nep-geo New Economics Papers
on Economic Geography
Issue of 2007‒01‒14
400 papers chosen by
Vassilis Monastiriotis
London School of Economics

  1. Polycentric Development to Combat Regional Disparities? the Relation Between Polycentricity and Regional Disparities in European Countries By Evert Meijers; Krister Sandberg
  2. Spatial Analysis of Urban Growth in Spain (1900-2001) By Julie Le Gallo; Coro Chasco-Yrigoyen
  3. Geographic Information Systems and Decision Processes for Urban Planning: A Case Study of Rough Set Analysis on the Residential Areas of the City of Cagliari, Italy By Corrado Zoppi; Sabrina Lai
  4. Urban Employment Growth: Evidence From Great Britain 1981-2001 By Bernard Fingleton; Danilo Igliori; Barry Moore
  5. Spatial Development Tendencies and Emergence of New Industrial Districts in Turkey in the Post-1980 Era By Metin Ozaslan
  6. Residential Concentration Pattern Analysis and of Urban Cluster Dynamics Assessment. By Yorgos Photis; Stelios Tsobanoglou
  7. Insularity and Urban Hierarchies : the Case of La Reunion By Michel Dimou
  8. Functional Economies Or Administrative Units in Greece: What Difference Does It Make for Policy? By Prodromos-Ioannis Prodromidis
  9. Methods of Multivariate Analysis to Uncover Socio-Economic Differences Among Spatial-Economics Entities By Ivana Rasic Bakaric
  10. The Mega-City-Region of Munich: A Kingdom of Its Own Or a Space of Inter-Connected Flows? By Viktor Goebel; Alain Thierstein
  11. Human Capital and Growth of High- and Low-Skilled Jobs in Cities By Jens Suedekum
  12. Countries, Regions and Multinational Firms: Location Determinants in the European Union By Rodrigo Alegria
  13. Knowledge Accessibility and Regional Economic Growth By Charlie Karlsson; Martin Andersson; Urban Grasjo
  14. Greece and Its Regions: Exploring Spatial Patterns and Their Similarity Across Socio-Economic Indicators By Vassilis Monastiriotis
  15. Economic Impacts of a New Road Network in San-En Region, Japan: A Spatial Computable General Equilibrium Model By Yuzuru Miyata; Hiroyuki Shibusawa; Yasuhiro Hirobata; Akira Ohgai
  16. Where It Is Better to Live: In an "European" or an "American" City? By Mihai Tivadar
  17. Regional Policy of the EU and Intra-Regional Differences in Development Levels. A Case Study of Lodz Region. By Maciej Turala
  18. Emergence and Evolution of Heterogeneous Spatial Patterns By Yuri Yegorov
  19. The European Enlargement Process and Regional Convergence Revisited: Spatial Effects Still Matter. By Nicolas Debarsy; Cem Ertur
  20. An Attempt for the Measurement of Regional Competitiveness in Hungary By Miklos Lukovics; Imre Lengyel
  21. Development Scenarios for Eastern European Cities and Regions in the New Europe By Valentina Sagris; Marjo Kasanko; Elisabetta Genovese; Carol Lavalle
  22. Industrial Location At the Intra-Metropolitan Level: A Negative Binomial Approach By Josep Maria Arauzo-Carod; Elisabet Viladecans-Marsal
  23. Spatial and Individual Influence on Commuting Behaviour in Germany By Georgios Papanikolaou
  24. Regional Income Differences in Hungary - A Multi-Level Spatio-Temporal Analysis By Tamas Dusek
  25. The Spatial and Public Economics of Regions, a Theoretical and Empirical Survey By Candau, Fabien
  26. Regional Migration in Turkey: Its Directions and Determinants By Ayse Nilay Evcil; Gulay Basarir Kiroplu; Vedia Dokmeci
  27. Wages and Industrial Clusters in Rio Grande Do Sul (Brazil) By Leonardo Monasterio; Mauro Salvo
  28. Spatial Patterns of Urban Growth - Does Location Matter? a Case Study of Nepal By Boris A. Portnov; Madhav Adhikari
  29. Regional Inequality and Brazilian Constitutional Funds By Heder Oliveira; Edson Domingues
  30. European Region Types: A Cluster Analysis of European NUTS 3 Regions By Christine Aumayr
  31. Labour Market Flexibility and Regional Unemployment Rate Dynamics: Spain (1980-1995) By Roberto Bande; Marika Karanassou
  32. Institution for Local and Regional Development in Bosnia and Herzegovina By Jasmina Osmankovic; Ademir Nukovic; Denis Zaimovic
  33. Networks Within Cities and Among Cities: A Paradigm for Urban Development and Governance By Tomaso Pompili
  34. Evaluating Housing Price Predictability of Alternative Hedonic Model Formulations By Liv Osland; Inge Thorsen
  35. Spatial Efficiency Analysis of Arable Crops in Greece By Anastassios Karaganis; Antonios Tassoulis
  36. Endogenous Amenities and the Spatial Structure of Cities By Mihai Tivadar; Hubert Jayet
  37. Greek Port Cities in Transition: Regeneration Strategies, Waterfront Development and the Role of Cultural and Tourist Resources By Nicholas Karachalis; Evangelos Kyriazopoulos
  38. The Relationship Between Housing Policy and Local Development Policy in Romania. The Case of the Large Housing Estates Rehabilitation By Daniela-Luminita Constantin
  39. Mega-City-Regions: on Awareness and Value Chain Approach By Michael Dross; Agnes Forster; Alain Thierstein
  40. Interaction of Housing Values Between Districts of Istanbul: Case Study From 2001-2005 By Kerem Yavuz Arslanli
  41. How Government Cares for Urban Economic Growth: the Impact of Different Fiscal Grant Schedules in the German Federal States on the Development of Urban Areas By Martin T. W. Rosenfeld; Gerhard Heimpold; Birger Nerre
  42. Deforestation, Growth and Agglomeration Effects: Evidence From Agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon By Danilo Igliori
  43. Co-authorship in Regional Science: A Network Approach By Gunther Maier; Jouke van Dijk
  44. A Microsimulation Approach to the Modelling of Urban Population and Housing Markets Within an Object-Oriented Framework By Marianthi Svinterikou; Pavlos Kanaroglou
  45. Regional Convergence in Germany. A Geographically Weighted Regression Approach By Hans-Friedrich Eckey; Reinhold Kosfeld; Matthias Turck
  46. Regional Differences in Overeducation By Signe Jauhiainen
  47. How Economy Becomes Situated in Local Place; Understanding the Location of Economy From the Perspective of Urban Social Ecology By Luki Budiarto
  48. Metropolitan Development Policies and Demographic. Dynamics in Sicily By Vittorio Ruggiero; Luigi Scrofani
  49. Residential Equilibrium in a Multifractal Metropolitan Area. By Isabelle Thomas; Jean Cavailhes; Pierre Frankhauser; Dominique Peeters
  50. Regional Disparities and Public Policies in Italy: Some Considerations in Light of a Performance Analysis By Giorgio Fazio; Davide Piacentino; Erasmo Vassallo
  51. Boundaries Between a City and Its Suburbs: the Case Study of Two Greek Cities, Volos and Larissa By Maria Triantafyllidi
  52. European Urban Growth: Now for Some Problems of Spaceless and Weightless Econometrics By Paul Cheshire; Stefano Magrini
  53. Incorporating spatial variation in housing attribute prices: A comparison of geographically weighted regression and the spatial expansion method By Bitter, Chris; Mulligan, Gordon; Dall'erba, Sandy
  54. Showcasing Innovative Greece By Christos Bezirtzoglou; Anna Andrikopoulou
  55. EU Development Policies and the Socio-Economic Disadvantage of European Regions. By Riccardo Crescenzi
  56. Flood Prevention and Sustainable Spatial Planning. The Case of the River Diakoniaris in Patras Authors: D. Vespiniadou, E. Athanasopoulou By Varbara Despiniadou; Evanthia Athanasopoulou; Panagiotis Papatheodoropoulos
  57. Rail Connected City-Regions: the Significance of Concerted Policies and Alternative Funding Options By Alexandros Deloukas
  58. Labour Productivity Dynamics in Europe: Alternative Explanations for a Well Known Problem By Antonio Godinho Rodrigues
  59. The Golden Horn: Potentials on Touristic and Cultural Identity By Buket Onem
  60. Market Potential and Border Effects in Europe By Peter Huber; Michael Paffermayr; Yvonne Wolfmayr
  61. Regional Policy in Greece of Tomorrow. The Perspectives of the Broader Regions By Christos Ladias; Eleni Stamatiou
  62. Structural Change and Regional Employment Dynamics By Helge Sanner; Uwe Blien
  63. R&D, Spillovers, Innovation Systems and the Genesis of Regional Growth in Europe By Andres Rodriguez-Pose; Riccardo Crescenzi
  64. Estimating Regional Poverty Lines With Scarce Data: An Application to Brazilian Regions By Carlos Roberto Azzoni; Fernando Silveira; Alexandre Iwata; Antonio Ibarra; Bernardo Diniz; Guilherme Moreira
  65. On the Stability of the German Beveridge Curve. A Spatial Econometric Perspective By Christian Dreger; Reinhold Kosfeld
  66. Regional Specialization of Greek Prefectures for the Time Period 1981-2001 By Spyridon Sofios; Garyfallos Arabatzis
  67. Visual Artists Between Cultural Demand and Economic Subsistence. Empirical Findings From Berlin. By Marco Mundelius
  68. Emergence and Transformation of Clusters and Milieus By Antonio Vazquez-Barquero
  69. Regional Differences in the Determinants of Investment Decisions of Private Firms in Brazil By Carlos Roberto Azzoni; Aquiles Kalatzis
  70. New Forms of Regional Inequalities in Greece: the Diffusion of the Internet Across Greek Regions By Sophia Skordili
  71. Building a Static Farm Level Spatial Microsimulation Model: Statistically Matching the Irish National Farm Survey to the Irish Census of Agriculture By Stephen Hynes; Karyn Morrissey; Cathal O'donoghue
  72. Marketization in Space: Local and Regional Effects on Marketization in Denmark By Henrik Doensig Jorgensen; Torben Dall Schmidt
  73. Venture Investments in Israel - A Regional Perspective Dafna Schwartz and Raphael Bar-El Ben-Gurion University, School of Management, Israel By Dafna Schwartz; Raphael Bar-El
  74. Modelling the Intra-Metropolitan Location of Foreign Investment Firms in Istanbul By Sevkiye Sence Turk; Lale Berkoz
  75. Social-Economic Aspects of the Regional Development Within Transform Economics - Regional Development in CR After Year 1990. By Iva Ritschelova; Jan Capek
  76. Regional Income Inequality and Convergence Processes in the EU-25 By Tiiu Paas; Friso Schlitte
  77. Local Decentralization and Economic Growth: Evidence from U.S. Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Regions By George Hammond; Mehmet S. Tosun
  78. The Determinants of Location Choice: Single-Plant Versus Multi-Plant Firms By Isabel Mota; Antonio Brandao
  79. The Impact of Transition and Economic Integration on Manufacturing Employment Change: An Assessment for the Regions of the European Union New Member-States. By Dimitrios Kallioras
  80. Russian Regions on the Route From Industrial to Network (Russian Realities and Experience of the EU Regions) By Alexander Granberg; Alexander Pelyasov
  81. Urban Areas and Territorial Cohesion Objective: Actual Strategies and Future Challenges By Loris Servillo
  82. Spatial Knock-On Effects of Area-Based Urban Policies: Practices From Utrecht, the Netherlands By Anne Slob; Ronald Van Kempen; Gideon Bolt
  83. Fractal Analysis of the Urbanization At the Outskirts of the City: Models, Measurement and Explanation By Apostolos Lagarias
  84. Spatial Typology of the Greek Territory Based on Transport Accessibility Indicators:A Cartographical Approach Using G. I. S. By Ioannis Katsios; Andreas Tsatsaris; Athina Sakellariou
  85. The Nature of Regional Unemployment in Italy By Matteo Lanzafame
  86. Regional Knowledge Management: Contrasting Skills in Science, Technology and Innovation Along the Atlantic Space By Teresa De Noronha Vaz
  87. Analysis of Different Urban Forms in Istanbul By Burcin Yazgi; Vedia Dokmeci
  88. Technological Innovation and Urban Processes By Stefano Aragona
  89. The Cultural Environment Approach of Urban Development: the Case Study of the City of Veria, Greece. By Yannis Psycharis; Alex Deffner; Ioanna Iordanidou
  90. New Member States of the EU: Current Trends in Regional Disparities By Josef Abrham; Milan Vosta
  91. Urban Sensibility of Landscape Structures in Italy General Characteristics and Local Details By Bernardino Romano; Giulio Tamburini
  92. Clusters As Vehicles Stimulating Regional and Local Development. By Ewa Bojar
  93. Giannena City After the Opening of the Albanian Borders. The Effects of Cross-Border Exchange. By Fereniki Vatavali
  94. Deprivation Analysis in Declining Inner City Residential Areas: A Case Study From Izmir, Turkey. By Esin Ince Kompil; Adile Arslan Avar
  95. The Geography of Employment Polarisation in Britain By Ioannis Kaplanis
  96. Peripherality and Integration: Industrial Growth and Decline in the Greek Regions By George Petrakos; Georgios Fotopoulos; Dimitrios Kallioras
  97. Urban Tourism: An Analysis of Visitors to Istanbul By Ebru Kerimoglu; Hale Ciraci
  98. Testing for the Impact of Local Labour Market Characteristics on House Prices By Liv Osland; Inge Thorsen
  99. Evaluation of Public Service Networks’ Efficiency and Accessibility Levels in Urban Areas. By Yorgos Photis; Fotini Athanasiou
  100. Where Art Thou? Regional Distribution of Culture Workers in Finland By Riikka Penttinen
  101. Road Infrastructure and Regional Development: An Evidence From Croatia By Valerija Botric; Jelena Sisinacki; Lorena Skuflic
  102. The Effect of Migration on Urbanization of Turkey, Case of Diyarbakir By M. Oguz Sinemillioglu; Nurtekin Ozen
  103. The Role of Freight Villages to the Development of the Balkan Region. The Case of Promachon Freight Village (Greek Bulgarian Borders) By Evangelos Kyriazopoulos; Maria - Athina Artavani
  104. Transformation of Rural Patterns in Greece in a European Regional Development Perspective (The Case of Crete) By Andreas Tsatsaris; Polixeni Iliopoulou; Panagiotis Stratakis
  105. Regional Products, Regions' Reputation and Commercial Strategies: A Tale of Two Cheese Suppliers By Jose Cadima Ribeiro; Jose Freitas Santos
  106. Economic Networks and Urban Complementarities in the Dutch Randstad Region By Otto Raspe; Frank Van Oort; Martijn Burger
  107. The Geographical and Institutional Proximity of Scientific Collaboration Networks By Frank Van Oort; Roderik Ponds; Koen Frenken
  108. The Failure of Regional Development Policies in Former Yugoslavia (1966-1990) - Population As Key Factor. By Kakia Sofianopoulou
  109. Regional Disparities and Territorial Indicators in Turkey: Socio-Economic Development Index (SEDI) By Metin Ozaslan; Bulent Dincer; Huseyin Ozgur
  110. Industry Clusters in a Middle Sized Settlement: A Case Study of Thrace Region in Turkey By Pelin Ocal; Gulden Erkut
  111. The Role of Greenways for Cultural and Historical Continuity in New Urbanism: A Case Study for Halic By Zerrin Hosgor; Reyhan Genli Yigiter
  112. The Natural Environment and Landscape As a Tool of Development for and Less Developed Areas: the Attitudes of the Municipality of Vegoritis About the Effects of the Rural Development Policy in the Area By Helen Papadopoulou; Afroditi Efthimiadou; G. Siardos
  113. Unemployment Rates At the Regional and National Levels of the European Union: An Integrated Analysis By Annette Zeilstra; Paul Elhorst
  114. Convergence Across Provinces of Turkey : A Spatial Analysis By Altan Aldan; Esma Gaygisiz
  115. Locations and Relocations: Modelling, Determinants, and Interrelations By Miguel C. Manjon-Antolin; Josep Maria Arauzo-Carod
  116. Regional Differences in Returns to Education in Portugal By Jose Antonio Cabral Vieira; Joao Pedro Couto; Maria Teresa Tiago
  117. Regional Matching Frictions and Aggregate Unemployment By Sanna-Mari Hynninen; Aki Kangasharju; Jaakko Pehkonen
  118. Italian and Croatian Urban Planning: A Comparative Analysis By Carla D Uva
  119. Does Internal Migration Lead to Faster Regional Convergence in Turkey? an Empirical Investigation By Sirin Saracoglu; Murat G. Kirdar
  120. Agglomeration effects on labour demand By Blien, Uwe; Kirchhof, Kai; Ludewig, Oliver
  121. Regional Policy in Greece: An Overview and the Recent Policy Change By George Petrakos; Yannis Psycharis
  122. Settlement Patterns on the Swedish Countryside in the Emerging Knowledge Society By Hans Westlund; Wolfgang Pichler
  123. Economic Geography and Regional Growth: An Empirical Evidence From Greece By Elias Kourliouros; George Korres; Emmanuel Marmaras; George Tsobanoglou
  124. Regional Modelling for Optimal Allocation of Agricultural Crops Considering Environmental Impacts, Housing Value and Leisure Preferences. By Nava Haruvy; Sarit Shalhevet
  125. Peripheral Regions in Duress: Counter-Social Capital Impediments of Local Development in Rural Greek Areas By Elias Kourliouros; George Korres; Emmanuel Marmaras; George Tsobanoglou
  126. Interdependence Among the Brazilian States: An Input-Output Approach By Fernando Perobelli; Eduardo Haddad; Edson Domingues
  127. Deriving Spatial Metropolitan Wide Patterns of Quality of Life Dimensions From Survey Data: the Case of the Brisbane-South East Queensland Region in Australia By Robert Stimson; Prem Chhetri; John Western
  128. Suburbanization: A Post World War II Phenomenon in the Athens Metropolitan Area, Greece By Kostas Rontos; Christos Mavroudis; Theodore Georgiadis
  129. Granting Greater Municipality Status in Turkey: Issues, Policy Process and Outcomes By Huseyin Ozgur
  130. Classification of Regional Labour Markets At the NUTS3 Level in Germany By Uwe Blien; Felix Rueb; Daniel Werner; Katja Wolf
  131. New Peripheral Centralities By Apostolos Kyriazis
  132. Spatial Structure of Tourist Supply and Relations Between Sub-Regions : A Case Study in a Coastal Region, Greece By Stella Papapavlou-Ioakeimidou; Nikolaos Rodolakis; Ria Kalfakakou
  133. Science and Technology Parks in Two Lagging Regions of Spain: A Comparative Evaluation Using an Innovation Network Approach By Achilleas Tsamis
  134. Absorptive Capacity in Practice-Based Innovation Activities: the Case of Lahti Region, Finland By Anne Paalanen; Vesa Harmaakorpi; Timo Pihkala
  135. Spatio-Temporal Point Pattern Analysis Using Genetic Algorithms By Yorgos Photis; Yorgos Grekousis
  136. Is City Marketing Opposed to Urban Planning? The Elaboration of a Pilot City Marketing Plan for the Case of Nea Ionia, Magnesia, Greece By Alex Deffner; Theodoros Metaxas
  137. Data Analysis and Factors Correlation That Influences the Configuration of Urban Fabric in a Greek Middle Size City. The Case Study of Larissa. By Triantafyllos Kalliakoudas
  138. Sustainable Urban Future in Southern Europe - What About the Heat Island Effect? By Eleftheria Alexandri; Phil Jones
  139. The Effect of a Region’s Location on It’s Development By Vassilis Angelis; Eleni Gaki
  140. Cooperation and Competition of Metropolises in South Eastern Europe: Athens and Constantinople. Evolution and Perspective. By Triantafyllos Michailidis
  141. Migration and Innovation - Does Cultural Diversity Matter for Regional R&D Activity? By Annekatrin Niebuhr
  142. Cost-Benefit Analysis in Planning Processes: An Interactive Instrument in an Integrated Approach By Stijn Reinhard; Aris Gaaff
  143. Neighborhood Effects, Public Housing and Unemployment in France By Claire Dujardin; Florence Goffette-Nagot
  144. Development of a Gis Tool for Studying Territorial Impacts of Road Corridors By Dionissios Kalivas; Anastasios Giotis
  145. Spatial Structures and Spatial Spillovers: A GME Approach By Matias Mayor Fernandez; Esteban Fernandez Vazquez; Jorge Rodriguez Valez
  146. The New Economic Geography of the Northern Greek Border Regions By Lefteris Topaloglou; George Petrakos
  147. Tourism and Economic Growth At Regional Level: the Cases of Spain and Italy By Isabel Cortes-Jimenez
  148. An Empirical Test of Urban Labor Matching By Miles Finney
  149. Identification and Analysis of the Industrial Districts in Spain: A Quantitative Approach By Jose Miguel Giner Perez; Antonio Fuster Olivares; Maria Jesus Santa Maria Beneyto
  150. Centre-Periphery and Specialization in the E. U. : An Analysis From a New Economic Geography Perspective By Helen Caraveli; John Darzentas
  151. Model-based classification of regional labour markets : for purposes of labour market policy By Blien, Uwe; Hirschenauer, Franziska; Phan, thi Hong Van
  152. European Cultural Resources and Regional Development: Pressure and Opportunities From the European Enlargement By Antonio Russo; Jan Van Der Borg
  153. Egnatia Highway and Pan-European Corridor 8: Complementarity Or Competition? By Theodoros Andrianos; Michalis Karakotsoglou; Charalampos Rizos
  154. Space-Time Human Behaviour and Models of Locomotion: the Case of Students in the City of Volos, Greece By Yorgos Photis; Fotini Moustou
  155. Eurocities and Their "Sisters": How Are They Close to Each Other? By Tuzin Baycan Levent; Seda Kundak; Aliye Ahu Gulumser
  156. Competition Between Regions With Respect to Industrial Support - A Theoretical Model By John Dewhurst
  157. Analyzing Intra-Distribution Dynamics: A Reappraisal By Giuseppe Arbia; Roberto Basile; Gianfranco Piras
  158. The Transportation System in the Sicilian Touristic Development By Giacomo Genna
  159. The Challenge of Building Proper Urban Indicator System: A Proposal for Croatian Cities By Dubravka Jurlina Alibegovic; Zeljka Kordej De Villa
  160. Towards Indicators for Assessing Land-Use Change in Planning: Case Study of the Peri-Urban Zone of Thessaloniki. By Nadia Bessa
  161. Accessibility and Development in Peripheral Regions. The Case for Beira Interior By Jorge Miguel Reis Silva
  162. Ecological Planning in Built Environment By Vasileios Galifianakis
  163. Innovation As a Tool for Local Development. Introducing New Technologies for the Interpretation of Cultural Heritage: the Case of the RI-SE Programme in Sterea Ellada. By Dora Konsola; Zoe Fotiadi; Aliki Marinou
  164. Job Opportunities, Amenities, and Variable Distance-Deterrence Elasticities: An Empirical Model of Inter-Municipal Migration in Belgium By Ludo Peeters
  165. Education and Income Dynamics in Urban and Regional Labour Market Mobility By Lasse Sigbjorn Stambol
  166. Do Dutch Musea Compete Or Cooperate? By Thomas De Graaff; Jaap Boter; Jan Rouwendal
  167. Mind the Gap: Convergence of Technology and Technology of Convergence in Italian Regions, 1982-2001 By Francesco Quatraro
