). We are particularly interested in highlighting some dimensions of the evolution and nature of industrial competences and the relationship of this evolution with forms of industrial cooperation.
    Keywords: transition, competencies, territories, learning
    Date: 2008–07–05

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