  168. Concentration of the Economic Activity: Comparing Methodologies and Geographic Units By Jenifer Ruiz-Valenzuela; Rosina Moreno-Serrano; Esther Vaya-Valcarce
  169. Testing the Temporal Stability of Accessibility Value in Residential Hedonic Prices By Marius Theriault; Francois Des Rosiers; Jean Dube
  170. The Conflict Between the Two Main Belgian Nationalities. Its Correlation With the Case of a Partnership Between University, Public and Private Iniatives, and Its Result in the New City of Louvain-La-Neuve. By Panagiota Tsolakaki; Ioannis Fragopoulos
  171. Approach to the Effects of Greek Regional Universities on Development of the Country Regions By Yiota Theodora
  172. Agro-Food Dynamics in a Region's Growth By Anastasios Michailidis; Efstratios Loizou; Konstadinos Mattas; Aikaterini Melfou
  173. Trade Shocks in Brazil: An Investigation of Effects on Regional Manufacturing Wages By Filipe Lage-De-Sousa
  174. The Regional Resources and Tourism Development in Developing Countries- a Case Study of Salt and Karak, Jordan By Nami Tanaka; Kazunari Tanaka; Yamaguchi Keiko; Tamagawa Eri
  175. Unification and Planning of Urban Public Spaces With Bioclimatic Conditions. Case Study Drama, Greece By Julia Georgi; Sophia Sarikou
  176. Do Different Types of Innovation Require Specific Kinds of Knowledge Links? By Franz Toedtling; Patrick Lehner
  177. Regional Integration in the Black Sea Region: the Case of Two Sisters, Istanbul and Odessa By Gulden Erkut; Mete Basar Baypinar
  178. The Role of Agglomeration and Technology in Shaping Firm's Strategy and Organization By Giulio Cainelli; Donato Iacobucci
  179. Creating Collaborative Advantages Through Coordination of Regional Development Activities By Marijana Sumpor
  180. Gentrification in the Athenian Context: the Gas Neighbourhood Case Study By Georgia Alexandri
  181. Social Interaction in Regional Labour Markets By Joerg Lingens; Joerg Heining
  182. Megacities Vs Global Cities: Development and Institutions By Jean-Marie Huriot; Lise Bourdeau-Lepage
  183. Regional Competitiveness: In Search of a Framework for Greek Regions Strategic Planning and Measurement of Competitiveness. By George Mihailidis; Giorgos Georgiadis; Nikos Koutsomarkos
  184. Regional Learning Networks in Medium-Tech Technologies and European Integration By Riccardo Cappellin; Luigi Orsenigo
  185. Does the Balance-Of-Payments Matter At the Regional Level? By Pedro N. Ramos
  186. Inflation and Supply Shocks in Spain: A Regional Approach By Maria A. Caraballo; Carlos Usabiaga
  187. Local Sustainable Mobility Management. Are Portuguese Municipalities Aware? By Catarina Aroso; Aurora, A.C. Teixeira
  188. A Geo-Statistical Analysis of Road Mortality in the Enlarged EU By Isabelle Thomas; Vojtech Eksler; Sylvain Lassarre
  189. Alternative Shopping Places: Periodic Markets in ¸stanbul By E. Umran (Mrs.) Topcu
  190. Structural Changes in Estonian Manufacturing and Regional Development. By Grigori Fainstein
  191. The Izmir City and Natural Hazard Risks By Ahmet Kivanc Kutluca
  192. Does the Internet Kill the Distance? Evidence From Navigation, E-Commerce, and E-Banking. By Guido De Blasio
  193. Regional Unemployment Forecasting Using Structural Component Models With Spatial Autocorrelation By Katharina Hampel; Marcus Kunz; Norbert Schanne; Ruediger Wapler; Antje Weyh
  194. A Structural Equation Approach to Spatial Dependence Models By Henk Folmer; Johan Oud
  195. Does Agricultural Employment Benefit From Eu Support? By Sandy Dall'erba; Eveline Van Leeuwen
  196. Human Capital As a Conditioning Factor to the Convergence Process Among the Brazilian States. By Elias Soukiazis; Tulio Cravo
  197. Planning and Protecting Historical Buildings in Kaleiçi Region of Edirne/Turkey By Sennur Akansel; Berk Minez
  198. E-Governance, Metropolitan Governance and Development Programming. The Case of the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area By Dimitris Foutakis; Elisavet Thoidou
  199. Lignite As Contributory Factor to Regional Development of Greece By Ilias Kordas
  200. Territorial "Points of Growth" of Northern Region Economy Development in Russia. By Galina Golobokova
  201. The Role of New Firms for the Development of Clusters By Anne Otto
  202. The General Interregional Price Model By Chris Jensen-Butler; Bjarne Madsen
  203. Energetic Interactions Between Minas Gerais State and the Rest of Brazil: An Inter-Regional Input-Output Analysis. By Fernando Perobelli; Rogerio Silva De Mattos; Weslem Rodrigues
  204. Highway Infrastructure Investment and Regional Employment Growth: Dynamic Panel Regression Analysis By Piyapong Jiwattanakulpaisarn; Robert Noland; Daniel Graham; John Polak
  205. The Evolution of Regional Policy Objectives in Greece - Twenty Years of Regional Development Programmes - By Ilias Plaskovitis
  206. How Does Sub-National Autonomy Affect the Effectiveness of Structural Funds? By Cornelius Baehr
  207. Municipal Solid Waste Costs: A Comparative Analysis of Local Authority Policies in Attica By Antonis Rovolis; Katia Lazaridi; Margarita Kehagioglou
  208. Crime and labour market opportunities in Italy (1993-2002) By Paolo Buonanno
  209. The Participation of Women in the Greek Labour Force: A Spatial Analysis By Christina Kritikou; Michalis Agorastakis
  210. Mobility of the Chinese Urban Poor - A Case Study of Hefei City By Zhong-Ren Peng; Yi Zhu; Shunfeng Song
  211. Land Use and Property Market Impacts of the Relocation of Athens International Airport By Alexis Politakis
  212. Monitoring and Evaluation of Regional Innovation Strategies By Zygmunt Zminda; Tomasz Zminda
  213. A Spatial Point Process for Estimating the Probability of Occurrence of a Traffic Accident. By Anastassios Karaganis; Angelos Mimis
  214. The Economic Impacts of Port Activity in Antwerp: A Disaggregated Analysis By Francois Coppens; Frederic Lagneaux; Hilde Meersman; Nathalie Sellekaerts; Eddy Van De Voorde; George Van Gastel; Ann Verhetsel
  215. Changing the Tide: the Campaign to Re-Brand Amsterdam. By Mihalis Kavaratzis; G.J. Ashworth
  216. Does Immigration Contribute to Convergence Among Regional Labour Markets? By Juan R. Cuadrado-Roura; Raquel Llorente; Carlos Iglesias
  217. Education and Income Inequality in the Regions of the European Union By Andres Rodriguez-Pose; Vasileios Tselios
  218. The Interrelationship of Planning, Participation and ICT: the Case of Developing a Curriculum in Agia Varvara, Athens, Greece By Alex Deffner; Vassilis Bourdakis
  219. Knowledge and Learning in Complex Urban Renewal Projects; Towards a Process Design By Janneke Bemmel Van
  220. From Aurora Borealis to Carpathians. Searching the Road to Regional and Rural Development By Andra Aldea-Partanen; Jouni Ponnikas
  221. Efficiency and Technology Gap in China's Agriculture: A Regional META-Frontier Analysis By Zhuo Chen; Shunfeng Song
  222. Sustainability and Urban Planning Processes. An Integrated Tool for Sustainable Urban Management. By Milena Lecca; Giancarlo Deplano
  223. Support to Local and Regional Development in Bosnia and Herzegovina By Jasmina Osmankovic
  224. Embedding Stand-Alone, ‘Local Buzz’ and ‘Global Pipeline’ Firms; a Plea for a Less Traditional Regional Innovation Policy By Evert-Jan Visser; Oedzge Atzema
  225. Institutional Challenges to Romania’a Regional Policy in the Perspective of Accession to the European Union By Daniela-Luminita Constantin
  226. Optimal Dislocation of Branch Offices From View of Transport Availability By Bohdan Linda; Jana Kubanova
  227. Towards the adoption of technological innovations: decision processes in transport policy definition By Giovanni Circella
  228. Analyzing the Coastal Development Pattern of Tourism in Turkey By Ferhan Gezici; Ayfer Yazgan Gul; Elif Alkay
  229. Econometric Analysis of the LFS Micro-Data: Exploring the Risk of Unemployment in Three Southern Greek Regions During the CSF-1. By Stavros Rodokanakis
  230. Modeling Interjurisdictional Tax Competition in a Federal System By Eduardo Haddad; Alexandre A. Porsse; Eduardo P. Ribeiro
  231. The Post-War Port Industry Development Models: the Effects on the Economic Development of the Port’s Hinterland. By Angeliki Pardali; Constantine Stathopoulou
  232. Turkey's Rurality: A Comparative Analysis At the EU Level By Peter Nijkamp; Tuzin Baycan Levent; Aliye Ahu Gulumser
  233. Agents, Institutions and Regions in Transition By Mark Mcgovern; Nurcan Temel Candemir
  234. GEOGRAPHIC AND INSTITUTIONAL DETERMINANTS OF REAL INCOME:A SPATIO-TEMPORAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATION APPROACH By Guyslain K. Ngeleza; Raymond J.G.M. Florax; William A. Masters
  235. Returns to Education and Human Capital Depreciation in Spain. By Ines P. Murillo
  236. The Role of Settlement Structures Within the Concept of Sustainability - The Arnum West Case Study By Nikolaus Ibesich; Rainer Wunderl; Jakobus Schurz
  237. Innovation Hot Spots: the Case of the Computer Services Sector in the Region of Attica, Greece By Ioannis Katsikis; Klas Eric Soderquist; Gregory Prastacos
  238. Small Business Performance in Urban Tourism By Irene Daskalopoulou; Anastasia Petrou
  239. Good Governance, Trade and Agglomeration By Candau, Fabien
  240. The German-Czech border region after the fall of the Iron Curtain : Effects on the labour market : an empirical study using the IAB Employment Sample (IABS) By Moritz, Michael; Gröger, Margit
  241. Optimal Land Use and the Allocation of Endogenous Amenities By Wilbert Grevers; Anne Veen Van Der
  242. A Gis-Based Campus Information System: Izmir Institute of Technology By Cigdem Tarhan; Omur Saygin; Ali Kemal Cinar; Yelda Yetis; Gfkhe Basaran
  243. Strategic Planning on the Local Level As a Factor of Rural Development in the Republic of Serbia By Zoran Njegovan
  244. Historical Designation and Residential Property Values By Andrew Narwold
  245. A New Method for Assessing the Resiliency of Large, Complex Networks By Laurie A Schintler; Rajendra G Kulkarni; Sean P Gorman; Roger R Stough
  246. Land Use Change and Socio-Economic Evaluation in São Jorge Island (Between 15th and 20th Century) By Tomaz Dentinho; Vanda Serpa; Paulo Silveira; Joana Goncalves
  247. The Minho-Lima Sub-Region As a Common Destination: Agents’ Commitment on It. By Jose Cadima Ribeiro; Laurentina Cruz Vareiro; Xulio Pardellas De Blas
  248. Regional Differences in Growth Rates: A Microdata Approach By Luca Pieroni; David Aristei
  249. Potential Tourism Market in Transition Countries: A Regional Analysis By Eva Aguayo; Pilar Exposito; Emilia Vazquez
  250. Small Islands and Large Scale Spatial Development Patterns - Story of the Croatian Island of Unije By Nenad Starc
  251. An Empirical Investigation of Female Entrepreneurship & Innovation Activities in Greece By George Korres; Christos Kitsos; Stamatina Hadjidena
  252. Barriers Against the Transfer of Knowledge Between Universities and the Industry in Newly-Industrialised Countries - An Analysis of the Regional Innovation System of Bangkok By Javier Revilla Diez; Ludwig Schatzl
  253. The Efficiency of Decentralised and Devolved Government: A Framework By Alex Christie; Kim Swales
  254. Does State Growth Management Change the Pattern of Urban Growth? Evidence From Florida. By John Carruthers; Ralph Mclaughlin; Marlon Boarnet
  255. Local Development and Freedom. Evidences From Italian Provinces By Capriati Michele
  256. Institutions and Regional Economic Growth: An Assessment of Mexican Regional Strategies 1970-2000. By Maria Luisa Decuir-Viruez
  257. On Ecological Fallacy and Assessment Errors Stemming From Misguided Variable Selection: Investigating the Effect of Data Aggregation on the Outcome of Epidemiological Study By Boris A. Portnov; Jonathan Dubnov; Micha Barchana
  258. Recommendations, Experiences and Conclusions From Realized Aftercare Public Policies in Czech Republic By Jan Stejskal; Tana Karlikova
  259. Urban Youth Leisure, Time Use Research and Quality of Life: the Comparison of Leisure Preferences of University Students in Athens and Larissa, Greece By Kleanthis Sirakoulis; Alex Deffner
  260. Innovation and Its Diffusion Among Regions:The Aeronautical Case By Javier Alfonso-Gil
  261. Home-Based Business: Exploring the Place Attachment of Entrepreneurs By Amanda Mackloet; Veronique A.J.M. Schutjens; Piet Korteweg
  262. Schiphol Airport Amsterdam: to Understand the Past Is to Secure Future Economic Growth. By Bart De Jong
  263. Public Participation in the Revitalization of Kütahya's CBD in Turkey By Berk Minez; Nevnihal Erdogan
  264. The Use of Typologies in Tourism Planning: Problems and Conflicts By Harry Coccossis; Mary Constantoglou
  265. Local Integration Determinants of Upstream and Downstream Firms’ Transactions in Six Portuguese Small and Medium-Sized Marketowns By Francisco Diniz
  266. An Agency Approach to Local Authorities' Behaviour By Ana Bravo; Antonio Silvestre
  267. Developing a Regional Service Cluster. Case: Setting Up a Social Affairs and Health District in Päijät-Häme, Finland, By Paula Linna; Satu Pekkarinen; Tomi Tura
  268. Iberian Market Integration: A Case Study of a Regional Integration Process By Iva Miranda Pires
  269. Innovation and Peripherality: A Comparative Study in Six EU Member Countries By Andrew Copus; Dimitris Skuras; Kyriaki Tsegenidi
  270. What kind of shock was it? Regional Integration and Structural Change in Germany after Unification By Michael C. Burda
  271. Nanotechnology, Industry Competitiveness and University Strategies: the Case of the UWS Nanotechnology Network in South-West Sydney By M-Cristina Martinez-Fernandez; Kim Leevers
  272. Locational Dynamics in an Era of Global Economic Change: Is the Port of Rotterdam Up to the Challenge? By Amanda Mackloet
  273. Regional Public Policy and Tourism Life Cycle: the Case of Sardinia By Bianca Biagi; Manuela Pulina
  274. The Role of Research in Wine: the Emergence of a Regional Research Area in an Italian Wine Production System By Andrea Morrison; Roberta Rabellotti
  275. The Impact of Public Policy and Membership of the EU on Regional Policy in Estonia By Garri Raagmaa
  276. Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital in Brazil: Differences According to Race and Region By Antonio Carlos Campino; F.M.S. Machado
  277. The Territorial Availability and Diffusion of Broadband in Finland: Lessons From Finnish Broadband Policy By Timo Hirvonen; Lauri Frank
  278. The Italian Mezzogiorno: From a "National Matter" to an "European Opportunity" By Vincenzo, Claudio Genna
  279. The Connection of Greece With the Trans-European Transportation and Communication Networks By Theodoros Andrianos; Michalis Karakotsoglou; Charalampos Rizos
  280. Regional Vulnerability : The Case of East Asia By Mody, Ashoka; Taylor, Mark P.
  281. The Space Between Us; Taking Stock, Looking Ahead By Vasilis Avdikos
  282. Strategy for Innovation and Knowledge Creation in the Aeronautical Industrial Cluster in Campania Region. By Riccardo Cappellin; Eugenio Corti; Massimiliano Bianca
  283. Economies of Scale and Spatial Scope in the European Airline Industry By Manuel Romero-Hernandez; Hugo Salgado
  284. The Valuation of Different Island Destinations Using Gravity Models By Tomaz Dentinho; David Bedo
  285. Constrains in Real Estate Investments in Greece By Nikolaos Triantafyllopoulos
  286. Asymmetries in the Responses of Sub-Central Governments to Changes in Grants: Evidence From an Event Study By Julia Darby; Anton Muscatelli; Graeme Roy
  287. Sustainable Development Planning in Kosovo By Francesco Citarella
  288. The Effects of Property Relations on Urban Renewal Project By Yakup Egercioglu
  289. The Importance of the Infrastructures in the Italy South: the Case of the Naples Port. By Rossella Murgolo
  290. Analysis of the impact of decoupling on two Mediterranean regions By Lobianco, Antonello; Roberto, Esposti
  291. Regional Predictors and Economic Incorporation of Immigrants: A Multilevel Exploration of Group Size Effects on Occupational Status of Immigrants in Greece By Nikolaos Kolios
  292. Migration Behaviour and Duration of Residence Spells of Graduating Students in Finland in 1987-2002 By Mika Haapanen; Hannu Tervo
  293. Revenue Decentralisation and Economic Growth in the Spanish Autonomous Communities By Ramiro Gil-Serrate; Julio Lopez-Laborda
  294. Challenges and Perspectives on Metropolitan Governance in Athens By Panagiotis Getimis; Nikolaos Hlepas
  295. Regional E-Government - Some Problems With Data Sharing By Jan Capek; Iva Ritschelova
  296. Young Women and Farming: A Case Study of Active Women Farmers in the West Macedonia Region, Greece. By I. Gidarakou; Eleni Dimopoulou; R. Lagogianni; S. Sotiropoulou
  297. Innovation and Productivity a Story of Convergence and Divergence Process in EU Countries By Aikaterini Kokkinou
  298. IMPACTS-Hamilton: A GIS-Based Decision-Support Tool for Evaluating the Transportation-Related Impacts of an Aging Population By Pavlos Kanaroglou; D.M. Scott; A. Paez; K.B. Newbold; H.F. Maoh
  299. New Approach for Localization, Prediction, and Management of Saline-Infected Soils By Naftaly Goldshlger; Vladimir Mirlas; Eyal Ben Dor; Mor Eshel
  300. Property Market Purpose Efficiency: An Exploratory Analysis From an Institutional Economics Perspective By Paschalis Arvanitidis
  301. Innovation Networks in the Learning Economy By Mercy Escalante-Ludena
  302. Economic Development and Environmental Degradation: Testing the Existence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve At Regional Level By George Halkos
  303. Problem of the Integration of the Tools of Environmental Politics, VAS (Ex Directive 2001/42/CE), EMAS (Rule 761/2001/CE), and New Model of Industrial Sustainable Area By Forni Andrea; Olivetti Ivano; Frenquellucci Ferdinando; Regina Pasquale; Scipioni Federica; Di Giampietro Federica
  304. Opportunities of University Business Incubation in the Less Favoured Regions of Transition Countries By Zoltan Bajmocy
  305. Examine of the Facts of Women and Migration During the Urbanization in the Scale of South-eastern Anatolia Region (Gap), in Turkey By M. Oguz Sinemillioglu; Mine Baran
  306. Education and crime: evidence from Italian regions By Paolo Buonanno; Leone Leonida
  307. Thessaloniki and the Thessaloniki International Trade Fair. A Case of Conflict? By Christos Th. Kousidonis
  308. The Role of Public Infraestructure in Market Development in Rural Peru By Escobal, Javier
  309. Shadow Market Area for Air Pollutants By David Meintrup; Chang Woon Nam
  310. Transinterpret II: Transnational Quality Management in Heritage Interpretation Within the Framework of C. I. Leader+. The Case of Greece. By Dorothea Papathanassiou-Zuhrt; Odysseas Sakellarides
  311. Housing the Refugees: the Greek Experience and Its Political Pitfalls. By Konstantinos Lalenis; Elias Beriatos
  312. Cost Efficiency in Japanese Local Governments: the Economic Effect of Information Technology in Japanese Local Governments By Tomoyasu Tanaka
  313. Key Sectors. A New Proposal From Network Theory By Ana Salome Garcia Muniz; Antonio Morillas Raya; Carmen Ramos Carvajal
  314. Territorial Scenarios for an Integrated Europe: Driving Forces of Change and Quantitative Forecasts By Roberta Capello; Barbara Chizzolini; Ugo Fratesi
  315. Global Disparities Since 1800:Trends and Regional Patterns By Alam, M. Shahid
  316. Privatization of the Japan Highway Public Corporation: Policy Assessment By Fumitoshi Mizutani; Shuji Uranishi
  317. Job Vacancy Chains and Local Employment Creation; the Case of Supply-Side Restrictions By Daniel Felsenstein; Joseph Persky
  318. An Experiment on Spatial Price Competition By Henrik Orzen; Martin Sefton
  319. Tourists’ Satisfaction Vs. Residents’ Quality of Life in Medium Sized European Cities: A Conjoint Analysis Approach for Cultural Tourism’s Impact Assessment By Patrizia Riganti
  320. Sicilian Protected Areas Among Tourist Exploitation and Environmental Guardianship By Vito Genna
  321. European Tourism Regionalization and Globalisation By Francesco Citarella
  322. Smart Technologies for Environmental Safety and Knowledge Enhancement in Intermodal Transport By Giovanni Luca Barletta; Dino Borri; Domenico Camarda; Giovanni Circella
  323. Immigrant Population in a New Host-Region: Differences and Similarities Across Southern European Countries By Antonis Rovolis; Alexandra Tragaki
  324. Importance of Institutional Development for Western Balkan Countries By Milorad Filipovic
  325. Planning Support Systems' Application Bottlenecks By Georgia Pozoukidou
  326. Cluster Performance reconsidered: Structure, Linkages and Paths in the German Biotechnology Industry, 1996-2003 By Carolin Häussler; Hans-Martin Zademach
  327. The Economics of Truck Toll Lanes By Andre De Palma; Moez Kilani; Robin Lindsey
  328. Determinants of University Spin-Offs’ Growth: Do Socioeconomic Networks and Support Matter? By Danny Soetanto; Marina van Geenhuizen
  329. The Role of Public-Private Partnership in the Sustainable Development of the Rural Tourist Destinations By Gabriela Pascariu; Dragan Gabriela
  330. Stability and Change in Individual Determinants of Migration: Evidence from 1985-1990 and 1995 to 2000 By Charles Tolbert; Troy Blanchard; Michael Irwin
  331. An Analysis of Gender Differences in UK Graduate Migration Behaviour By Alessandra Faggian; Stephen Sheppard; Philip Mccann
  332. Rural Development and Wine Tourism in Southern Italy By Donatella Di Gregorio; Elena Licari
  333. Productive Structure and Income Distribution: the Brazilian Case. By Guilherme Moreira; Leandro De Oliveira Almeida; Joaquim Jose Martins Guilhoto; Carlos Roberto Azzoni
  334. Olive Tree Farming in Jaen: Situation With the New Cap and Comparison With the Province Income Per Capita. By Carmen Lopez Martin; Pedro Pablo Perez Hernandez; Araceli Rios Berjillos
  335. Regional varieties of capitalism': inter-firm relations and access to finance in Satun (Thailand) and Perlis (Malaysia) By Andriesse, E.
  336. Formal Knowledge Examination Institutions: Chance Or Threat to European Medium Tech-Nology SMEs? A Cognitive and Institutional Perspective By Silviya Draganinska; Rudiger Wink
  337. The Importance of Women Farmers for the Development of the Province of Kastoria By Constantina Safiliou
  338. The Robust Relationship Between Taxes and State Economic Growth By W. Robert Reed
  339. Estimation Method for Emission of Road Transport By Torok Adam
  340. Bioclimatic architecture and Traditional Houses in Diyarbakir By Can Tuncay Akin
  341. Regionalni klasteri i novo zapošljavanje u Hrvatskoj By Mirjana Drgičević; Alka Obadić
  342. National Industry Clusters: The Case of Turkey By Nese Kumral; Sedef Agüngör; Aykut Lenger
  343. Knowledge As a Factor to Improve Competitiveness for a Firm in Rural Norway By Knut Ingar Westeren
  344. Intermediate Institutions for Interactive Learning Processes in a Governance Perspective: the Case of Aeronautic Industry in Campania Region. By Giuseppe Pace; Riccardo Cappellin; Immacolata Caruso
  345. Estimating the Costs and Benefits of Local Government Reorganisation: A Case of Korea By Young-Chool Choi; Sang-Yeup Lee
  346. Federal, State, and Local Governments: Evaluating their Separate Roles in US Growth By Higgins, Matthew; Young, Andrew; Levy, Daniel
  347. What is the role of economic growth and openness for China’s environment? An analysis based on Divisia decomposition method from the regional angle By Jie He
  348. Euroregions in Bosnia and Herzegovina By Jasmina Osmankovic; Denis Zaimovic; Mirko Pejanovic; Elmir Sadikovic
  349. Estimating Price Elasticities of Supply for Cotton: A Structural Time-Series Approach By Shepherd, Ben
  350. Environmental HDV Road Charging for Berlin - Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Estimations By Martin Winter; Christian von Hirschhausen
  351. A Framework of Socioeconomic Organisation: Redefining Original Institutional Economics Along Critical Realist Philosophical Lines By Paschalis Arvanitidis
  352. A Comparative Analysis of the Evolution of Gender Wage Discrimination: Spain Versus Galicia. By Yolanda Pena-Boquete
  353. WHO CHOOSES TO OWN A MANUFACTURED HOME ? By Maria I. Marshall
  354. The GIS Architecture Elements for the Coastal Areas Along the Adriatic Sea By Donatella Cialdea; Andrea De Montis; Marcello Vitiello; Giorgio Saio
  355. Externalities and Taxation/Subsidization Policy of Vehicle Information and Communication System By Hiroaki Miyoshi
  356. The Impact of Mnes on Domestic Firms in CEECS: A Micro-Econometric Approach By Marcella Nicolini; Laura Resmini
  357. “Localización residencial y movilidad laboral: un análisis del commuting de trabajadores nacionales e inmigrantes en la Comunidad de Madrid (1996-04).” By Llano, Carlos
  358. Ethnic Employees’ Behaviour Vis-a-Vis Customers in the Service Sector By Peter Nijkamp; Mediha Sahin; Marius Rietdijk
  359. Wages Differentials and Interregional Migration in the U. S. : An Empirical Test of the "Option Value of Waiting" Theory By Roberto Basile; Jaewon Lim
  360. The regional model for Mediterranean agriculture By Lobianco, Antonello; Roberto, Esposti
  361. Why Should a Firm Choose to Limit the Size of Its Market Area? By Marco Alderighi
  362. Family and Landed Property Relations Regarded As a Social Capital By Nikolaos Triantafyllopoulos
  363. Sustainability and Corporate Responsibility: A Comparison Between Greece and the UK By Olga Anastasia Stapountzi; James Robert Wallace
  364. The Process of Devolution: the Scottish Case By Sylvia A.R. Tijmstra
  365. Sustainable Design of Energy Systems - The Case of Geothermal Energy By Heracles Polatidis; Dias Haralambopoulos
  366. Heterogeneous Convergence By Young, Andrew; Higgins, Matthew; Levy, Daniel
  367. Access to Railway Stations in the Netherlands By Moshe Givoni; Piet Rietveld
  368. Touristic and Environmental Impacts of Historical Towns: The Reflections Of Spaces In Traditional Diyarbakir Architecture By Can Tuncay Akin; Mucahit Yildirim
  369. Decentralization Process of Rural Development Policy in Greece By Pavlos Karanikolas; Sofia Hatzipanteli
  370. Knowledge and Innovation in the Indonesian Artisanal Furniture Industry By Marina van Geenhuizen; Nurul Indarti
  371. Macroeconomic Impact of Ageing Population in Scotland. A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis. By Katerina Lisenkova; Peter Mcgregor; Nikos Pappas; Kim Swales; Karen Turner; Robert Wright
  372. The Effects of Contamination and Cleanup on Commercial and Industrial Properties: A Hedonic Pricing Model of Maryland and Baltimore City By Anna Alberini; Alberto Longo
  373. The Importance of Tourism in the European Mediterranean Area By Salvatore Amico; Paolo Lo Giudice
  374. Stability, Global Dynamics and Markov Equilibrium in Models of Economic Growth By García-Belenguer, Fernando
  375. Do Casinos Export Bankruptcy? By Thomas A. Garrett; Mark W. Nichols
  376. Delegation, Knowledge Integration, and Cooperation: How to Solve Problems of Coordination in Structural Fund Programs. Findings From Comparative Case Studies in the South of Italy By Mita Marra
  377. When Does Distributed Innovation Activity Make Sense? Location, Decentralization, and Innovation Success By Aija Leiponen; Constance E. Helfat
  378. Economies of Vertical Integration in the Japanese Water Supply Industry By Takuya Urakami
  379. Metropolitan Governance in Athens - Does It Already Exist? By Moskos Diamantopoulos
  380. The Museums Network Model of the Piraeus Bank Group Cultural Foundation By Elia Vlachou; Stella Demestiha
  381. Public Support for Policies Addressing Contaminated Sites: Evidence From a Survey of the Italian Public By Anna Alberini; Aline Chiabai; Margherita Turvani; Stefania Tonin
  382. Key Issues on Tourism Strategies By Carvalho, Pedro G.
  383. Investments in Higher Education and the Economic Performance of OECD Member Countries By Amnon Frenkel; Eran Leck
  384. Tourism and Growth: Evidence for Spain and Italy By Isabel Cortes-Jimenez; Manuela Pulina
  385. A Method to Extract the Structural Strata and Elements of Landscape Using GIS By Kazunari Tanaka; Nami Tanaka
  386. Determinants of Industrial Performance in the EU-15 Countries, 1980-2003. By George Petrakos; Dimitrios Kallioras; Ageliki Anagnostou
  387. Picking a Winner? Evidence from the Non-Manufacturing High-Tech Industry in the Blacksburg MSA By Bieri, David
  388. Innovation Systems in the European Periphery: the Case of Ireland and Greece By Patrick Collins; Dimitrios Pontikakis
  389. Social Economy for Local Governance Structures: Monitoring and Evaluation Perspectives. By Ioannis Nasioulas; George Tsobanoglou
  390. Patterns of R&D and Growth Performance: Can a Technological Follower Be Converted Into an Economic Leader? By Argentino Pessoa; Mario Silva
  391. Bayesian modeling and estimation of combined route and activity location choice By Gunnar Flötteröd; Kai Nagel
  392. “Evaluación económica sectorial de la inversión en la red viaria de gran capacidad: la evidencia de los efectos desbordamiento” By Alvarez, Inmaculada; Delgado, Maria Jesus
  393. Learning at the boundaries for industrial districts between exploitation of local resources and exploration of global knowledge flows By Fiorenza Belussi; Luciano Pilotti; Silvia Rita Sedita
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  395. Economic Analysis of On-Line Music: Choice Between On-Line and Traditional Music Shops By Toshiaki Takita
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  397. Mediterranean Models of Welfare Towards Families and Women By Pierluigi Grasselli; Cristina Montesi; Paola Iannone
  398. Organizational Culture in the Greek Science and Technology Parks: Implications for Human Resource Management. By Theodore Pelagidis; Thanos Kriemadis
  399. Urban Environmental Health and Sensitive Populations: How Much Are the Italians Willing to Pay to Reduce Their Risks? By Anna Alberini; Aline Chiabai
  400. Strategic Environmental Assessment As a Mechanism of Achieving Sustainability. The Case of Greece By Effie Antoniou

  1. By: Evert Meijers; Krister Sandberg
    Abstract: Trends in regional disparities have been a major issue in regional science for many decades and knowledge of ways to overcome such disparities has great importance for regional policy-making. Strong initial differences between regions affect the capacity of each region to grow and their ability to respond to challenges imposed externally, for instance globalisation and growing international competition and trade (Cuadrado-Roura, 2001). Initial differences can relate to a wide variety of factors, for instance the availability of human resources, the accessibility of a region and the presence of advanced production services. A factor that gets increasing attention is the city system. Flourishing regions can often count on a large, well-accessible and internationally known city or regional clusters of cities. Concentration of support to dynamic growth poles would be an engine for growth of the whole country (or regions) through regional spillovers (Perroux 1955 and Kaldor 1970) Particularly also in regional and spatial policies addressing regional disparities attention is paid to the city system. It has been suggested that polycentric development can be instrumental to reducing regional disparities, see for instance in the European Spatial Development Perspective (CEC, 1999) and the Second Cohesion Report (CEC, 2001). In the Third Cohesion Report the main emphasis is territorial cohesion, which is placed on an equal footing as economic and social cohesion in the (unratified) Constitutional Treaty. Within the discussion on territorial cohesion polycentricity gets much emphasis (Faludi, 2005). Also many European countries pursue a polycentric development, often addressing the dominance of their prime city to diminish regional disparities. Apparently, policy makers assume a strong relationship between the urban system and the persistence of regional disparities. However, this assumption lacks empirical justification. The aim of this paper is to test the hypothesis that a polycentric city system leads to less regional disparities. The paper presents measures of the extent of polycentricity of the national urban systems of 26 European countries. This data is linked with calculations of regional disparities within these 26 countries. Are countries with a relatively polycentric urban system characterised by less regional disparities than more monocentric countries? And, what are the consequences of our findings for regional development policies?
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p287&r=geo
  2. By: Julie Le Gallo; Coro Chasco-Yrigoyen
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to improve the knowledge of the Spanish urban system. We study the evolution of population growth among the group of 722 municipalities included in the Spanish urban areas over the period from 1900-2001. Urban population cross-sectional distribution is characterized by means of nonparametric estimations of density functions, and the growth process is modeled as a first-order stationary Markov chain. A spatial SUR model is also estimated for the Zipf’s law. Spatial effects are then introduced within the Markov chain framework using regional conditioning and spatial Markov chains.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p878&r=geo
  3. By: Corrado Zoppi; Sabrina Lai
    Abstract: In Italy, urban planning is based on the city Masterplan. This plan identifies the future urban organization and a system of zoning rules. Land-use policies are based on these rules. The zoning rules should synthesize environmental and spatial knowledge and policy decisions concerning the possible futures, with reference to the different urban functions. In this essay, a procedure of analysis of the city Masterplan of Cagliari, the regional capital city of Sardinia (Italy), is discussed and applied. This procedure is referred to the residential areas. The procedure tries to explain the urban organization of the housing areas using a system of variables based on the integration of different branches of knowledge concerning the urban environment. The decisions on the urban futures that the zoning rules entail are critically analyzed in terms of consistency with this knowledge system. The procedure consists of two phases. In the first phase, the urban environment is analyzed and described. This is done by defining and developing a geographic information system. This system utilizes a spatial analysis approach to figure out the integration of the residential areas into the urban fabric. The second phase is inferential. Based on the geographic information system developed in the first phase, a knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) technique, the rough set analysis (RSA), is applied. This technique allows to recognize the connection patterns between the urban knowledge system and the city planning decisions. The patterns, the decision rules, which come from the RSA implementation are important starting points for further investigation on the development of decision models concerning urban planning.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p367&r=geo
  4. By: Bernard Fingleton; Danilo Igliori; Barry Moore
    Abstract: The past fifty years have witnessed a major transformation of Britain’s urban system. Some cities have consistently prospered and been relatively successful in terms of maintaining or increasing their share of national employment and population, whilst others have lost ground and have struggled to attract new investment and jobs. This changing geography of where people live and where economic activity locates are major systematic long-term trends persisting over decades rather than years. Paralleling the process of geographical restructuring and closely related to it, have been other economic, social and technological changes that have profoundly changed the role of different cities in the national economy in terms of their changing industrial specialisation. A familiar and well-documented theme has been the relative decline of the manufacturing sector in the conurbations and larger cities and the growth of financial and business services in conurbations such as London and some of the larger cities. Improved communications, declining transport costs, increasing capital intensity and more flexible production processes have been some of the post-war developments which have eroded the traditional locational advantages of cities for manufacturing firms and whilst transport costs and proximity to suppliers continue to matter for location, for many firms in this sector the costs of a city location would seem to outweigh the benefits. In this context we are concerned with four main questions in this paper: Which industries continue to find urban locations favourable?; Are there newly emerging patterns of specialisation within the urban system?; Which locations are favoured by high-technology industry?; and Is industry specialisation beneficial for the growth of the city? Our research argues for an urban system perspective when addressing these problems, and whilst accepting the need for locally based policy intervention in selected problem areas, also recognises the inter-dependence between cities at a regional and national level and therefore the need for policy to be orchestrated at a wider spatial scale than the local area.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p715&r=geo
  5. By: Metin Ozaslan
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the changing macro-economic policies and their spatial impacts on the economic geography of Turkey after 1980’s. The first section of the chapter is focused on the two main macro-economic policies namely inward-oriented development strategy prior to the year of 1980 and the outward-oriented development strategy after 1980. In the second section of the article regional disparities and the regional development policies in Turkey are briefly discussed. In the next section spatial effects of the outward oriented policies are analysed focusing on the spatial distribution of industry. Industrial shifts indicate that there are mainly four spatial development tendencies in Turkey namely, the rise of metropolitan cities as service centres, the industrial growth of hinterland provinces that are neighbouring cities around metropolitan cities on the basis of decentralising industry, the decline of economic activities in the provinces in which state economic enterprises are common, and the emergence of the new industrial districts/ cities on the basis of SMEs’ networks and sectoral specialisation. The last section of the paper analyses the emergence of new industrial districts in Turkey focusing on the main features of five territorial cities namely Denizli, Gaziantep, Çorum, Kayseri and Kahramanmaraþ. It is concluded that the new industrial districts developed on the basis of SME clusters have crushed the spatial development trends in Turkey based on metropolitan cities and they have conveyed the development dynamics to small and medium sized Anatolian cities. The districts that have followed a development path within the framework of their own endogenous potentials have succeeded in becoming a centre of attraction and have started to serve a significant function in the transfer of development to the less developed Anatolia. By disrupting the unbalanced development tendencies on the national level, emerging around a few growth poles, they have yielded an alternative development tendency against the polarised development tendencies.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p834&r=geo
  6. By: Yorgos Photis; Stelios Tsobanoglou
    Abstract: The main aim of this paper is the definition of a methodological framework for the determination, analysis and cross-evaluation of urban clusters which are formulated within wider study areas, such as administrative regions. To this end, different methods and techniques are utilised, that stem from the fields of Statistics and Quantitative Spatial Analysis and which during the last years are all the more commonly applied to the different stages of Geographical Analysis. The definition of urban clusters is mainly based on different types of variables such as the demographic characteristics of the cities, the number of public facilities located in them, as well as the total length of the different types of road network in the study area. Furthermore a comparative indicator of spatial concentration is formulated that reflects the role and the relative weight of every urban area in the study region as well as its spatial influence. Such a metric, improves the definition and analysis of urban clusters and in the same time, constitutes an alternative assessment of their overall locational perspective. Both the proposed methodological framework and the formulated indicator are applied and in the region of Thessaly, Greece
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p909&r=geo
  7. By: Michel Dimou
    Abstract: Modern urban landscapes are characterized by the progressive separation of the location of jobs, houses and amenities, which inexorably leads to the increase of urban travel and transit. This is the beginning point for some recent research programs in regional economics (Krugman, 1991 ; Glaeser, 1992 ; Henderson, 1997 ; Gabaix, 1999 ; Dobkins et Ioannides, 2000) which adopt a new line of reasoning based on the study of the commuting trips that characterise contemporary urban life. Different aspects of these trips, such as the volume, the pathways and the travel modes of the commuters, are examined with regard to mass transport, local public services and the increasing diversification of rural and urban amenities. This allows one to explore some original aspects of the recent transformations in both modern cities organisation and regional urban hierarchies and, by the way, identify institutional and policy responses to new urban problems such as traffic congestion or residential segregation (Brueckner, Thisse and Zenou, 2002 ; Mauer and Ott, 1999). However, instead of trying to define a general households’ residential model, it seems then more appropriate to investigate the relationship between a given urban organisation and its regional macro-economic environment (Gabaix, 1999 ; Axtell and Florida, 2000). This point of view defend the hypothesis of a principle of structural dependence involving the action of long-term macroeconomic effects on the puzzling geometry of an urban economy (Marsili and Zhang, 1998 ; Simpson, 2000). By studying the case of La Reunion, this paper aims to study how insularity affects the locational choices of firms and households and their impact on regional urban hierarchies.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p52&r=geo
  8. By: Prodromos-Ioannis Prodromidis
    Abstract: The paper provides the 2001 income mosaic of Greece at the local (municipal and postcode) level, and econometrically isolates a number of territorial, demographic, and occupational factors on declared income formation, on the basis of which it makes a number of policy proposals. The disaggregate nature of the data facilitates the construction of alternative spatial models that are juxtaposed to the regional framework on the basis of which national and E.U. sub-national convergence and prosperity plans are devised, implemented, and assessed. A specification based on the existing regional framework provides an inferior econometric fit, which, in turn, suggests that the economy does not operate according to the country’s administrative divisions but rather according to local-specific factors and transportation linkages, as is the case in a fragmented land united by its trans-portation network. Accordingly, if income disparities are larger within administrative regions rather than across regions, it might make more sense if regional economic development policy were con-ducted within a functional-area framework rather the current administrative-region framework. Suited for themes A, C, E, Q.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p358&r=geo
  9. By: Ivana Rasic Bakaric
    Abstract: Main aim of regional policy is to reduce regional disparities. There is now doubt that action to tackle regional disparities is needed in Croatia. Main problem is the definition of region as a subject of regional policy. After discussion about definition of region and main criteria which should be considered during the process of establishment of regions, the paper will present one of the methodologies for spatial-economic entities' classification. The methodology will be used on the working sample of several Croatian counties. The classification will be obtained through use of multivariate statistical methods, and it is based on a wide number of demographic, economic, educations, employment indicators. Results leads to the identification of several axes of socio-economic characterisation, and the division of the observed territory into several homogenous clusters, regions with different degree of development. The main conclusion is that socio-economic reorients uncovered with this methodology provide useful characterisation and division of the territory, for policy making purpose.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p56&r=geo
  10. By: Viktor Goebel; Alain Thierstein
    Abstract: In a world of continuing globalization mega-city regions (MCR) are of increasing importance. MCR are defined by a high concentration of regulation, innovation and gateway functions. Planners and politicians alike recognise that competition on this new spatial scale is becoming a strategic tool to develop the whole country. So they are looking for spatial strategies to ensure economic success and sustainable development (social and spatial cohesion) at the same time. However, only little is known about the factors, which constitute MCRs, the inter-relationships within and between MCR, the primacy of individual functional urban areas within MCR and the potential methods to communicate these complex structures to politicians and stakeholders. The paper will deal with the following questions that will be tested with a case-study in the Munich metropolitan region, the so-called Greater Munich Area: (1) Which flows and inter-relationsships of knowledge based economic activities define the MCR? How is the MCR itself embedded in the global network of mega-city regions? (2) What spatial mismatch becomes recognisable when differentiating between functional and morphological polycentricity? (3) What functional polycentricity do firms in the Advanced Producer Services and in the High-Tech sectors produce when looking at their office location strategies? (4)What policy recommendations follow for sustainable spatial development? Our hypothesis is that the current perception of MCRs by local and regional stakeholders is quite inhomogeneous. There is an obvious gap between the functional logic of the competitive world and the territorial logic of the planning administrations. So we propose to look at the individual logics and the spatial reach of the stakeholders’ activites. The study will use an empirical survey for the Greater Munich Area that is mainly based on commuter data, location data of firms, business communication data and interviews with firms and a selection of key stakeholders.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p291&r=geo
  11. By: Jens Suedekum
    Abstract: In this paper I analyze the impact of initial human capital on subsequent city employment growth for the case of West Germany (1977-2002). I find robust evidence that skilled local areas have grown stronger than unskilled ones. But this observed positive relation need not indicate a localized human capital externality. A large initial share of highly skilled workers significantly reduces subsequent growth of high-skilled jobs. The observed positive impact on total employment growth is, thus, due to the fact that the positive effect on low- and medium-skilled jobs outweighs the negative effect on high-skilled employment. This evidence is in line with complementarities among skill groups as the major causal link between human capital and regional employment growth. It challenges theories of self-reinforcing spatial concentration of highly skilled workers in cities due to strong localized external effects.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p69&r=geo
  12. By: Rodrigo Alegria
    Abstract: European economic integration and its enlargement phases foster the flows of international investments. This explains why the spatial distribution of economic activity is to an increasing extent determined by the location decisions of multinational firms (MNEs). Therefore, from a regional economy perspective, the geography of multinational activity is a policy concern for regional and local authorities. Not only does foreign activity have several contributions and implications for the regional economic development but also understanding the location process of these economic activities is crucial for adequate policy responses. This paper analyses the location decisions of European multinational firms across European countries (25) and regions (NUTS2). An emphasis is placed on whether location determinants for MNEs either change, or if not, which one dominates, at different spatial levels. We expect to find that agglomeration and dispersion forces behave in a different fashion depending on whether country or regional geographical scales are taken into consideration. We seek to explain how economic integration causes some multinational activity to locate in peripheral countries meaning a dispersion process at a supranational scale. The experience of Spain and Portugal in 1986, and more recently CEE countries, confirms this. They have received huge amounts of FDI coming from European countries. However, when the location decision is considered within a country, agglomeration tendencies come to dominate. The regions more developed within the host country attract the majority of these foreign inflows. With the recently incorporation of the knowledge capital model into a New Economic Geography (NEG) setting the links between multinational production and agglomeration are theoretically considered. But NEG setting seems to be scale independent. The same framework is used for analysing regional, urban and international issues. Then, an empirical test is necessary in order to account for these geographical scale differences. Empirically, we use a range of discrete choice models for location choices of MNEs across Europe. The independent variables are grouped into four categories: market access, labour market, agglomeration and others. The first results seem to confirm our hypothesis of a different behaviour of the location determinants depending on the geographical scale taken into consideration.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p143&r=geo
  13. By: Charlie Karlsson; Martin Andersson; Urban Grasjo
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of knowledge accessibility in re¬gional economic growth. The research question is the following: can the variation in knowledge accessibility between regions in a given period explain the variation in their growth performance in subsequent periods? As knowledge measures, we use company R&D, university R&D and patents. A main assumption in the paper is that knowledge accessibilities as a measure of knowledge potentials transform into potential knowledge flows. Our regression results indicate that the intra-municipal and intra-regional knowledge accessibilities of municipalities are significant and capable of ex¬plaining a significant share of the variation in growth of value added per employee between Swedish municipalities. However, the inter-regional knowledge accessibility of municipalities turned out to be insignificant. This is interpreted as a clear indication of spatial dependence in the sense that the knowledge resources in a given municipality tend to have a positive effect on the growth of another municipality, conditional on that the municipalities belongs to the same functional region. Thus, the results of the analysis indicate that knowledge flows transcend municipal borders, but that they tend to be bounded within functional regions. Also, the analysis shows that there is no remaining spatial correlation among the residuals of the spatial units (municipalities) when using accessibility measures in the model, which confirms that the spatial dependence is captured by the accessibility variables.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p93&r=geo
  14. By: Vassilis Monastiriotis
    Abstract: Techniques for the analysis of spatial data have advanced rapidly over the recent years, allowing new insights to be gained about the distribution and inter-connectedness of socio-demographic and economic outcomes across space. With the advancement of spatial econometrics a large empirical literature has developed exploring a number of traditional economic questions within a new, spatial economics context that identifies specific spatial dynamics in the determination of economic and other outcomes. Despite such advances, however, relatively little effort has been placed in exploring how –and why– such spatial dynamics vary across variables, i.e., how/why spatial dynamics differ across a range of socio-economic indicators within a given geography. For example, if high-education employment is associated with above-average wage growth, is it also true that spatial clusters of wage growth overlap with spatial clusters of high-education employment? And if not, what does this imply for the substantive relation between education and growth? The purpose of this paper is to provide a first approach towards such a comparative analysis of spatial patterns of association at the prefecture level for Greece. We perform an extensive exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) for a range of demographic, social, economic, and labour market indicators and identify variable-specific spatial patterns of association (dependence, competition, clustering). Following, we utilise a number of alternative techniques –including econometric (co-movement), statistical (randomness / independence) and GIS (map comparison statistics)– in an attempt to link the information gathered in the first step and thus identify more ‘universal’ spatial patterns (i.e., ones applying to a wider selection of socio-economic variables). The analysis has obvious implications for Greek economic and regional policy. The identification of ‘universal’ spatial linkages (across a set of indicators) for the Greek regions can help understand better the spatial dynamics that characterise and link the sub-regional economies of the country, enabling the design in the future of more informed, focused, and effective territorial policies. More importantly, however, the analysis of this study is of particular interest also for applied spatial analysts, as it elaborates on the method of ESDA and highlights new areas of research in the field.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p654&r=geo
  15. By: Yuzuru Miyata; Hiroyuki Shibusawa; Yasuhiro Hirobata; Akira Ohgai
    Abstract: In this paper, we aim to evaluate impacts of a new road network on the regional economy in San-en, Japan. San-en area is a boundary region between Aichi and Shizuoka Prefectures where the industrial sector is concentrated. The regional economy in San-en strongly depends on the regional transportation networks. Recently, a new road construction is planned in the region. The efficiency of road investment is expected for the regional economy. We construct a spatial computable general equilibrium model to evaluate the border economy. The spatial economic impacts of a new road construction are analyzed by the numerical simulation under several scenarios.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p810&r=geo
  16. By: Mihai Tivadar
    Abstract: We start from the well known fact that, in most European cities, central locations are occupied by rich households; while in American cities, they are occupied by poor households. This paper tries to answer to the question: witch type of urban structure is better for the households, an European or an American one? We are using a dynamic residential model, where the spatial repartition of amenities is endogenously modified by the spatial repartition of social groups. At every period, the equilibrium spatial structure of the city is determined by the transport costs and by the spatial repartition of amenities; but, between periods, the spatial repartition of amenities changes, rich households generating local amenities in the locations they occupy, and then the spatial structure of the city changes. For every combination of utility level, or for every population size, the city may have several long term equilibria. We explicitly analyse two of them: an “American equilibrium†with the poor living in the centre and the rich in the periphery, and a “European equibrium†with the rich living in the centre and the poor in the periphery. We analyze these equilibriums in two situations (open-city and closed-city) and, in both cases, we compare the two equilibria from an efficiency point of view. The results show that in both cases, an American structure is more efficient.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p732&r=geo
  17. By: Maciej Turala
    Abstract: The regional policy of the EU attempts at minimising the scale of disparities in the level of socio-economic development of regions. Regional policy is one of the key policies of the EU as shown by the fact that over a third of the Community’s budget is spent on it. The main objective of regional policy is to help backward regions to catch up, restructure declining industries, diversify agriculture as well as revitalise cities. Poland, the largest of the new member states is at the same time one of the most lagging behind. The Structural Funds are perceived in Poland as one of the main instruments serving regional development. Since the EU and Poland put a great emphasis on regional policy it seems worthwhile to reflect upon its effectiveness. This article does not aim at analysing the changes in the level of disparities between countries or even regions of the EU – there is sufficient literature dealing with this issue. It needs to be noted however, that there often exist far greater disparities in the level of socio-economic development within regions rather than between them. This results from the concentration of positive effects of regional policy in regional centres. The author aims at presenting a methodology and results of research performed in a Polish region of Lodzkie. It concentrated on measuring the level of socio-economic development in the communes of Lodzkie and the scale of intra-regional disparities. Most available analyses of the effectiveness of regional policy concentrates on measuring the level of disparities between regions, mostly due to the fact that there is insufficient statistical material that would allow such comparisons on a lower level of territorial division. The author proposes a methodology that allows such comparisons for Polish communes. It is then tested on communes of Lodzkie (177 administrative units). The results seem to confirm that the regions are strongly polarised – with most of the socio-economic development concentrated in the centre of the region and a peripheral area around it. This leads to a conclusion that specific actions need to be undertaken in order to fully benefit from regional policy activities.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p594&r=geo
  18. By: Yuri Yegorov
    Abstract: We live in a quite heterogeneous space. There are cities and rural areas, and population density varies a lot across space. People migrate and commute to the places of their work. The goal of this article is to clarify the mechanism of commuting as an equilibrium in heterogeneous space with different technologies. It is well known that agricultural production requires substantial amount of land per unit of labour, while most industrial production and services require much lower land input. We assume that all industrial production and service sector is located in urban areas, while all agriculture is in rural area. Historically, the share of labour in agriculture was declining due to more rapid growth of productivity there in comparison to service sector. At the same time, people change the location of their residence much slower. That is why at some point in time we face the situation, when rural area has excessive labour (not enough work for all in agriculture), while urban areas create an increasing number of jobs. A relatively simple mathematical model is proposed to explain the emergence of spatial pattern with heterogeneous density and phase transition between urban and rural areas. There are three types of agents: workers who live in a city, farmers who live in a rural area and workers-commuters from rural area to a city. In an equilibrium they are indifferent between occupation and residence. An indifference across locations for a priori identical agents implies the shape of land rent. If some parameters of the model change, they imply the change of the whole spatial pattern. In particular, split of rural residents into commuters and farmers depends on road infrastructure development through transport cost. Two types of shocks (decline in commuting transport cost by construction of fast roads and the relative decline in agricultural price) can perturb agricultural zone. Some former farmers start commuting to city while keeping residence in rural area. This is how a functional area of a city with integrated labour market emerges.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p690&r=geo
  19. By: Nicolas Debarsy; Cem Ertur
    Abstract: This paper has two main goals. First, it reconsiders regional growth and convergence processes in the context of the enlargement of the European Union to new member states. We show that spatial autocorrelation and heterogeneity still matter in a sample of 237 regions over the period 1993-2002. Spatial convergence clubs are defined using exploratory spatial data analysis and a spatial autoregressive model is estimated. We find strong evidence that the growth rate of per capita GDP for a given region is positively affected by the growth rate of neighbouring regions. The second objective is to test the robustness of the results with respect to non-normality, outliers and heteroskedasticity using two other methods: The quasi maximum Likelihood and the Bayesian estimation methods.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p198&r=geo
  20. By: Miklos Lukovics; Imre Lengyel
    Abstract: The main challenge of regional economic development is undoubtedly to increase the living standard and welfare of local population. Usually the state of development of regions and sub-regions within one country significantly differs. Parallel to the catching-up process of Hungary at the national level, there is another discernible process at the regional level: regional disparities are widening because the growth of the most developed sub-regions is increasing while the less favoured sub-regions are lagging behind. In Hungary, the dominates in development, the Western part is emerging, and the Eastern territorial units, mostly the ones by the boarder are lagging behind. Economic development should not be executed homogeneously, one should take into consideration the attributes and starting conditions of that certain territorial unit. The variety of starting conditions requires different interventions and strategies of economic development from region to region. Spatial units with different level of competitiveness should take variant steps on the road of economic development in order to achieve competitiveness in the global world. Due to their different starting conditions they cannot be developed by the same action plans. Regarding the fact that development or underdevelopment does not spread evenly in space, we chose to base our empirical research on the smallest spatial unit for which statistical data are still available. Furthermore sub-regions are worth analyzing because nowadays local economic development is attached to local areas and commuting zones that are almost equivalent to sub-regions. Present paper aims to rank the Hungarian sub-regions alongside development phases, with the help of multi-variable data analyzing methods based on a determined system of viewpoints, and adequate theoretical models and statistical data. We developed a weighting system of the indicators, following the logic of the adequate theoretical models. We are convinced that the presented theoretical model and the methodology based on it are suitable for making regional competitiveness measurable. Through this and with the help of statistical data, the competitiveness of any spatial unit of any level can be determined. We think what we have thon is significant because of the fact that a suitably analyzed starting point can contribute to choosing the best economic developing strategy for a certain region.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p350&r=geo
  21. By: Valentina Sagris; Marjo Kasanko; Elisabetta Genovese; Carol Lavalle
    Abstract: In this paper we focus on urban growth dynamics of Eastern European cities and regions in the past and in the new Europe. This work is a part of on-going research in the field of urban and regional development, carried out in Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. Eastern European cities experienced similar and very turbulent historical and political development during 20th century. The policies during the communist period with planned economy has clearly reflected in the land use pattern development, e.g. the absence of large suburbs and underdeveloped transport networks around cities. In contrast to other European cities, no or very few commercial zones and commercial centres were built in suburban areas. In addition, satellite cities were built only on a limited scale. With the collapse of communist regimes cities and regions in Eastern Europe have entered into a new phase of urbanisation, which changes dramatically land use patterns. The liberalization of economy and the membership of the EU has led to the growing involvement to the European market and EU development schemes (e.g. TEN/T, ERDF, etc.). In spite of the expected decrease of population in the new EU countries the average gross domestic product is projected to triple and the number of households per capita is projected to double between 2000 and 2030 (EEA, 2005¬/4). Among the consequences of socio-economic development the continuous growth of urban areas can be foreseen. What shapes urban sprawl will take and will it cause new threads to sustainability remains to be seen. In this paper we focus on two study cases (1) the Dresden – Prague transport corridor in Germany and in the Czech Republic (Barredo et al, 2005) and (2) the Harjumaa region and the city of Tallinn in Estonia. The objective of this work is to test the impact of diverse economic development trends on urbanisation processes. Several development scenarios are produced in order to model the spatial pattern of urban land use. The MOLAND urban and regional growth simulation model (Lavalle et al, 2004), based on “cellular automata†(CA), is a key instrument in the forecasting land use development. The model operates at two levels. At the micro- level, the CA-based model determines the fate of individual land use cells based on the type of the activities in their neighbourhood. At the macro- level, various additional factors such as overall land use demand, effects of the transportation network as well as legislative, environmental and institutional characteristics (e.g. environmental protection, zoning) constrain the behaviour of the CA-model. This approach allowed us to integrate “physicalâ€, environmental, socio-economic development as well as institutional aspect of territorial development. The scenarios offer a useful approach to analysing and understanding urban land use dynamics and can also serve for landscape management at the local and regional scales, complementing existing policies and programmes. In both study cases we evaluate the impact newly developed motorways’ supported by EU Structural Funds. Very important feature of Dresden-Prague corridor is the extreme flood events in 2002. The increasing vulnerability to natural hazards due to rapid urban development in flood-prone area is also discussed in the paper.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p194&r=geo
  22. By: Josep Maria Arauzo-Carod; Elisabet Viladecans-Marsal
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyse the incidence of agglomeration economies on the new firms’ location decisions inside metropolitan areas. Following the literature we consider that agglomeration economies are related to the concentration of an industry (location economies) and/or the size of the city itself (urbanisation economies). We assume that those economies differ according the technological level of firms. So we use a sample of new firms belonging to high, intermediate and low technology levels. Our results confirm those sectoral differences and show some interesting location patterns of manufacturing firms Taking into account the renovated debate about the importance of the geography and distance in the location of economic activity, we introduce in the estimation the effect of the central city size as determinant for the location of new firms in the rest of the metropolitan area. This allows us to analyse if a suburbanisation effect exists and if that effect is the same depending on the industry and the central city size of the metropolitan area. Our main statistical source is the REI (Spanish Industrial Establishments Register), which has plant-level microdata for the creation and location of new industrial firms.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p129&r=geo
  23. By: Georgios Papanikolaou
    Abstract: In regional planning literature it is often argued that regional deconcentration process and urban sprawl tend to increase the amount and distance of commuting (Vandersmissen et al. 2003). Supported by improved traffic infrastructure and falling transport costs the spatial division of labour and housing location extends the travel-to-work areas and allows to compensate for locational disadvantages of local labour markets (Moss et al. 2004). On the other hand, the contrary hypothesis is postulated, too. Since both working and living places are deconcentrating shorter commuting distances may happen because centre-orientated connections are substituted by intra-peripheral commuting patterns (Gordon; Richardson 1991: 419). The intention of the paper is to analyse the influence of spatial structure on commuting behaviour of employees: e.g. does commuting behaviour differ between type of regions and what are the reasons for these differences? There are several ways how the locational conditions of the living area may influence the commuting behaviour. Firstly, the more jobs are available, the less is c.p. the necessity for long-distance commuting. Thus, the lower the regional density of jobs the more frequent and longer commuting should be expected. In addition, the variety of local jobs should have an influence on the commuting behaviour. As in rural regions less varied jobs are available, there should be a pressure on the local residents to increase their job opportunities by extending their commuting distance. However, apart from regional influences, individual characteristics may effect commuting behaviour, too. For example, highly qualified employees are expected to commute to longer distances since they could be more interested in realizing their investment in human capital. Conversely, long-distance commuting should be c.p. less attractive for part-time employees because of the less favourable relation between work and commuting time. The empirical analysis consists of two parts: Firstly, regional differences in commuting behaviour are analyzed. The focus of investigation lies on regions and the relationship between the regional characteristics of living places and the regional amount of commuting. The second part includes individual influences. As they can only observed at the level of individuals, the focus of investigation changes from regions to individuals: In addition to regional effects the commuting behaviour of individuals is explained by individual characteristics such as education or occupation. The data base is given by the social security statistics. It covers all employees in the social security system and contains information about each individual. As data on both the living and the working places are available, the statistics allows a much greater regional differentiation than the frequently used surveys. The other information relate to some personal characteristics (like sex or education) as well as to the occupation such as full-/part-time or the sector of employment.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p468&r=geo
  24. By: Tamas Dusek
    Abstract: This paper has two aims. Firstly, it provides a number of critical reflections of the existing methods of the examinations of intertemporal change of spatial differences of various socio-economic indicators, mainly the per capita income. Practically there are two types of analysis of spatial differences in income level, namely intercountry and intracountry investigations. The diverse growth rate of spatial income level of various spatial units (regions, countries, provinces, counties etc.) is a historical-statistical fact which refers to an unrepeatable, unique and particular historical situation. The descriptions of the convergence or divergence of various spatial units in various time periods contribute to our historical knowledge, but the "testing of convergence approach" has no theoretical basis. Secondly, the larger part of the paper illustrates many theoretical issues by the help of the Hungarian spatial income data between 1988 and 2004. The analysis has four spatial levels, more than 3000 settlements, 168 small regions (NUTS IV level), 20 counties (NUTS III level) and 7 regions (NUTS II level).
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p284&r=geo
  25. By: Candau, Fabien
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to survey what has been done by the New Economic Geography (NEG) on a regional scale in order to answer the three following questions: what are the predictions of the NEG concerning the future of regions in the triad? Are these predictions robust? What can be the optimal public policy on a regional and national scale in a world characterized by agglomeration, trade liberalization and entrepreneurs mobility?
    Keywords: Economic geography; Growth; Region; Public policy.
    JEL: R0 F12 R58
    Date: 2006–05–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:1153&r=geo
  26. By: Ayse Nilay Evcil; Gulay Basarir Kiroplu; Vedia Dokmeci
    Abstract: 46th European Congress of the Regional Science Association August 30th -September 3rd 2006 Volos-Greece Regional Migration in Turkey: Its Directions and Determinants A.Nilay Evcil, Vedia Dökmeci, Gülay Baþarýr Kýroðlu Istanbul-Turkey Abstract It is clear that urbanization is a natural outgrowth of industrialization. But, in developing countries industrialization lag behind the rate of urbanization which involves much more rapid migration. In the case of Turkey, urbanization is mostly related with huge population growth in cities. So, it is worth to understand migration flows to benefit from population’s spatial distribution. Thus, this paper aims to show the attributes of regional migration in Turkey. First, geographic regions are compared with each other according to different migration directions with the help of multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The results show that, when four different migration directions are considered (from urban-to- urban, urban-to-rural, rural-to-urban and rural-to-rural) the seven regions possess different attributes such as geographic conditions, its working population distribution, job opportunities etc. It is also worth that as a common characteristic (except the Black Sea Region): migration direction mostly takes place from urban-to-urban (even in least urbanized regions) which points to a more advanced stage of urbanization. It must also be paid attention to the migration direction occurring from urban-to-rural areas in all regions (except the Black Sea Region) which has been stimulated by the economic crisis in 2001 and the investment in the rural areas. Second, multiple regression analysis is performed in order to determine the factors most related to net migration rate. In the near future, the Marmara and Aegean regions will still receive more migrants if other regions have poor socioeconomic conditions and inadequate job opportunities. Added to this, informal economy will continue to augment, since most of migrants are unskilled for manufacturing or service sectors. As a result, the government may not be able to collect taxes. So, migration on one hand bring vitality to an area, but, on the other hand , it creates some socio-economic problems. This paper also aims to compare migration directions between 1990 and 2000. It is found that migration direction still takes place from urban to urban. Keywords: Regional migration, Turkey, regional differences, statistical analyses
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p320&r=geo
  27. By: Leonardo Monasterio; Mauro Salvo
    Abstract: The paper estimates the effects of agglomeration economies on wages of industrial workers in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The techniques of Exploratory Analysis of Spatial Data are used to locate the clusters of the states’ industry in 2000. Then, this information was combined to census microdata in order to run wage regressions inspired by the empirical tests of New Economic Geography models (HANSON, 1998, specially). The results were statistically and economically significant: even when controlled by demographic variables, the individual wages of industrial workers were higher on the cities with larger population, more urbanized, higher market potential and closer to the economic centre of the Rio Grande do Sul. These findings indicate how intense the economic forces that shape the spatial structure of the state are, and suggest changes in current regional policies.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p930&r=geo
  28. By: Boris A. Portnov; Madhav Adhikari
    Abstract: Between 1952 and 2001, the number of urban settlements in Nepal grew from 10 to 58, while their share in the country’s population increased from 2.6 to 14.4%. However, the spatial distribution of urban growth was uneven. The fastest growing urban localities are situated near major population centers, close to highways, and in the vicinity of the In-dian border. Urban localities elsewhere exhibited sluggish economic growth and poor socio-demographic performance. Data for this analysis were drawn from databases maintained by Nepal’s Central Bureau of Statistics; the Municipalities’ Association; the Ministry of Local Development and its Department of Topographical Survey. In the GIS-assisted analysis, spatial reference data (e.g., distances between individual municipalities and major rivers, roads, international borders and major population centers) were matched against five performance indexes, viz. annual population growth, per capita in-come and expenditures of local municipalities, telephone ownership, number of primary schools, and number of industries.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p14&r=geo
  29. By: Heder Oliveira; Edson Domingues
    Abstract: There is considerable evidence to demonstrate that the regional development in developing countries shows high level of spatial concentration. The aim of this paper is to analyze the Brazilian case to identify if the constitutional funds for regional development(Constitucional Funds for the North - FNO and Constitucional Funds for the Center-West - FCO) have a positive impact on the regional inequality. These funds were created in 1989 in order to finance economic activities in the North and Center-West regions. Our results show that regional growth in Brazil over the last 10 years has not been affected by these constitutional funds. On the other way, public infra-structure, education and health have a positive relation with regional growth, which suggests that the public expending on those funds should be directed to these regional attributes.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p546&r=geo
  30. By: Christine Aumayr
    Abstract: The motivation for the present empirical work arose from a practical problem: It seemed not to be justifiable to compare growth and productivity developments of the 6 Styrian NUTS 3 regions to national and European averages without regarding differences in region-specific factor endowments and economic structure. In order to find suitable benchmark region-types for the Styrian regions, a cluster analysis on the level NUTS 3 was conducted among 1100 European regions, incorporating information on the economic importance of the three main sectors in terms of relative employment and gross value added, as well as spatial information on the density and the accessibility of population. As a result, 11 region-types (3 urban and 9 non-urban) were identified. The paper then compares the development (1995-2002) of aggregate southern Styria to its region type “industrialized peripheral regions†and the capital region Graz to the group of “industrialized regional centers with surroundings†in terms of GDP and sectoral labour productivity growth.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p836&r=geo
  31. By: Roberto Bande; Marika Karanassou
    Abstract: This paper analyses the theoretical and empirical implications of the Chain Reaction Theory of unemployment movements on regional unemploment persistence and regional disparities. This is the first attempt to apply this theory to a regional context. The Chain Reaction Theory focuses on the interaction among labour market adjustment processes and the interplay of such processes and the dynamic structure of labour market shocks. Under this approach we may explain unemployment rate disparities between regions as the result of different responses to idyosincratic and aggregate shocks working their way through different labour market adjustment processes in each region. We test empirically this theory to the Spanish case with a regional dataset covering the 1980-2000 period. Our results show that the Chain Reaction Theory explains well the recent behaviour of Spanish regional disparities in unemployment.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p53&r=geo
  32. By: Jasmina Osmankovic; Ademir Nukovic; Denis Zaimovic
    Abstract: Institution for local and regional development in Bosnia and Herzegovina The aim of this paper is to present the basic concepts and key issues relating to the formation, development and operation of institutions for local and regional development in Bosnia and Herzegovina. To create strong economic regional development need for strong dynamic institutions to plan, coordinate, promote and take action within the regional development. In this paper we study local and regional institution, background and context, legal and political framework, territorial aspects, relation with EU cohesion, relation with EU network, activities, organisation structure, regional and local partners, capacity building, funding and sustainability. The paper is a reserach position and impact the local and regional institutions in the regional economic development of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p67&r=geo
  33. By: Tomaso Pompili
    Abstract: Networks and networking have become fashionable concepts and terms in regional science, and in particular in regional and urban geography in the last decade: we speak about network firms, network society, network economy but also network cities, city-networks, reti urbane, reseaux de villes. Only catch-words for somebody; a true new scientific paradigm according to others. Our opinion is that in fact we are confronted with a new paradigm in spatial sciences, under some precise conditions: - that its exact meaning is thoroughly defined, - that its theoretical economic rationale is justified, - that the novelty of its empirical content is clearly pointed out, with respect to more traditional spatial facts and processes that can easily be interpreted through existing spatial paradigms. The relevant theoretical building block on which the network concept or paradigm may be constructed are: - a new view of the economy as a system or web of links between individuals, firms and institutions, where links depend on experience and evolve through learning processes; the existing endowment of knowledge and other production factors is put into value through a relational capability addressed towards the exchange and collection of information, building reputation and trust, creating synergies, cutting down uncertainty, boosting learning processes; - the acknowledgement of cooperation as a new organisational and behavioural form, intermediate between hierarchy (internal development and merging of external activities through direct control) and market resort; cooperation networks among firms collaborating with each other on technological advances and innovation projects were the earlier phenomena that were abundantly explored in the past. In a spatial perspective, two phenomena in particular are worth exploring today through the network concept: - networking as cooperation among individuals, firms and institutions taking place inside the cities concerning collective action, public/private partnerships on large urban projects and the supply of public goods, and giving rise to new forms of urban governance; - networking as inter-urban cooperation, assuming the cities as economic actors, competing but also cooperating in the global arena where locations of internationally mobile factors (professionals, corporations, institutions) are decided and negotiated. The paper is organised in the following way: - a major section is devoted to the interpretation of the micro-economic efficiency of local networking (local urban networks), in terms of the usual criteria of optimal allocation of resources and collective welfare, viewing the network as an organisational alternative between market failure and state failure; - a transition section deals with the interpretation of cities, a collective actor at best, as individual/unitary economic actors, given the case for collective action among interest groups, the possibility of defining in broad terms a function of collective preference referring to non-mobile local actors, the engagement of public and private actors in processes of strategic planning and definition of shared visions for the future of the city vis-a-vis mobile actors; - another main section interprets competition and cooperation among cities (inter-city-networks) underlining advantages, risks and conditions for maximising overall comprehensive well-being. JEL classification: D70, H77, R58
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p923&r=geo
  34. By: Liv Osland; Inge Thorsen
    Abstract: We first use alternative hedonic model formulations to compare predicted and observed prices of property transactions in alternative locations. The estimation of model parameters is based on data from Western Norway, and the model formulations differ with respect to the representation of spatial structure. We discuss how measures like the distance to the cbd and a gravity based accessibility measure of labour market accessibility, contribute to predict spatial variations in housing prices. We also discuss how appropriate alternative models are to predict possible consequences on housing prices of changes in the spatial distribution of employment, and in the road transportation network. Finally, we recommend that a relative measure of labour market accessibility is introduced, to capture effects of spatial competition in the housing market.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p492&r=geo
  35. By: Anastassios Karaganis; Antonios Tassoulis
    Abstract: This paper aims at the analysis of determinants of efficiency of arable crops in a spatial context in Greece. Moreover it suggests policy interventions in order to diminish regional inequalities in efficiency and to raise the average level of efficiency, so as Greek arable crops will follow the new CAP framework which imposes single area payment scheme (SAPS). Efficiency will be estimated within the production function framework using a quasi-production function. In empirical analysis production functions are specified as spatially seemingly unrelated regression equations (spatial SURE). In the paper spatial lag and spatial error specifications as well as common SURE estimations are tested. Data come from National Statistical Service.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p616&r=geo
  36. By: Mihai Tivadar; Hubert Jayet
    Abstract: This paper examines the endogenous dynamics of the social structure of a city where the spatial repartition of amenities is endogenously modified by the spatial repartition of social groups. We start from the fact that, in most European cities, central locations are occupied by rich households; while in American cities, they are occupied by poor households. In a standard urban model without amenities, for rich households to locate downtown, their unit transport cost must be very high compared to the poor. Bruckner et al. (1999) show that, when there are historical amenities mainly located in the city center, we no longer need a high differential between transport costs: if demand for amenities by the rich is strong enough, this advantage could attract the rich households in the city centre. This explanation fits well with the fact that the most European cities have a long history, with the consequence that they accumulated many amenities in their city centre. However, the paper by Brueckner et al. is purely static and does not explicitly consider the historical dimension of the process generating amenities. Our model explicitly takes account of time: at every period, the equilibrium spatial structure of the city is determined by the transport costs and by the spatial repartition of amenities; but, between periods, the spatial repartition of amenities changes, rich households generating local amenities in the locations they occupy, and then the spatial structure of the city changes. We show that this endogenous generation of local amenities has two consequences. The first one is that the city may have several long term equilibria. We explicitly analyse two of them: an “American equilibrium†with the poor living in the centre, and a “European equibrium†with the rich living in the centre. We show that the conditions for the existence of an European equilibrium are more restrictive. The second consequence is that, when the city develops, it may move from an American equilibrium to an European one. If the city starts without amenities, poor households locate in the city centre, rich households in the periphery. However, the production of new local amenities by the rich generates a lock in effect: rich go on occupying locations where they were living previously and, as the city develops, these locations become central ones.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p734&r=geo
  37. By: Nicholas Karachalis; Evangelos Kyriazopoulos
    Abstract: Greek port cities find themselves in a profound and encompassing change as they try to improve their image and confront the competition for advanced port services and facilities and the need for urban revitalization. As port functions are increasingly relocated towards the outskirts of port cities, disadvantaged neighbourhoods and docks are turned into modern housing and commercial areas or cultural quarters that reinforce the identity, the appeal and the competitiveness of the city. Policies and practices that consider the regeneration of derelict areas and seafronts are at the top of local agendas with culture and leisure resources (cultural infrastructure, mega-events, tourist facilities, etc.) holding the key role. The main goal is the creation of new city images and environments that are attractive for residents, investors and visitors. Hence, these new policies have various spatial and economic effects, leading to prestigious waterfront developments, cultural clustering (e.g., Wit de Wittestraat in Rotterdam, Ladadika in Thessaloniki), increase of tourism, etc. On the other hand, regeneration projects affect the traditional spatial urban hierarchies and often lead to the displacement of activities and residents. So the main issue is how port cities can avoid the negative effects and in which way these strategies affect the economic and portal services. The paper intends to present the most important policy changes of the major Greek port cities and to evaluate the role of culture and leisure within these policies. Characteristic examples of European port cities redevelopments based on culture, such as the ones of Bilbao, Rotterdam and Hamburg, will be compared to the efforts of Greek port cities. Special emphasis will be given to the Cultural Capital of Europe event that has had a great impact on Thessaloniki (1997) and is expected to have a long term effect on Patras (2006). The main research questions that are being addressed are the following: Which are the spatial, economic, social and environmental effects of the new port city strategies and which role do the cultural resources hold? Is an effective cultural and leisure policy a panacea for port cities in order to adjust to the contemporary competition? How are Greek port cities responding to these new circumstances?
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p714&r=geo
  38. By: Daniela-Luminita Constantin
    Abstract: This paper represents a part of the author's contribution to the project "Housing rehabilitation in apartment block areas in Romania" developed under the auspices of the National Council for Higher Education Scientific Research. It addresses the relationship between housing policy and local development policy mainly from an institutional and legislative perspective, focusing on the actors involved in supporting housing and urban renewal actions in Romania. The role of local public administration is particularly envisaged, considering the authority of city councils with regard to rehabilitation of apartment block areas and, in a wider context, to urban regeneration. Several case studies on various Romanian cities will be presented in order to reveal not only current opportunities but also a series of drawbacks in this process.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p862&r=geo
  39. By: Michael Dross; Agnes Forster; Alain Thierstein
    Abstract: Mega-City-Regions (MCR) as a new large-scale urban phenomenon have been gaining attention recently: In research, empirical studies address their functional consistency, and spatial planning policies underline the strategic role of MCRs for territorial competition of a country. But increasingly a tension between the functional logic of knowledge-intensive business activities and the territorial and normative approaches of public bodies begin to emerge. Typical conflicts of spatial development in MCRs occur for example when globally motivated investment decisions hit upon the local needs. This paper proposes an integrated view that can help to bridge the gap between the growing factual knowledge about MCRs and the still weak ability to use this knowledge for local and regional development and spatial planning purposes. The proposed integration draws on the one hand from the corporate-based value chain approach: The interaction of analysis of spatio-economic development, its adequate visualization and focussed communication towards stakeholders is apt to bring about the initiating momentum for beneficial spatial development. In the context of a diffuse perception of MCRs – whose mere size surpasses our common notions of space – analysis, visualization and communication as methodological components in the spatial planning process add value to sustainable spatial development. The process starts with creating awareness for the often invisible and complex functions, qualities and identities of the MCR spatial scale. New strategies of visualization and communication are needed to improve insight and motivation of the actors involved. On the other hand this value chain approach has to be adapted to the varying vertical levels of public bodies with their numerous policies. Thus, “multi-level-governance†is to be conceived as a concept to close the gap between the territorial and the functional logic of spatial development. The paper will study this dual approach with the case of the announced expansion of the international airport in Munich. This complex multi-level-governance process experiments with a consensus-oriented dialogue platform – the so called “neighbourhood conference†(NC) – bringing together actors with divers responsibilities and objectives. The NC sits at the interface of global and local objectives that are transformed on the spatial scale of the MCR of Munich. The paper concludes with recommendations for using the above described spatial value chain approach for more efficient multi-level-governance.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p269&r=geo
  40. By: Kerem Yavuz Arslanli
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to examine residential location and housing value relations in Istanbul. In order to assess the degree of relation the Moran’I test of statistical distribution method is used. The dataset includes 4 municipalities and 1.2 million households in 63 sub-districts. From 2000 to 2005 the change in the sales prices of the house values after the 1999 earthquake and before the 2001 economic crisis to the real estate boom of 2004. Main aim to select the location on the asian side of istanbul is to found a correlation in the highly residential part of Ãstanbul. The other is the limitation of the Moran’I test on spatial statistics and the Bosphorus . Findings of the analysis indicates that residential location and housing values are correlated in low significance value in Moran’I test (R=0.3542), but even this shows the positive interaction and one of the drawbacks of the dataset is to be on the Borders of the Local Municipalities that we have to set on. In general terms the new dataset is widen to the metropolitan borders of Ãstanbul in order to obseve high R values.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p549&r=geo
  41. By: Martin T. W. Rosenfeld; Gerhard Heimpold; Birger Nerre
    Abstract: In recent years, in the public discussion on (regional) economic policy, the importance of urban districts or cities for regional and for national economic growth has been strongly emphasized. It is an usual assumption that agglomeration economies may be found inside urban areas. For making best use of agglomeration economies, there have been proposals for changing the traditional scheme of regional policy from an orientation on "interregional equalization“ and "aid" for the regions lagging behind“ towards support for the strongest“ and "stimulating economic growth conditions in urban areas“. The paper has the intention to bring more light into the question how a country’s government could efficiently support the economic conditions in larger cities or urban areas. There are of course several instruments for this. One quite common instrument in most countries are the Systems for Local Fiscal Equalization (LFE), by which the national (federal) government or the states (within federations) are allocating different categories of grants in aid to the local level of government. As the LFE-systems differ strongly not only between different countries, but also between the states within a country, it seems necessary to focus on some countries or even on some states within a country. As a first approach to analyse the existing LFE-rules, this paper is concentrating on the conditions in six selected German states. For this sample, the paper is analyzing the current fiscal position of urban areas within the federal states (or Lander) of Germany and is trying to give some first answers to the following questions: Do some states care more than other states for urban areas? What is the institutional setting for spending state money for urban areas: Are the grants per capita higher for the more agglomerated urban areas? Have the grants the potential to stimulate ur¬ban growth – or are they supporting public functions without positive impacts on the economy? How are the urban centres compensated for their function as central places? The analysis is done on the basis of the states‘ rules on LFE, in the sense of an ex-ante evaluation of these rules, by classifying the rules according to their incidence (in favor or against urban centers). It is shown that there are quite different ways for a state to allocate grants in favour of the cities. There is an enormous lack of transparency in the LFE-systems of all states in the sample. The impression is that the LFE-rules are not trying, so far, to support the cities and their eco¬no¬mic performance consistently. In some states, shrinking cities and cities with special problems (e. g. with a high number of welfare recipients) could be to some extent even in a better fiscal position than cities with economic growth and growth potentials.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p813&r=geo
  42. By: Danilo Igliori
    Abstract: The role of population growth and migration has been emphasized as a key variable to explain deforestation and land conversion in developing countries. In early studies a ‘Malthusian’ process is put forward to associate the growing demand for resources caused by larger populations in frontier areas. Recent empirical research has also focused on the role of population primarily as a measure for local demand and pressure over natural resources. The spatial distribution of human population and economic activities is remarkably uneven. At any geographical scale we find that different forms of agglomerations are pervasive. On the one hand, in central countries or regions, agglomeration is reflected in ‘large varieties of cities as shown by the stability of urban hierarchy within most countries’. On the other, less developed regions faces a dynamic process where new agglomerations form and develop as a result of frontier expansion. The recent literature on spatial economics has emphasized the role of agglomeration and clustering of economic activities as fundamental causes of an enhanced level of local economic performance, creating externalities that cause firms to grow faster and larger than they otherwise would do. However, very little has been done to examine the presence of agglomeration economies on economic performance of agricultural activities. The Brazilian Amazon is perhaps one of the most interesting regions for analysing eventual relationships between agglomeration economies, economic growth and deforestation. In this paper we empirically examine whether an initial level of agglomeration impacts the subsequent economic growth and deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon. We also test whether congestion effects at the higher levels of agglomeration limit these impacts by a non-linear relationship. The regression estimates indicate that there is a significant non-linear association between the initial intensity of agglomeration with both growth and land conversion in subsequent periods. We also find evidence of other factors associated with growth and land conversion.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p719&r=geo
  43. By: Gunther Maier; Jouke van Dijk
    Date: 2006
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwsre:sre-disc-2006_08&r=geo
  44. By: Marianthi Svinterikou; Pavlos Kanaroglou
    Abstract: The structure of a city constantly changes, in accordance to the population’s housing demand and the city’s housing supply. Housing demand depends on several factors, such as changes in household structure caused by demographic events (e.g. mortality, fer
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p945&r=geo
  45. By: Hans-Friedrich Eckey; Reinhold Kosfeld; Matthias Turck
    Abstract: Regional convergence of German labour markets represents a politically important question. Different studies have examined convergence processes in Germany. We derive equations to estimate the speed of convergence on the basis of an extended Solow model. The technique of geographically weighted regression permits a detailed analysis of convergence processes, which has not been conducted for Germany so far yet. It allows to estimate a separate speed of convergence for every region resulting from the local coefficients of the regression equations. The application of this technique to German labour market regions shows regions moving with a different speeds towards their steady states. The half-live times in the model of conditional convergence disperse less than the same coefficients in the absolute convergence model. Moreover, the speed of convergence is substantially slower in the manufacturing sector than in the service sector.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p461&r=geo
  46. By: Signe Jauhiainen
    Abstract: This paper focuses on overeducation from the regional perspective. The supply of highly educated workers has increased since late 20th century but the demand has not necessarily increased equivalently. This mismatch might create problems at the labour market, for example unemployment and overeducation. Individuals are not totally mobile and prefer to search for a job near their residential location. If accessible jobs do not correspond to the educational level of the job seeker, one may have to accept a job below his or her educational level. Spatial mobility of workers, migration and commuting, can reduce the spatial mismatch. Spatial mismatch between jobs and workers has been noticed in several studies (see e.g. Büchel & van Ham 2003). The aim of this paper is to find out whether there are regional differences in the proportion of overeducated labour force. Finnish micro level data are used in the analysis. The sample consists of 149 908 individuals who were employed in 2000. Overeducated workers are identified with a statistical measure.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p180&r=geo
  47. By: Luki Budiarto
    Abstract: One of the pressing issues in today discussion about globalization and urban and regional development concerns about the role of local space in ‘situating’ the global economy. That every bit of ‘local’ economic activities has become subsumed into ‘the global’ is something we know already, but what is the role of local spatial conditions in ‘translating’ (following the definition in Law, 2002) the global economy to site and by doing so making firms able to operate effectively at the global scale while sitting in a particularly local space? The motive of this paper is twofold. Firstly, it explores the relation between urban form and economy by taking Amsterdam as case study. It attempts to show a consistent relationship between a topological spatiality and the distribution and organisation of economic functions (i.e. locations of firms, particularly those operating at the global scale) –a premise which partly developed out of Space Syntax. Secondly, it tries to develop an instrument for urban analysis by recasting the issue of economy from spatial/urban perspectives, rather than putting forward economic arguments. Drawing mainly from Amin & Thrift (2002), it is being argued that the global economy becomes situated in local space through the everyday spatial performances of people who perform the work of ‘relay’ and ‘translation’ of the fluid global processes. We offer a proposition that the location of urban economic functions in cities can be explained by analysing the way their circuits mesh with diverse other (including those driven by economic motives at much lesser degree, for example social and family life) which help to create ‘situatedness’ in a particular local site This paper starts with briefly presenting the theoretical framework and then concentrating on the analysis of case study using a series of spatial and temporal mapping. As empirical demonstration, we will present analysis on a particular urban field (1x1 km2) in the city of Amsterdam, which has the intention to allow us to start capturing the circuits cutting across between what commonly seen as two or more discontinuous economies or different set of activities. This analysis is then presented as an alternative approach to recast the issue of economic spaces in terms of ‘ecology of presence’
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p703&r=geo
  48. By: Vittorio Ruggiero; Luigi Scrofani
    Abstract: This article will take in consideration the co-existence in Sicily of different models of urbanisation with rising complex problems. Particularly we notice: A) in the coastal conurbations with infrastructural improvements, there is a timid decentralization of functions and the start of plans that would increase of the gateway functions on one hand, and processes of impoverishment of environment and reduction of economic potentialities on the other hand; B) in the inner and marginal areas, while some cities are marked from an unstoppable decline, others show an awakening of initiatives in many fields, from the productive activities to the tertiary and touristic ones. The Sicilian Regional Governments have adopted very different urban policies to front the necessity of various city typologies, since the second half of years ' 80, with the law n.9 of 1986, that it has defined limits and functions of the Sicilian metropolitan areas (M.A.). However, the difficulty to concretely start the activity of the M.A., according to the regional law, is appeared obvious in the next years also for the new Italian Constitution Reformation. Reformation that needs of new regional law from the Sicily and of the definition of the Territorial Urban Regional Plan.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p130&r=geo
  49. By: Isabelle Thomas; Jean Cavailhes; Pierre Frankhauser; Dominique Peeters
    Abstract: In this paper, an urban economic model of residential location is combined with multifractal geometry (Sierpinski carpet) in order to model and analyse the spatial structure of a metropolitan area. This area is made of an urban system organised hierarchically around a central CBD, as well as of green spaces that have an inverse hierarchical organisation. The properties of the model are studied by means of analytical solutions. Then, simulation are made, which are based of French urban realities. This enables one to choose realistic parameters and to analyse the effects of several modelling assumptions (changes in preferences, economic shocks, …). The modelling results show that French periurbanisation of the last 30 years can be explained by the increase in income and by the decrease in transportation costs, probably without any changes in households preferences.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p151&r=geo
  50. By: Giorgio Fazio; Davide Piacentino; Erasmo Vassallo
    Abstract: Since the beginning of the 1990s, the Italian Government has attempted to implement a new generation of policies aimed at reducing regional disparities. It is claimed that compared to the past, these policies should be more far reaching since they emphasize the importance of the structural economic conditions in promoting growth and convergence. In this paper, we use a dataset of regional social and economic indicators in order to look at the evidence surrounding the outcome of these policies. A frontier approach seems to be suitable for the purpose of this research, as it yields a ranking of performance scores where regions can be compared in cross-sectional and a temporal dimension. Additionally to the traditional measures of economic development such as GDP per capita, we also run the analysis on competitiveness and entrepreneurship measures. Early results seem to provide interesting evidence with respect to the regional features of the development policies.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p439&r=geo
  51. By: Maria Triantafyllidi
    Abstract: It is generally accepted that there aren’t any plain boundaries between a city and its suburbs. Different investments have been applied on the subject such as that by Mills and Hamilton, or the “edge city†theory by Joel Garreau or even the “urban field†concept by Friedman and Miller. The previous theories describe the resulting space as “a thick, fuzzy boundary between rural and urban usesâ€. On the other side, though, there are cases of cities in which the limits between them and their suburbs are clearly distinct. Resultantly, it is interesting to investigate the topological and morphological constitution of space, which occurs beyond the urban net, through the phenomenon of suburbanisation. In order to clarify the spatial morphology among urban and suburban space, two case studies in Greece will be examined, Volos and Larisa, two middle class cities, that have a different way of suburban development. Finally, through a comparative presentation of the case studies results there will be extended conclusions that concern the contemporary Greek sub- urban space.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p98&r=geo
  52. By: Paul Cheshire; Stefano Magrini
    Abstract: This paper investigates growth differences in the urban system of the EU12 between the means of 1978/80 and 1992/94 for a data set relating to Functional Urban Regions rather than the more normal NUTS regions comparing the results of ‘artisanal’ methods of model selection with those generated using general to specific model selection (using PcGets). The artisanal approach tests hypotheses relating to the role of human capital, EU integration and fragmentation of urban government. The paper also explores issues of spatial dependence and mechanisms of spatial interaction. Using PcGets as suggested by Hendry and Krolzig (2004) to optimise model selection yields a model virtually identical to the artisanal approach if mechanisms of spatial interaction are ignored. Testing, however, reveals problems of spatial dependence. We interpret this as indicating that significant variables reflecting mechanisms of spatial economic adjustment have been omitted. Including such variables in the set available to PcGets leads to the inclusion of two measures of spatial adjustment. Further testing shows that problems of spatial dependence are now eliminated. We interpret this result as evidence that while PcGets provides a powerful tool for model selection when applied to cross sectional data, caution is necessary to ensure that variables relating to spatial adjustment processes are included and spatial dependence is avoided. Not only do the final results provide consistent estimates of parameters but they also support relevant theoretical insights. Moreover careful testing for spatial dependence reveals that national borders are still significant barriers to adjustment within the EU.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p156&r=geo
  53. By: Bitter, Chris; Mulligan, Gordon; Dall'erba, Sandy
    Abstract: Hedonic house price models typically impose a constant price structure on housing characteristics throughout an entire market area. However, there is increasing evidence that the marginal prices of many important attributes vary over space, especially within large markets. In this paper, we compare two approaches to examine spatial heterogeneity in housing attribute prices within the Tucson, Arizona housing market: the spatial expansion method and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Our results provide strong evidence that the marginal price of key housing characteristics varies over space. GWR outperforms the spatial expansion method in terms of explanatory power and predictive accuracy.
    JEL: R0
    Date: 2006
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:1379&r=geo
  54. By: Christos Bezirtzoglou; Anna Andrikopoulou
    Abstract: The ability of regional economies to withstand competition and to manage change is related to their capacity to innovate. The increasing importance of knowledge in determining economic performance places innovation high on the regional development agenda. The Regional Programmes of Innovative Actions are seen as a catalyst which gives regions an opportunity to try more adventurous actions that are often otherwise postponed or ignored. It is particularly important for the least-developed regions, such as, among others, the thirteen Greek regions, that they have the chance to experiment in fields outside the norm of their structural funds programmes and develop greater co-operation and networking with more developed regions. The second publication of the Greek Regional Programmes of Innovative Actions, entitled Regional Innovation Excellence in Greece, deals thoroughly with the programmes themselves, notably by presenting a comprehensive inventory of each individual action as well as attempting to produce their first clustering categorisation. Clusters represent a different way of dividing the regional economy. Cluster policy is a ‘mature’ policy area in some countries, and one that is emerging in others.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p928&r=geo
  55. By: Riccardo Crescenzi
    Abstract: The debate over the EU budget 2007-2013 made clear the need of an in-depth understanding of the distribution of the EU development funds. The scarce resources available need to be targeted more effectively towards the real needs of EU countries and regions in order to deliver the expected benefits. The literature on the impact of structural funds expenditure on regional growth and cohesion highlighted the reduced long-term impact of structural funds expenditure. One of the reasons for such result was identified in the biased allocation of funds among the different development axes. In this paper we assume a different perspective and focus the spatial structure of the expenditure for the Eu development policies under the 2000-2006 budget. For this purpose we collect a specific dataset for the EU-15 regions, including not only structural funds (as in the existing literature) but also rural development funds under the CAP. This extended dataset allows us to assess the spatial structure of a significant percentage of the total funds targeted towards regional development. On the basis such dataset we are able: a) to analyse the spatial concentration of structural expenditure as an important prerequisite for its effectiveness. A low degree of spatial concentration of the funds may support the hypothesis of a distribution based on political equilibrium rather than effectiveness. In addition we will be able to test the spatial association of rural and regional development funds which are rarely analysed jointly thus shedding some light on the spatial coherence of the expenditure for different policies; b) to compare the spatial concentration of EU funds with a specifically developed indicator of socio-economic disadvantage of the EU regions. This analysis will allow us to analyse the coherence of the EU regional policies with regard to the structural disadvantage of EU regions thus uncovering a potential inconsistency between policy objectives (favouring disadvantaged areas) and the beneficiaries of the funds. The paper shows that although there a certain degree of spatial association between structural and rural development expenditure the factors of socio-economic disadvantage are more spatially concentrated than the funds aimed at addressing such disadvantage.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p552&r=geo
  56. By: Varbara Despiniadou; Evanthia Athanasopoulou; Panagiotis Papatheodoropoulos
    Abstract: The danger of floods from overflow of rivers that crosses urban regions is a frequent phenomenon that concerns many of European countries. In the framework of Sustainable Spatial Planning arise some serious questions for the way that should such phenomena be handled, apart from the purely hydraulic conventional interventions. Noteworthy that at his flow a river runs through usually at all the length completely dissimilar regions as long as they concern in geomorphology but also their urban characteristics (urban density, existing land uses etc). Through the experience of other countries, different approaches in institutional and urban metres will be studied. Also, the possibility of redesigning the flood region of urban rivers will be examinated, proposing suitable uses per case. The article will investigate the example of Diakoniaris River in Patras/Greece It is a river that crosses the coastal city of Patras in length of 4 kilometres roughly in address E-W, and in the past (1962,.2001) he has created catastrophic floods. Our approach focuses on the suggestion of proposed institutional regulations but also methodological approaches that concern in the flood-preventing protection of urban regions
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p672&r=geo
  57. By: Alexandros Deloukas
    Abstract: One should not be enthusiastic of Far East mega-cities easily sustaining urban rail systems to understand that high densities slow down land consumption and increase ridership. An objective of the paper is to investigate the case of a mutually supportive land use and urban rail planning in two European cities. A parallel objective is to demonstrate that singular measures like urban rail stations or dense mixed uses are not sufficient to achieve a sustainable growth. The macro-connectivity of the city-region by rail as well as local parking constraints are important factors for successful sustainability. A particular (chrono-)logical planning sequence of action packages is suggested, in order to maximize the desired impacts. Next to the conceptual part, two relevant case studies are demonstrated. First, the Swiss City-Rail project of Bern. It concerns the two employment poles Ausserholligen west of, and Wankdorf east of the Central Station, where suburban rail interchanges are planned. Each pole will contain a development of 600.000 sq.m. Gross Floor Area of mixed uses, staged up to 2020. The wide range of concerted policies effectuated is analysed. Second, the case of Athens, one of the seven European mega-cities with more than 4 mi. inhabitants is discussed. Within the framework of the Metro Development Study (MDS), a multimodal transportation plan for Athens with the horizon 2020 has been developed. A calibrated Garin-Lowry land use – transportation model forecasts job and population figures at the level of 1230 traffic zones. The MDS 2020 plan contains 106 km metro, 46 km tramway, and 328 km suburban rail. High urban rail investments have already taken place in Athens, also in view of the Olympic Games. The paper discusses planning opportunities for concentrated service development at suitable rail interchanges proposed by the MDS. Two types of structural actions are considered. First, upzoning and new development around three suburban rail interchanges, especially along the suburban rail corridor leading from Athens to the Airport. A recent mall development in one of these interchanges is critically discussed. Rail use is better suited for employees and people seeking entertainment than shopping in this respect. Second, rezoning and recycled development at built-up areas around three peripheral metro interchanges, while protecting the existing housing. Finally, a comparative review of the planning frameworks in Bern and in Athens is performed, with a special emphasis on revealed planning deficits.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p661&r=geo
  58. By: Antonio Godinho Rodrigues
    Abstract: The study of regional dynamics in employment productivity has been the basis for a large body of literature; the use in cross-section applications of the well known linear relationship between changes in productivity and Output growth first proposed in 1949 by P.J. Verdoorn has allowed greater insights into the dynamic nature of economic systems. Furthermore, it has been shown that a positive Verdoorn coefficient represents the existence of localized increasing returns, which contradicts Neoclassical orthodoxy. In this paper, a dynamic analysis of labour productivity in manufacturing is performed for a sample of 211 European Union regions. Three hypothesis are tested: first, following recent work by Bernard Fingleton (1999 & 2000), two components related to Growth Theory are added to the original Verdoorn relation, the productivity gap between each spatial unit and the leader in the first period and two proxies for human capital. Second, the importance of the Marshallian type externality as well as economies of urbanization is tested. These factors are calculated according to the weighted density of each variable at the NUTS3 level for each of the 211 NUTS2 regions, following the work of Ciccone and Hall (1996). Finally, and following the ideas presented in the seminal paper by Chinitz (1961), the importance of the industrial mix and the level of regional specialization/diversity is taken into account through the use of a spatially weighted specialization measure. Spatial Econometrics methods are used and alternative forms for the spatial weights matrix are tested, based on time distances calculated using a network model built with the existing road network. Legal speed limits permit an accurate calculation of distance between each node.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p904&r=geo
  59. By: Buket Onem
    Abstract: Cities are places where human needs such as: settlement, residential accommodation, work places, recreation and entertainment are satisfied, services are provided. Social and cultural aspects of the city are the most important features which are in a continuous development. Urban identity in this respect is very vital for cities in order to survive as a living organism and provide livable environment for the urbanites. As a world metropolis Istanbul is a unique city with her natural environment, historical and archeological heritage and very vivid socio-cultural life. These features provide a rich identity and at the same time allow for a powerful urban image. Her silhouette created by physical elements and historical architecture is very impressive. Golden Horn being a gulf along the Bosphorus is an important element of the urban physical structure and has a special role in the historical and cultural life of Istanbul. Within the comprehensive image of the metropolitan Istanbul, it is a sub-region with strong elements of identity. These elements can be identified by the data related to the natural, cultural and human environment. Golden Horn sub-region should be evaluated after a meticulous assessment of the touristic potential, quality of urban services provided and a comprehensive investigation on the sub-regional identity. During the last two decades local governments have frequently displayed a fragmented approach in the preparation of area developmental plans without any research on identity. One of the main objectives of this study is to provide a comprehensive investigation on the identity elements in order to constitute a base for future improvement and physical planning studies. Another important aim of the study is the definition or delimitation of an historical sub-region of Istanbul. The end products of this study will help to determine the policies and plans to enhance the economic base of the area, to define the physical, cultural and social elements of the identity of the Golden Horn region.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p558&r=geo
  60. By: Peter Huber; Michael Paffermayr; Yvonne Wolfmayr
    Abstract: We estimate a linear approximation of the market potential function for Europe as derived in geography and trade models. Using a spatial econometric estimation approach, border effects are identified by a differential impact of nearby regions' purchasing power, depending on whether two regions are located within the EU15 or outside the EU15. Our results reveal substantial market potential effects on nominal wage rates. We also find significant border effects between EU15 and non-EU15 countries. Our estimation results suggest that the enlargement of the EU in May 2004 may lead to pronounced wage effects in the new member states, but to relatively small ones for the existing members and that regional disparities within new member states will increase.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p469&r=geo
  61. By: Christos Ladias; Eleni Stamatiou
    Abstract: In the frame of the European Union’s enlargement and in the search for new more cohesive and functional standards for “administrative-spatial shapes†– under the pre-conditions of competitiveness, efficiency of urban and regional development and abolition of regional inequalities for sustainable development, - noteworthy is the examination of the reconstruction of the administrative system of Regions through the introduction of the proposed institution of the broader region in Greece. In the present article, we present the needs of the above administrative reconstruction, we investigate the economic form and the land-planning determination of the broader region; we set the directive lines towards the formation of its developmental pattern, while not omitting provisions with regards to the development impacts upon the natural environment. The final administrative shape which will be adaptable to the particular conditions of each broader region will contribute substantially, to the viable or sustainable development and to the worthy to be experienced development. Fundamental question among others is the formation of an administrative shape with explicit answers on the optimization of the European cooperation. Case study of the present article constitutes the proposed broader region of Epirus- Macedonia -Thrace, given the important influence that will exert one such organizational department on the Balkan country and on the European Union and vice versa. The example of the proposed broader region constitutes a characteristic case of an administrative reconstruction, with the parallel objective of rearrangement and upgrade of vital issues of spatial, environmental, socioeconomic and developmental importance.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p825&r=geo
  62. By: Helge Sanner; Uwe Blien
    Abstract: A casual look at regional unemployment rates reveals that there are vast differences, which appearently cannot be explained by different institutional settings. Our paper attempts to trace the these differences in the regions' labor market performance back to the regions' specialization in products that are more or less advanced in the product cycle. The model we develop shows how individual profit and utility maximization endogenously leads to decreasing employment in the presence of process innovation. Things get even worse if the considered region is less innovative than others. Our model suggests that the only way to escape from this vicious circle is to specialize on products that are at the beginning of their economic life.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p699&r=geo
  63. By: Andres Rodriguez-Pose; Riccardo Crescenzi
    Abstract: The paper aims at understanding the balance between “endogenous†factors and “external†knowledge flows in the process of innovation and growth of EU regions. Research on the impact of innovation on regional economic performance in Europe has fundamentally followed three approaches: a) the analysis of the link between investment in R&D, patents, and economic growth; b) the examination of geographical diffusion of regional knowledge spillovers; and c) the study of the existence and efficiency of regional innovation systems. These complementary approaches have, however, rarely been combined. Important operational and methodological barriers have thwarted any potential cross-fertilization. In this paper, we try to fill this gap in the literature by combining in one model R&D, spillovers, and innovation systems approaches. A multiple regression analysis approach is conducted for all regions of the EU-25, including measures of R&D investment, proxies for socio-economic structure, for each region and in neighbouring regions. The empirical results highlight how the three above-mentioned factors interact with one another uncovering the importance not only of “endogenousâ€innovative efforts but also of local socio-economic conditions for the genesis and assimilation of innovation and its transformation it into economic growth across European regions. In addition, the quantitative analysis shows the importance of proximity for the transmission of economically productive knowledge.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p371&r=geo
  64. By: Carlos Roberto Azzoni; Fernando Silveira; Alexandre Iwata; Antonio Ibarra; Bernardo Diniz; Guilherme Moreira
    Abstract: The recent emphasis on fighting poverty in Brazil makes the determination of the size of the targeted population an important issue (What is the right poverty line? What is the real size of the poor population? How much money should be given to each poor family?). The application of poverty lines based on national income levels tends to produce important distortions at the regional level. Using data from a Household Expenditure Survey (HES) that covered some regions in Brazil, the paper develops and applies a methodology to define poverty lines for all regions and urban areas. These lines are based on nutritional requirements, thus avoiding the purchasing power parity problem, and take into account non-monetary income and in-kind consumption, aspects that are very important at the rural level. The HES results are matched with Census data, allowing for the estimation of rural and urban poverty lines for Brazilian regions.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p298&r=geo
  65. By: Christian Dreger; Reinhold Kosfeld
    Abstract: In this paper, we use the Beveridge relationship to address the effectiveness of the matching process, that brings workers searching for jobs together with employers searching for workers. For a fixed matching technology, the curve yields a negative relation between the unemployment rate and the rate of vacancies. Movements along a curve reflect adjustments over the business cycle. In a recession vacancies are closed, and workers enter the unemployed. Shifts of the curve are more important here, as they point to structural change. For example, an outward shift of the curve indicates an in-creased mismatch, perhaps due to a deterioration in human capital of the unemployed or changes in the unemployment benefit system, which affects the willingness of the un-employed to fill out vacancies. Empirical estimates rely on panel data. A sample of 180 regional labour markets is em-ployed, and the sample period runs from 1993 to 2004. The regional labour markets are seperated on the base of flows of the job commuters and correspond to travel-to-work areas. Due to common or idiosyncratic shocks, however, the cross sections are not inde-pendent. Instead, they are tied together to some extent, and the spillovers account for spatial effects. As these patterns can have an impact on the correlation between unem-ployment and vacancy rates, the results of OLS regressions are eventually biased. Thus the Beveridge curve is efficiently estimated by a spatial procedure, where regional de-pendencies are taken into account. No previous paper has investigated a similar broad regional dataset so far. The eigenfunction decomposition approach suggested by Griffith (1996, 2000) is used to identify spatial and non-spatial components in regression analysis. As the spatial pat-tern may vary over time, inference is conducted on the base of a spatial seemingly unre-lated regressions (spatial SUR) model. Due to this setup, efficient estimates for the Beveridge relationship are obtained. Time dummies are used to control for shifts in the curve. The empirical results provide some indication that the degree of job mismatch has increased over the recent periods.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p396&r=geo
  66. By: Spyridon Sofios; Garyfallos Arabatzis
    Abstract: Intense regional inequalities are considered to be widespread in Greece. Indeed, Athens mainly, and Thessaloniki consist the two poles in Greece, Thessaloniki in a lower degree though. In these two cities the larger part of industrial activity, as well as, tertiary sector activities, is assembled. On the contrary, in the other Greek regions not only the economic activities but also the infrastructures have been developed in smaller degree. Moreover, as it is well known, two Greek regions (Northern Aegean, Epirus) are among the poorest in the European Union. This fact constitutes a reluctant factor to the effort of Greece to increase the standard of living of the citizens. In addition, the last two decades, a significant decrease of the contribution of primary sector to the GDP with simultaneous increase of the contribution of the tertiary sector is observed. The particular change involves significant repercussions to the national economy. The aim of this paper is the study of the specialization of Greek prefectures as well as spatial distribution of 13 sectors of economic activity using employment data and methods of regional analysis such as Gini – Hirschman coefficient, Location Quotient Coefficient (LQ), Coefficient of Location (CL), Coefficient of Specialization (CS) and analysis of variation – participation.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p811&r=geo
  67. By: Marco Mundelius
    Abstract: This paper will show the increasing convergence between cultural and economic discourses. On the one hand, art activities can be seen in an interdependent relationship between cultural industries and knowledge economy. On the other hand, there are regional economic effects of art and culture. Furthermore the actors play, as pioneers, a key role in the occupying of urban space to regenerate de-industrialised and seedy places. I take up the lifestyle concept with the definition of a creative class and a creative milieu. The concepts of the creative city facilitate access into the correlations between culture and the development of a city, by which creative locations become elicit. Questions, such as what are the special attributes of performing artists, what forms the basis of creative potential and what characteristics make creative areas in cities identifiable, will be broached. The performed survey focused on conditions on the real estate market, on the social and professional situation of artists and on market integration. This investigation should offer some information to Berlin’s policy makers to promote artists in their contribution to support the local creative scene, build local economies, develop communities and social cohesion, and as general image building.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p247&r=geo
  68. By: Antonio Vazquez-Barquero
    Abstract: A renewed interest in the location of the productive activity has appeared during the last two decades. The literature analyzes a great number of cases of local productive systems in which all types of activities are produced and which locate in regions and countries with different levels of development (Altenburg and Meyer-Stamer, 1999; Rosenfeld, 1997; Staber, 1997; Porter, 1998). Electronics in Silicon Valley, U.S.A. and Silicon Glen in Scotland, but also in Guadalajara, Mexico and in Penang, Malaysia; the car industry in Detroit, U.S. and in Vigo, Spain, but also in the Gran ABC in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil; ceramic tiles in Sassuolo, Italy and in Castellón, Spain, as well as in Criciuma, Brazil; the shoe industry in Brenta, Italy and in Elche, Spain, as well as in León, Guanajuato, Mexico; textiles and the garment industry in Reutlingen, Germany and in La Coruña, España, but also in Itaji Valley, Brazil. Financial services in New York City, in London and in Frankfurt, Germany, but also in Hong Kong and Shanghai, in China. This diversity has been dealt with from different points of view; no doubt due to the fact that sociologists, geographers and economists believe that at the present time the organization of production is going through a profound transformation process. Mass production, integrated in the fordist model of large firm reduces its hegemony and gives way to more flexible forms of organization, as are industrial districts and milieus. This has produced multiple interpretations such as the industrial districts (Becattini, 1979), flexible specialization (Piore and Sabel, 1984), the new industrial spaces (Scott, 1988), industrial clusters (Porter, 1990), the knowledge economy (Cook, 2002), the new economic geography (Krugman, 1991; Fujita et al., 2000), the theory of the innovative milieu (Aydalot, 1986; Maillat, 1995), or economic sociology (Granovetter, 1985). Thus, a single unique interpretation or theory as to how production is organized within the territory does not exist for explaining the factors that make the agglomerations and industrial production centres appear, the mechanisms through which they develop, as well as the reasons for its change and transformation. Gordon and McCann (2000) conclude that the diversity of the analytical approaches led to some degree of confusion in the analyses and interpretations. The paper discusses the question of spatial organization of production from the perspective of economic development. It maintains that the spatial organization of production takes shape, as the markets and relations between cities and regions developed, the transportation and communication system consolidated itself, firms developed their form of organization, innovation and knowledge was introduced in firms and the transportation and communications system, and the economic system integrated itself as a result of globalization. In fact, given that development takes on different forms in each historical period, spatial organization of production also changes and these changes are affected by the territorial strategies of firms and the economic strategies of cities and regions, and they are responsible for the emergence and reconstruction of clusters and milieus.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p648&r=geo
  69. By: Carlos Roberto Azzoni; Aquiles Kalatzis
    Abstract: This study takes on an important part or regional growth, that is, the investment decisions of private firms. The question asked is: do corporations decide on investments in the same way in different parts of the territory? The paper analyses investments of 482 large Brazilian firms in the period 1996-2004. The role of sales, cash-flow, external financing, and working capital is investigated through regression analysis, following the literature on firm investment decisions. Regional dummies used to capture differences in the role of those determinants indicate that there are significant differences across regions. This is important information for regional development policy, for different mechanisms should be used in different regions in order to foster private investments.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p161&r=geo
  70. By: Sophia Skordili
    Abstract: A large number of studies dealing with the evolution of regional inequalities in Greece insist to make use of improper and outdated indices. Indices such as the number of telephone lines per capita and electricity consumption per capita were suitable to describe regional inequalities during the previous decades however, nowadays, they present insignificant regional variations. Among others, the diffusion of the internet to greek regions, is a useful indication of their growth potential and technological capacity. There is no doubt that internet can powerfully influence individuals, places, societies and economies and these effects are likely to grow over the foreseeable future. Primary data show that there is a notable imbalance at national level in terms of per capita usage levels. The disparity of the internet access around the country has given rise to the issue of a national digital divide. This paper investigates and maps the differences in the internet penetration rate to population and businesses across Greek regions and proceeds to a preliminary identification of the determinants of this unequal Geography. Data limitations, and paucity of earlier research make this a challenging task.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p895&r=geo
  71. By: Stephen Hynes; Karyn Morrissey; Cathal O'donoghue
    Abstract: This paper looks at the statistical matching technique used to match the Irish Census of Agriculture to the Irish National Farm Survey (NFS) to produce a farm level static spatial microsimulation model of Irish agriculture. The match produces a spatially disaggregated population microdata set of farm households for all of Ireland. Using statistical matching techniques, economists can now create more attribute rich datasets by matching across the common variables in two or more datasets. Static spatial microsimulation then uses these synthetic datasets to analyse the relationships among regions and localities and to project the spatial implications of economic development and policy changes in rural areas. The Irish agriculture microsimulation model uses one of many combinational optimatisation techniques - simulated annealing - to match the Census of Agriculture and the NFS. The static model uses this matched NFS and Census information to produce small area (District Electric Divisions (DED)) population microdata estimates for a particular year. Using the matched NFS/Census microdata, this paper will then analysis the regional farm income distribution for Ireland.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p431&r=geo
  72. By: Henrik Doensig Jorgensen; Torben Dall Schmidt
    Abstract: New public economics has emphasized the importance of using market solutions in the public sector. Public-private partnerships and marketization through tender calls have been among the instruments of this policy trend. The regional and local effects of such policies are highly relevant for Denmark, as about 66 percent of the public budget in 2003 is delegated to municipalities and counties. The total public expenditures represent 55 percent of GDP in 2003 and are therefore a vital element in overall economic activity. These instruments from the new public economics thereby become active vehicles to local and regional development, which has to a high extent been delegated to local and regional authorities. They arguably constitute the most pronounced policy area within regional and local policies in Denmark. The hypothesis tested here is that marketization is a potent policy instrument for local and regional development in Denmark and that it is therefore important to plan for the operational areas to be subject to marketization. Using panel data on the use of tender calls by Danish municipalities for the period 1993-2004, the paper tests the extent to which the use of marketization influences the local and regional growth potentials, controlling for a number of local and regional characteristics. These growth potentials are measured through a number of indicators such as income growth, job growth and formation of new firms in different sectors. The findings indicate that marketization is most important policy tool in regional planning and development. Not only is it effective, but it is to a large extent also in the hands of local politicians. The slack in use of marketization among Danish municipalities and counties may therefore be a threat to overall growth at the local, regional and national level in Denmark.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p419&r=geo
  73. By: Dafna Schwartz; Raphael Bar-El
    Abstract: Venture Investments in Israel – a Regional Perspective This paper analyzes the geographic distribution of venture investments in start-ups in Israel, using data for the period of 1995-2004. The findings show that their location behavior differs from that of high-tech activities: they show a pattern of "dispersed concentration" (as compared with a pattern of "concentrated concentration" of high-tech activity), with high levels of concentration in focal places, but at a commuting distance from the main metropolis. This is explained by the fact that venture investors also play the role of entrepreneurs and managers. The comparison between different types of venture investors shows that local venture capital funds lead to the heaviest concentration in the metropolis, in comparison with foreign venture investors. This heavy concentration of venture investments implies increasing regional gaps, with a minimal participation of peripheral regions, even those that enjoy some high-tech activity.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p868&r=geo
  74. By: Sevkiye Sence Turk; Lale Berkoz
    Abstract: In the context of economic globalization, there has been considerable academic interest on the understanding of location behavior of FDI firms. Generally while studies on FDI firm location focus mainly at the national and regional levels, those of the intra-urban level are limited, especially for developing countries. This article investigates how FDI firms are distributed at the intra-urban level and how intra-urban FDI firms location can explain using Istanbul as a case study. The study is based on a sample of 100 companies that were surveyed in in Istanbul in 2003. Locational determinants of foreign investment firms in Istanbul have been analyzed by using factor analyzing and logit regression model. Keywords: Foreign direct investment, Istanbul, determinants, zones
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p576&r=geo
  75. By: Iva Ritschelova; Jan Capek
    Abstract: In the beginning of the transformation CR i.e. after year 1990, with started always expressive display in plant regional differences resulting from transformation process and transition Czech economies on market conditions. It was been and still is endeavour these disparities measurably equalize by regional policy state supports structurally depressed and economic weak regions. Regional disparity solving, and with it closely related well-balanced development regions, together constitute long - term process pointing to restraint disequilibrium in mutual relations among economic, environmental and social pillar sustainability and economic growth. For the safeguard development regions is therefore possibly to create conditions for lessening negative regional disparity and utilize inner potential particular regions at respected principles maintainable development Regional disparity and their solving will have out of doubt of principle impact on strategic orientation regional development CR in years 2007 - 2013. Authors in their article deal with identification disparity between eligible regions in CR, analyze development regional policy and her influence over elimination or deepening disparity over the last 15 years. Last but not least think of over strategy hers next development for the next period.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p363&r=geo
  76. By: Tiiu Paas; Friso Schlitte
    Abstract: The paper investigates income inequality and convergence among the EU-25 countries and their regions at NUTS 3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level during the period 1995-2002. We measure the level of income inequality and its decomposition distinguishing the between and within country inequality as the components of the overall income inequality of EU-25, EU-15 and the new member states (NMS) of the EU recent enlargement in May 2004. In order to assess the inequality in living standards GDP in purchasing power standards (PPS) is used. In the empirical analysis of the convergence processes we consider the effects of interactions among neighbouring regions implementing spatial econometrics techniques. The estimation results are sensitive to the control for national effects. While the EU-25 and the EU-15 experienced a slow but significant process of absolute convergence there is no evidence found for regional convergence when national effects are considered. In the NMS the process of conditional convergence across regions even turns out to be significantly negative. This indicates that there were some divergence tendencies in the NMS during the period of 1995 – 2002.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p229&r=geo
  77. By: George Hammond; Mehmet S. Tosun (Department of Economics, University of Nevada, Reno)
    Abstract: This paper extends the recent empirical literature on the relationship between local decentralization and growth using data from both metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions in the U.S. The analysis utilizes both metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions, and thus avoids the possible selection bias present in previous research. The results for non-metropolitan regions indicate a relatively weak or negative relationship between the local decentralization measures and local economic growth compared to a positive relationship suggested by a recent study on metropolitan regions. Results for the non-metro regions also suggest that there are different impacts across population and income than we observe for metropolitan regions.
    Keywords: Decentralization, metropolitan, non-metropolitan, economic growth
    JEL: E62 H7 R11
    Date: 2006–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unr:wpaper:06-002&r=geo
  78. By: Isabel Mota; Antonio Brandao
    Abstract: In this paper, we intend to evaluate the importance of geographical and technological variables for firms' decision about location. For that purpose, we make use of micro-level data for the Portuguese manufacturing sector and focus on the location choices made by new starting plants during 1992-2000 within 275 municipalities. Our main hypothesis is that location determinants affect unevenly single-plant and multi-plant firms. We then considered the entire manufacturing sector and also a partition according to the number of plants. The set of explanatory variables includes variables that are traditionally stressed by urban and regional theory, such as production costs (land, labour and capital costs), demand variables and agglomeration economies as well as technological variables, such as R&D expenditures The model is based on the random utility maximization framework and proceeds through a Poisson model and a Negative Binomial regression. When considering the total manufacturing sector, our results confirm the relevance of agglomeration economies (particularly, urbanization economies) and cost factors (labour and land costs) for firms' location choice. On the contrary, the hypothesis concerning the negative influence of capital costs on location choice is not confirmed in our study. Our research also evidences that the regional market is more significant for the location choice of new single plant firms, while the local market is more relevant for new multi-plant firms. Also, market accessibility is only relevant for the location choices made by new single-plant firms. We then concluded that new multi-plant firms are particularly sensitive to urbanization economies, land costs and local market, while new single-plant firms are more responsive to labour costs and agglomeration economies.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p485&r=geo
  79. By: Dimitrios Kallioras
    Abstract: The spatial and structural dynamics generated (or released) in the contexts of the parallel and interacting processes of transition and economic integration have already left a clear mark in the economic landscape of the EU new member-states. The paper re-evaluates the experience of these countries with respect to shifts in their territorial structures and balances since despite the increasing portion of transition-integration literature many parameters remain of limited research. The analysis is conducted at the NUTS III spatial level on the basis of manufacturing data according to NACE classification for the period 1991-2000. This is a period of extreme importance since it includes both the shocks and the upsets of the early transition and the more recent trends of the pre-accession period. The analysis focuses on the manufacturing sector due to its significance in the former politico-economic regime and due to the high pressures that this sector has encountered afterwards. Regional-industrial data limitations restrict the analysis in the regions of Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Estonia and Slovenia. These regions still constitute a highly heterogeneous group since areas with different economic, demographic and geographic characteristics are represented. The trade-adjusted shift-share analysis, an extension of traditional shift-share analysis, is performed in order to evaluate the impact of transition and economic integration on regional manufacturing employment change. Despite its non-theoretical character, the method allows for valuable results to be drawn on the issue.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p455&r=geo
  80. By: Alexander Granberg; Alexander Pelyasov
    Abstract: This work reflects the results from the cycle of research done in 2001-2004 for 20 Russian regions. At the end of it it was possible to generalize the regularities of the initial stage of transition which were characteristic for the Russian regions on their move from industrial to network model of economic development; compare Russian experience with EU core regions experience (the latter has started this way 20-25 years earlier, in mid-seventies). Typical features of this period are the increasing economic role of support sector and knowledge economy in the regional development, the increasing role of the mobile assets and footloose firms, gradual transformation of the industrial complexes into economic clusters, changes in typology of infrastructural networks (from vertical hierarchy to horizontal grid), etc. Regional authorities in every region abandon previous style of administrative commands and shift to economic coordination with the actors of the regional economy. There are expectations in the Russian regions that this transition will help to overcome economic and environmental limitations of the industrial paradygm which are evident in late Soviet period. The speed, intensity, and vulnerability of these transition are different among northern, central, and southern regions of Russia. Old economic ranks of the Russian regions of the industrial period has changed essentially. Cities-service centers have increased their importance; on the other side, role of big and small industrial cities and settlements have universally decreased. The most painful transformation is characteristic for the big industrial regions like Kuzbass (analogue of the German Ruhr). On the other side oil and gas regions of Russia are passing this transformation in easier way. But each Russian region has its own peculiarities in economy and social sphere which determine the trajectory and speed of transition.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p283&r=geo
  81. By: Loris Servillo
    Abstract: The EU’s ever-tightening focus on an urban agenda has led it, in recent years, to a clear recognition of cities as motors of regional, national and thus European development. Cities appears as crucial nodes, as centres of excellence of european territory, that can drive economic competitiveness and, at the same time, can forge territorial cohesion – itself an essential condition for the growth of long-term competitiveness. The opportunity to explicitly pursue the territorial dimension of cohesion will take substance with the forthcoming programming period. As cities seem to be crucial for the aim of a more coherent spatial framework of European development, urban policies will be one of the pillar of European Cohesion policy beeing strongly linked with territorial cohesion. From a strategic point of view, the Commission has proposed a new planning system which is of considerable significance for the territorial cohesion agenda, based on Community Strategic Guidelines and National Strategic Reference Framework governing the delivery of individual operational programmes, with the intention of to ensuring that overarching EU policy objectives are clearly reflected in the allocation of resources. The guidelines specifically will refer to the key issue of urban areas, suggesting the need to support competitiveness of neighboring cities. However how this aim will be tackled in practice depends on a number of issues. The thesis of the paper is about the various topics, emerging from the EU praxis, that seems relevant about urban policies: the urban and territorial governance, the "territorialization" of infrastructural projects, the urban policentric systems and city–region concept, the urban quality and renewaling instrument, the transnational cooperation and the urban networks. As well as taking into account the new context for territorial cohesion and urban policy, it is important to take stock of past experience and policy practice. Reletad, to understand how future urban policies might support territorial cohesion, it is worth considering how key measures have been implemented and what kind of tipologies it is possible to identify. The ESPON projects 2.3.1. and 2.3.2 will be the part of the core research field in which to extrapolate cases studies and analysis references.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p647&r=geo
  82. By: Anne Slob; Ronald Van Kempen; Gideon Bolt
    Abstract: In many West European countries the welfare state is retreating and instruments of urban policy have changed. Urban policies are now often area based, which means that action is taken in a spatially defined area. One of the problems of this approach is that it leads to a so called spatial knock-on effect. This is when an area-based approach causes side effects in other areas, that are not involved in the policy. So far, most interest is in the effects for the targeted area, and less attention is being paid to the side effects for other areas. In our opinion this has to change in order to have sound evaluations of the effectiveness of area based urban policies. The aim of this paper is to take a closer look at the effects of area based urban policies in both targeted areas and non targeted areas from a quantitative and a qualitative perspective. In the quantitative approach we examine how the amount of problems in both targeted and non targeted areas has changed since area based urban policy has been implemented. In the qualitative approach information is gathered by interviewing policymakers to find out in what way they deal with spatial knock-on effects. All of this has been studied in the context of three cities in the Netherlands. In the end of the paper we aim to explain spatial knock-on effects and try to strengthen this explanation with several theoretical insights. We also draw some conclusions for further research that can be useful for policymakers.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p464&r=geo
  83. By: Apostolos Lagarias
    Abstract: The application of fractal geometry at the analysis of the urban development patterns has been widely investigated during the last two decades, providing further evidence that cities are complex and emergent structures . The fractal dimension of an urban area is an extremely useful indicator of the urban spatial structure and it’s transformation through time. Various models and algorithms are used to calculate the fractal dimension, such as the Box-Counting Method and the Radial Analysis . The paper concentrates on the urbanization at the edges of the city, the outskirts of the metropolitan areas, which can be considered the examples par excellence of complex, fractal-like urban structures, revealing at the same time dynamic processes of growth and transformation. The basic models of fractal analysis are presented, with the focus on the interpretation of the calculated values and the evaluation of the observed urban patterns: Fractal dimensions can be used as indicators of urban sprawl, of the degree of fragmentation of the urban landscape and of the transition from monocentric to polycentric structures. A further exploration of the above notions is based on the application of the models on an area at the outskirts of Thessaloniki, Greece. The calculation of the fractal dimensions is based on the logarithmic expression of the relationships N(l) = al-D, Ã(R) = bRD, where N presents the number of cells that are developed, l the size of the grid that is used for the calculation, D the fractal dimension, R the distance from and appropriately defined center and a,b are constants. The results are displayed by the presentation of the scatter diagrams and the linear regression between the calculated values. The important changes observed during the last decades at the urban spatial structure of the area under investigation are being evaluated by the quantitative methods provided by the fractal analysis. Attention is given to the divergence of the values across space and scale and through time. As a conclusion the need for further investigation of the models is being noted. The correlation of the fractal analysis with other methods and indices used to quantify the configuration and composition of the urban areas, and also with more general socioeconomic data, should be regarded as a promising field of further research.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p828&r=geo
  84. By: Ioannis Katsios; Andreas Tsatsaris; Athina Sakellariou
    Abstract: Accessing the infrastructure networks, the urban concentrations, the commercial and other activities or key locations, is considered by the spatial planners as a significant and sensitive variable for the territorial analysis. The spatial policies are determined today by the principals of equal and balanced distribution of human resources and activities, as well as by the systematic study of territorial disparities in the deepest territorial analysis detail level possible. The traditional calculative methods of accessibility indicators, does not take into account the entire space of the study area. In the contrary, it’s mainly based on calculating the travel cost on linear networks using the "arc-node" topologies. According to these methodologies, the variables (time, distance, or other types of cost) are calculated only for the network elements (nodes, lines). During the recent years, some published studies have appointed the above issue. Accessibility is faced as continuous data thus it is valued and attributed in the entire area of study and not just on the network body. This study’s main objective is to generate an accumulative travel cost indicator for the Greek territory, using all major transportation means. In addition the respective spatial typology will be created. The indicator is produced using three distinctive spatial levels representing the three transportation means (land, sea and air transportation). The study’s methodology is based on the formation of continuous cost surface model, in raster format, using all the aforementioned transportation nodes. The travel cost value that each cell on the surface will be assigned to, is the absolute time of traveling towards the transportation nodes or towards specific linear network elements. An emphasis is given to the study’s cartographic component as well as to the comprehensive use of spatial analysis techniques which are available on GIS software.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p159&r=geo
  85. By: Matteo Lanzafame
    Abstract: This paper investigates the nature of regional unemployment in Italy. Taking as a starting point the evidence of growing disparities in the 1977-2003 years, we assess whether regional unemployment rates are diverging from each other in a non-stationary way, i.e. as a result of pure hysteresis. Relying both on univariate and panel unit-root tests, we show that the finding of a unit root in the Italian regional unemployment rates, which previous studies provided evidence of, is largely dependent on the use of low power tests. Exploiting the greater power of panel unit root tests allows us to confidently reject the unit root and, thus, the pure hysteresis hypothesis. The implication of this result is that, however persistent, shocks to regional unemployment will be temporary, in the sense that unemployment will return to its natural rate or NAIRU in the long-run. We, then, proceed to estimate the NAIRU for each of the 20 Italian regions. Our estimates of the regional NAIRUs turn out to be fairly precise, at least if compared to similar studies in the literature, and allow us to draw two interesting conclusions. Firstly, the hypothesis of a constant NAIRU between 1977 and 2003 is supported by the data for all of the Italian regions, with the possible exception of Abruzzo. Secondly, we find that there is a significant degree of heterogeneity among the regional NAIRUs. Thus, long-term regional unemployment disparities do seem to reflect structural or equilibrium unemployment differences across regions, as implied by the results of the unit root tests. This suggests that economic policy intervention aimed at reducing long-term regional unemployment differentials in Italy should, as much as possible, be region-specific in character. National policies, homogenous across regions, are likely to have diverse effects on the regional NAIRUs.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p155&r=geo
  86. By: Teresa De Noronha Vaz
    Abstract: This paper represents an effort to evaluate the current position and perspectives of science, technology and innovation in several Atlantic Regions. It is based on the results of a still running European research project (REGINA) that puts together Andaluzia, Algarve, Norte, Galicia, País Vasco, Bretagne, West Midlands and Border, Midland and Western. Not discussing the large spectrum of the goals of that project, this is an exercise to discuss the possibility of setting up a lasting partnership for regional knowledge management in the politically so important Atlantic space. Comprehending Spain, Portugal, France, United Kingdom and Ireland, this part of Europe also integrates regions lagging in terms of tacit and codified knowledge environments and, consequent innovative attitudes. Would they benefit of a better territorial development balance within the Atlantic space in case of a regional innovation system common strategy? And if so, which sectors are those to show greater skills for technological transfer within cooperative performances? Highlighting an interactive model for which knowledge creation is understood in a broad perspective and innovation implicitly demands more than a simply gathering of discoveries and inventions the theoretical framing accepts the adaptation and combination of existing forms of knowledge. This interactive and dynamic concept emphasises the external environment of the firms in addition to their internal knowledge creation capacity and refers a synthetic framework based on the concept of the learning process as a driver to redress stakeholders’ attitudes and strategic choices. In such a context, the advantages that may result from institutional geographical proximity or similarity, specific knowledge diffusion and networking in coordination of common interests could build up advantages. In short, the specific construction of a territorial knowledge base and the consequent achievement of more sustainable regional development for a large part of the European Atlantic border are discussed in this practical case. Based on secondary data from the European Innovation Scoreboard, an outline over the regional innovation performances of the considered regions will be supplied. Also, based on primary data obtained near the institutional bodies of each region, an analysis of the existent governance structures is possible. The conclusion allows considerations related to the present context for the development of an Atlantic spatial development strategy.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p695&r=geo
  87. By: Burcin Yazgi; Vedia Dokmeci
    Abstract: Istanbul has a very rich urban structure due to its historical background as being the capital of three empires. Since urban design has a long tradition of emanating from the past, it can be very stimulating to investigate the urban structure of Istanbul in different locations with different locational, historical and socia-economic background. With this respect Istanbul presents a rich urban structure to reweal the relationships among the different urban characteristics for the urban designers. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to investigate building density with respect to population density, road surface ratio, urban block areas, distance to central business district, to the subcenters and to the sea shores in Istanbul. Multiple regression analysis is used as the research method. Building density is taken the dependent variable and the others independent variables of the analysis. According to the results of the analysis, building density of the neighborhoods is a function of distance to central business district, road surface ratio, urban block area and distance to the sea shore. There is no relationship between the building density and distance to subcenters. Thus, the distribution of density has a wide spectrum within the city depending on the changing life styles, income, history and amenities. The results of the study can be useful for urban planners, urban designers, policy makers, and transportation planners. For further research, it is suggested to investigate the relationship between building density and environmental control.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p72&r=geo
  88. By: Stefano Aragona
    Abstract: Technological innovation pushes transformatioin, rennovation and urban regenaration of areas and services. Special attention is given to the major urban centres, for the most related to nationale and/or Ue policy (Ce, 2003; Ce, 2004). A number of important questions are emerging between the reinforcement of the bigger areas, both metropolitan and urban, and the smaller centres. Moreover, according with different institutional actors it would be better more balanced process of anthropization because environmental and social reasons (APAT, 2004). In Calabria there are very few towns with more then 15.000 residents, often they are isolated and in the internal land. It requires to connect these areas by network, to push the diffusion of innovation and technology, to build up the “educated technology†(Del Nord, 1991). As said in other place (Aragona, 2003), the region is becoming to partecipate to the global village and the Ue (Ue, 1994; 1995; 1996) have policies and areas of implementation (Information Society, POR Calabbria 2000-20006; RIS+ 2001-2002). The paper faces a number of questions continuing such a topic. How are changing some of these areas that have implemented the technological innovation? Which impact are making the strategies and the choices on the spatial, functional and social context. The social effectiveness related to the quality life, said by Gasparini (1990) does it better? Could it be the outcome due to the absence of concentrated localization as is the case of other territorial areas marked by the “reticular†network (Dematteis, 1990)? Above all it requires to evaluate, said that the technological facilities are present enough, the role plays by the innovation as engine for both the cultural and awareness growth. Push for and knowledge that overcomes the mere informatization and suggestes the e-government: a formation and information path dedicated to build up new tools for local action and planning in the global competition. Identification of new settlements and spatial criteria (Appold et al., 1990), construction of urban spaces as signs of the past (Augè, 2004) but also signals of a new development and of social choesion, new citizenship (Cacciari, 1991).
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p724&r=geo
  89. By: Yannis Psycharis; Alex Deffner; Ioanna Iordanidou
    Abstract: The culture of any city undoubtedly promotes its development. The formulation and implementation of cultural policies, a key issue for urban economic development, relate to a variety of economic sectors. Cultural elements that can contribute to urban development could be either a direct promotion of its cultural identity, or their residents’ contribution to the achievement of high quality of life, generating competitiveness between similar cities. The research aim is the investigation of the ways that a city’s cultural reserve can be the means of its development. The particular research methodology was a questionnaire survey, addressed to the inhabitants (200) and visitors (50) of Veria, a medium size city in Northern Greece. The research object was Veria’s cultural environment and its impacts to urban regeneration. It is of vital importance to establish whether Veria’s residents are familiar with their local culture, whether they appropriate it and, consequently, whether they are satisfied from the relevant promotional policy. It was requested from them to evaluate the current management policy of their city’s cultural reserve, followed by their observations and proposals. Furthermore, it was examined whether Veria’s culture could be a stimulant for visitors, by demanding a direct evaluation of the applied cultural promotional policy. It is observed that tourism was one of the main visiting criteria, followed by commuting to working, and using the city as a passage point to other neighbouring destinations. Visitors claim that Veria’s cultural environment could be, undoubtedly, the main stimulant for cultural tourist attraction, if promoted in the appropriate manner. The residents’ discontent was also expressed in terms of the city’s inadequate applied cultural reserve management. They believe that Veria’s local culture could contribute not only to urban regeneration, but also to regional development. A formulation of innovative management policies is critically essential, as well as the immediate need of the inclusion of innovative technologies in Veria’s cultural promotion plans.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p908&r=geo
  90. By: Josef Abrham; Milan Vosta
    Abstract: The main aim of the article is, on the basis of a complex evaluation of regional developing factors, to formulate developing presumptions of the Czech Republic and selected new member states of the EU (Hungary, Poland and Slovakia) after their joining the European Union and therefore to appraise the impacts of the integrative process on a regional differentitaton of analyzed countries. The other aims of the study are: • To set and adopt a methodical process for an evaluation of growth potential of the regions. • To overall evaluate weaknesses in a regional structure of appraised countries of the Central Europe and main shortages from regional growth factors facilities point of view. • To formulate convergent possibilities of examined countries regions after their joining the European Union considering the core of the European Union as well as the inside of the countries themselves. • To analyze important theoretical concepts of regional development particularly with concentration on determination of main factors of regional growth. The starting point for the analyses of the regional disparities is the analyses of economic issues, demographic differentiation and its socioeconomic impact. At the same time new macroregions with stagnant economies were delinated, but also, dynamically developing regions which often spill over state bordes. In the article late development of regional disparities among regions of Czech republic and selected member states of the EU is also evaluated. This development is defined on the basis of own calculations of statistic indicators of variability. The evaluation of disparities is narrowed to the most important indicator of an economic level – GDP per capita. The basic statistic indicator for a comparison of differences is the Coefficient of Variance. The calculations of a range among regions have been included as additional. The conclusions are focused, in accord with determined aims of the study, on a complex evaluation of growth presumptions of regions of the Czech Republic and selected new member states of he EU after their joining the European Union as well as on formulation of main conclusions in relation to the evaluation of: typical trends in regional differentiations of analyzed countries, possibilities of regional growth after joining the European Union, presumptions of convergence of the average of current member states of EU, weaknesses examined regions from growth factors facilities point of view.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p148&r=geo
  91. By: Bernardino Romano; Giulio Tamburini
    Abstract: Recently the conservation policies in Europe are considering the problem of the urban increasing in terms of soil destroyed and ecosystem fragmentation effects. In Italy this phenomena are becoming particularly important if we consider it at national level, but also at regional level. The paper has the goal to show some data relative to the distribution and the impact of urban surfaces on the large landscape national units, comparing the values among the units kind. Moreover will be implemented the data relative to some regional situation (Lazio, Marche, Umbria) of the Italian peninsula for having the indication about different environmental conditions as, for example, coastal areas, mountain areas or hill areas or also flat areas and different morphological structures. These data will be compare with other territorial characteristics, as the protected areas distribution and the biopermeability areas distribution. The knowledge of these information is very important for the planning action because it is possible to obtain, by means particular GIS models, indications about the urban sensibility of the different land parts in the future.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p400&r=geo
  92. By: Ewa Bojar
    Abstract: Past experience of European Union member states acknowledge significant role of regions in the process of European integration. As a matter of fact regions compete for capital but what should be simultaneously highlighted they also collaborate in many fields. To a large extent regional and local development is determined by clusters, which are groups of complementary enterprises having certain similarities with one another as well as linked institutions engaged in a certain area. Clusters can play crucial role in improving competitiveness and stimulate innovation in regions, especially those economically backward as well as in Polish economy as a whole. The aim of this paper is to survey some theoretical concepts and practical aspects of functioning clusters, especially good practices and shortcomings in the context of regional and local development, and presentation of Polish relevant experiences and expectations. This paper presents a few clusters operating in Poland, with special focus on two clusters run in underdeveloped Lublin region – Ecological Food Valley and Aviation Valley.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p341&r=geo
  93. By: Fereniki Vatavali
    Abstract: Giannena, one of the largest cities in Northwest Greece, is the capital of Ioannina Prefecture and Epirus Region. The location of the city next to Albanian borders and the historical links with the society of South Albania had as a result the transformation of the urban functions during the last 15 years. In Ottoman era Giannena city used to be the social, economic, administrative and cultural center of Southwestern Balkans. Despite the ethnological and linguistic variety of the communities that lived in the area, people shared a common way of life. In 1913 this geographical area was divided in two parts: Epirus -including Giannena, that joined the Greek state, and South Albania, that became a part of the newly founded Albanian state. The network of the social and economic relations of the past was hurt seriously. The relations between the Greek and the Albanian society stopped completely after the Second World War, when communism established in Albania and borders closed. The social and economic periphery of Giannena city was minimized. In 1990 the Albanian political system changed and the borders of the country opened. Giannena city became again the center of a transnational area and historical links between the two societies were regenerated. Exchange between Greece and Albania started due to uneven development. People, goods and capital moved from one side to the other, affecting the life of Giannena city, as well as the life of the zone next to the borders dramatically. This paper is based on a research that took place in 2005 in the frame of my thesis (MSc Urban and Regional Planning / NTUA) and focuses on the transformation of life at Giannena city after the opening of the borders. The following sectors of urban life are examined: population, commerce, investments, constructions, real estate, transportation and bank system. In addition, the paper addresses the initiatives and the activities of municipal authorities, NGOs, educational and cultural organizations with regards to the new geopolitical environment in the area. The main intention of this paper is to explore the current modes of cross-border cooperation and their effects on space.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p449&r=geo
  94. By: Esin Ince Kompil; Adile Arslan Avar
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the inner city decline in Turkey, by drawing on a field research, which was conducted in Izmir, Tuzcu District, in 2005. The paper places the inner city decline within the context of uneven development. Although inner city decline backgrounded by uneven and dual structure is very common for all capitalist cities in developed countries, this phenomenon incarnated as segregated and neglected areas, which become both socially and spatially declining parts of the city, is relatively new for Turkey. In order to explore this phenomenon in Turkey and to compare it to those in other countries, we had to consider the level and nature of segregation and deprivation indicators that have already been developed by the existing works elaborating on inner city decline. One of the mostly used tools for examining the declining inner-city residential areas is “deprivation index†formed by Townsend in 1990s. The general deprivation index comprises two fundamental sections: social deprivation and material deprivation. Social deprivation includes the indicators such as employment, family activity, integration, participation to social institutions, recreation, and education. Material deprivation consists of the indicators such as dietary, clothing, housing, home facilities, environment, location, and working conditions. The analysis of the data coming from 2005 field survey in the Tuzcu district of Izmir showed that some indicators such as poverty, unemployment, decline of physical environment, disinvestments and economic decline arise as having similar features with developed countries, and that segregation is visible when our research area, Tuzcu district, is compared to other parts of Izmir. However, regarding segregation within the district itself, it is not so acceptable feature. Moreover, findings of the survey indicated that segregation in Tuzcu District, as being different from the developed countries, is fundamentally defined by class or income structure, rather than ethnic or regional origins.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p450&r=geo
  95. By: Ioannis Kaplanis
    Abstract: This paper investigates the regional and subregional patterns of employment polarisation in Great Britain. Extending recent econometric evidence for employment polarisation at the national level, the focus of analysis is to examine the geography of this polarisation. Methodological issues on how we define and measure ‘job polarisation’ are presented and plausible theories for explaining this polarisation are reviewed. It has been suggested that low-quality jobs, defined either as low-paid jobs or low-skill jobs, depend increasingly on the growth of employment and wages of high-quality jobs. The presence of a growing high-income workforce in the economy generates consumer demand for local services leading this way to an increase in the low-skill employment sector. As these local services refer mainly to the non-traded sector of the economy, this hypothesis implies physical proximity of the low-skilled and high-skilled jobs. Therefore, in the empirical part of the paper, econometric techniques are used in order to investigate the location of job polarisation. Specifically, we examine whether employment polarisation happens within regions or just across regions and test further for such evidence at the subregional level and neighbouring localities. New Earnings Survey (NES) microdata that span over a long time period and are workplace-based are used for such purposes. Furthermore, evidence for dependency of low-skill jobs on high-skill ones at the local level and possible urban-specificity of the phenomenon are investigated. Taking into account the importance of employment shifts, changes in median wages of the different jobs and within job-inequality for explaining the increase in earnings inequality in GB in the recent decades, the contribution of employment polarisation to the actual rise in inequality is examined. Additionally, the paper examines whether employment polarisation patterns are associated with regional differences in the labour force composition.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p597&r=geo
  96. By: George Petrakos; Georgios Fotopoulos; Dimitrios Kallioras
    Abstract: An empirical model has been deployed to account for regional industrial growth and performance in Greece’s post EU-accession period. The results obtained suggest that the effect of European integration on manufacturing has been rather adverse across Greek regions. Regions that are more industrialised, whose structure was more similar to the European average and which have been more exposed to European competition are those that have been more adversely affected. In contrast, higher diversity, higher presence of capital intensive sectors and higher tertiarisation of the regional economies were found to be beneficial to regional industrial growth and performance.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p133&r=geo
  97. By: Ebru Kerimoglu; Hale Ciraci
    Abstract: Urban tourism study is a research involving the change in the economic base of cities, in the land use of the urban places as well as in the social life’s of the residents. The most important issues for the cities taking place within the developing tourism sector are managing the change and the people influenced by such change successfully. The cities, the final spatial products of the activities of the mankind do have a considerable importance on tourism. The cities are the places where cultural inheritance is intense and gathered. Cities are the biggest touristic resources and are themselves among the important destinations. The importance of city destinations has increased with the efforts to ensure tourism variation in Turkey and with the new strategies to extend tourism season to the whole year. These developments increased the expectations of Turkish tourism from Istanbul substantially. The primary goal for Istanbul is looking after its historical, cultural and natural resources and providing the city with a global status, a development in compliance with that of the country and the region, taking place within the other metropols in the global economic development process, making use of the regional opportunities within the economic structures of the world and region and assuming a lead role in this structuring and establishing a protection and development balance as a metropolis with historical, cultural, scientific, artistic, politic, commercial and service backgrounds. For Istanbul’s being a global city, its commercial and touristic characteristics should be emphasized and the service sector for that purpose should be developed with planning strategy. This study assumes that the tourism function, considered to be the most efficient means to introduce Istanbul to the rest of the world, should be developed in a planned and strategic manner and intends to analyze the demographic profiles of international visitors visiting Istanbul make strategies to tourism development of Istanbul as well as consider to necessity very detailed studies on the subject.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p237&r=geo
  98. By: Liv Osland; Inge Thorsen
    Abstract: The starting point of this paper is a hedonic regression model where house prices are explained as a result of urban attraction and the accessibility to job opportunities in the region. The basic hypothesis is that house prices reflect that households in addition value accessibility to job opportunities in the neighborhood. We propose several measures of local labor market characteristics, and test for the impact on house prices. The alternative measures do not add considerably to the explanatory power. Still, some characteristics contribute significantly, and affect the size and interpretation of the relationship between local labor market conditions and house prices.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p490&r=geo
  99. By: Yorgos Photis; Fotini Athanasiou
    Abstract: Trips in urban areas from residence to different activities constitute a large amount of daily transportations. The study of these trips and especially those towards public sector services and by public transportation means is essential in order to evaluate the effectiveness of public networks planning. In this paper, both public services and public buses networks are studied in a joint framework in order to evaluate their spatial allocation association which reflects effective service of citizens’ daily trips. The proposed methodology utilizes GIS technology and spatial analysis methods and is applied to the city of Volos (Greece). In this framework, population of each building block is assigned to the closest bus station (destination) while each bus station (origin) is assigned to its closest public facility. Different service areas are defined for each station and public service and the proximity of all building blocks is calculated. Further processing of the resulting information leads to the quantification of the spatial relationship between demand (population) and supply (public services and bus stations) and therefore, to the evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness levels of public networks in urban areas.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p947&r=geo
  100. By: Riikka Penttinen
    Abstract: This study seeks to shed light on the regional distribution of culture workers in Finland. What factors – if any - make the location decisions of culture workers different from that of others? This study uses a rich micro level data for an application of multinomial logit model. The data is from the Finnish Longitudinal Census File and it contains information e.g. on individual's personal charactersitics, family characteristics and working life characteristics. The estimation results show that being a culture worker is an important factor in locational choice: the coefficient of living in a metropolitan area compared to rural areas is highly positive. According to the estimated marginal effects, the likelihood of living in a metropolitan region increases as much as 22 percentage points if the person is a culture worker. Another interesting notion is that the residential choices of cultural entrepreneurs seem to differ from that of other entrepreneurs.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p175&r=geo
  101. By: Valerija Botric; Jelena Sisinacki; Lorena Skuflic
    Abstract: It is a common belief that investment in transport infrastructure has a positive impact on a regional development. Theories suggest that interaction between infrastructure and regional development can be classified as: 1. theory which suggests that infrastructure follows regional development, 2. theory that underlines importance of infrastructure development as an inductor of the regional development and 3. balanced development which equally emphasizes the role of infrastructure and economic growth in the region. While it is quite easy to determine direct benefits in term of reduced travel time, reduced vehicle operating costs as well as increased transport safety, contribution to the society (regional) development as a whole i.e. evaluation methods, are subject to certain discussions. Through its development strategies, the Republic of Croatia is supporting thesis that infrastructure network is prerequisite to the regional development. In that context, intensive investments in the highway programme are elaborated with the expected positive effects on the regional development. Building of the so called “Istrian Yâ€, highway that shall improve transport connections within the County of Istria is selected to determine weather or not there is a justification for such an belief. Therefore, in this paper we aim to analyze the impact of the “Istrian Y†on the selected indicators of the County development. We expect that positive effects of the infrastructure development will be proven by the selected indicators, which confirms that infrastructure can be considered as an inductor of the regional development in Croatian case.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p88&r=geo
  102. By: M. Oguz Sinemillioglu; Nurtekin Ozen
    Abstract: The study will be deal with migration, which is a very important phenomenon in urbanization process and mostly has negative effects and brings lots of problems to urban life. Migration could be describe as a movement that contains demand for a better life, i.e. demand for housing, demand for job, demand for school, etc… This demand, however, puts out of order urban life and disintegrates the urban system. In Turkey, especially after 1950ies, there is migration and sometimes this migration has been containing very big numbers in terms of population. Besides, after 1990ies, Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey has given out migration, especially via the city of Diyarbakir. The migration, from the city and the region to west side of Turkey, like Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir, used Diyarbakir as a stopover. In addition of being a stopover point, Diyarbakir not only gives out migration but also get in migration. Thus makes Diyarbakir a city that has no history in social life and in urban culture. Shortly, The study will try to question migration and its effects to Turkey’s urbanization process in Diyarbakir case.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p493&r=geo
  103. By: Evangelos Kyriazopoulos; Maria - Athina Artavani
    Abstract: Freight Villages are very widely used in the processes of trade and transport in Western Europe, Southeast Asia and the U.S.. Freight Villages are places that provide integrated services including the rationalization of trade flows, the combination of transport modes, added value logistics services, uninterrupted city distribution, decongestion of urban traffic etc. This paper attempts to examine the application of an agglomeration economies policy to the wide Balkan market, which is currently undergoing a phase of political and investing stability and of administrative reorganization. These elements will be further reinforced in the future with the accession of two Balkan states in the E.U., namely Bulgaria and Romania, and with the anticipated regularization of trade processes. This new environment undoubtedly favors the development of complex and well-designed trade infrastructures, such as Freight Villages, that are expected to have a strong influence on regional development and on the reduction of product distribution costs. The case of the Freight Village on the Greek – Bulgarian border at Promachonas in Serres is an interesting and original case study for the greater area. The first Freight Village in Greece, with the contribution of the private, public and EU capital has already been in operation since 2001, contributing to the rationalized management of trade flows, the development of cross-border trade, the provision of high quality services to consumers, the increase in employment and to the regional development of the degraded border area of Serres. The variables of the model are based on economic, social, commercial, environmental and other elements and statistical data, as well as on field research at the Freight Village and at the region. Finally, the paper reaches certain conclusions and makes a series of proposals. The conclusions refer to the degree and range of consequences of the Promachonas Freight Village to the regional development of Serres. The proposals refer to the development of a Balkan network of Freight Villages and other secondary transport infrastructures within the framework of the existing and scheduled Trans-European Networks (T.E.N.s), aiming at the regional development of the Balkans.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p167&r=geo
  104. By: Andreas Tsatsaris; Polixeni Iliopoulou; Panagiotis Stratakis
    Abstract: Rural space in Greece is experiencing a significant transformation. During the last four decades the traditional urban-rural dichotomy has given its place to complex spatial patterns which are in a process of continuous change. This change is the result of a variety of factors such as the international economic environment, the emergence of new economic activities in rural areas, mainly the service sector and tourism, the changing urban-rural relations as well as the implementation of national and European policies for the agricultural sector and for rural development. In addition, rural development is not any longer dependent solely on the agricultural sector but also on the rural- urban relationships and the presence of a large variety of economic activities in rural areas. In this paper data concerning demographic, economic and infrastructure characteristics of rural areas are analyzed for the last five population Censuses, describing the transformation of rural space in Greece. A number of typologies of rural areas in Greece are presented for different time periods which demonstrate the significant changes of rural patterns in the last two decades. These typologies are employed in order to suggest policy guidelines for rural development in Greece. The results will be presented in a GIS environment and when appropriate will be compared to similar studies in Europe. Finally policies for agricultural and rural development, in the context of European regional and spatial development, will be examined in relation to rural patterns in Greece and the development perspectives of rural areas.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p608&r=geo
  105. By: Jose Cadima Ribeiro; Jose Freitas Santos
    Abstract: Networks of firms producing and selling regional products to domestic and foreign markets are influencing the direction and options of local development. Regional products are embedded in historical tradition and geographic, cultural and social specificity. Most of the local activities are performed by clustered SME's in well defined geographical areas. To study the mechanisms and factors which favour spontaneous development in specific areas and make SME's competitive through cluster development we used case study methodology. An evolutionary perspective of "Casa Matias" and "Casa dos Queijos", two portuguese SME's, is expected to illustrate which key factors triggered the firm's cheese business and, simultaneously, examine organisational practices with particular emphasis on cluster formation and internationalisation process. From this analysis we expected to conceptualise a specific policy scheme to help developing spontaneous entrepreneurship, cooperation between clustered SME's and local collective development.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p66&r=geo
  106. By: Otto Raspe; Frank Van Oort; Martijn Burger
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze the regional embeddedness of firm’s networks in Dutch regions. Theorizing on urban economic networks is an important issue in the urban economic growth literature (Batten 1995, Hess 2004). For this, 2000 firms in basic sectors (industrial, business-services and wholesale) provided information on their ten most important relationships with other firms in terms of turnover. Besides the relations themselves, the type of relations (standardized, customized or joint-venture), the frequency of relations, the sectoral composition and the exact destination of relations are known. These aspects are used to create subsamples that are analyzed. We draw conclusions of the shares of intra-urban relations, intra-region relations, national relations and international relations. Aggregated to the municipal level, we test for the central place hypothesis of firms’ subcontracting and delivering relations as opposed to the network hypothesis of multinodality, in six regions in the Netherlands. Conclusions on the importance of both paradigms are drawn and related to recent policy initiatives that aim at urban network development. Batten, D. (1995), “Network cities: creative urban agglomerations for the 21st Centuryâ€. In: Urban Studies 32, pp. 313-327. Hess, M. (2004), “Spatial relationships? Towards a reconceptualization of embeddedness†In: Progress in Human Geography 28, pp. 165-186.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p827&r=geo
  107. By: Frank Van Oort; Roderik Ponds; Koen Frenken
    Abstract: The geography of innovation has established itself as a central subject in economic geography. Geographical proximity to firms and organizations like universities is supposed to have a positive effect on a firms’ innovative performance. One of the reasons causing these positive agglomeration effects is the fact that collaboration is eased by geographical proximity. Although the role of proximity for collaboration is a well researched theme with regard to innovation, less is known about the role of proximity in scientific collaboration and how this affects the probability and nature of networking among research institutions. This is surprising given the fact that collaboration in science has become a central policy issue. In this paper we set out a number of theoretical considerations about the role of geography for innovation and see whether these apply for science as well. The empirical part will focus on the geography of collaboration in scientific knowledge production, testing the hypothesis that collaboration between different kinds of organizations is geographically more localized than collaboration between the same kinds of organizations due to institutional or organizational proximity. Besides this we will analyze the importance of spatial proximity for various forms of collaboration (such as university-university and university-firm collaboration) using the concept of the gravity model. Finally we will look at the spatial structure of these collaboration networks using insights from social network methodology. Based on co-publications, central nodes of collaborative interaction and network structures are analysed over time. On the network-level we conclude on differences in the fields of life- and physical sciences and on differences on the type of relations according to university-firm, university-university and university-governmental institution linkages. On the regional level we conclude on the centrality and spatial extent of scientific collaboration hubs over time
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p762&r=geo
  108. By: Kakia Sofianopoulou
    Abstract: The disintegration of Popular Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in 1990, did not only mean the end of a state-country, but also the end of a rather particular political and economically system, which originated and developed in its interior. In the present paper, the regional inequalities in Former Yugoslavia are examined, as well as adopted policies for achievement of regional convergence and their results. The main factors that led the country to unequal economic growth were historical, economical, political, and demographical. The regional policies that were applied in order to eradicate, existing inequalities-divergences in the first post-war decade, consisted of government-aided investments in the less developed regions by transferring of funds and resources (donations from state-budget, interest-free loans, etc.) By presenting and examining the economic growth of the regions at the beginning and at the end of period of application of regional policies (1966 and 1990), based on the indicators used by Yugoslav government (GDP, employment and fixed capital equipment), we concluded that even though a increase in the growth rates was accomplished, the provinces of Yugoslavia did not alter their initial hierarchy in terms of regional divergence. Subsequently, the regional policies that were adopted in the period of 1966-1990, failed to achieve their objectives. The reasons that led to this failure were not only of economic nature but also a result of not taking under consideration the demographic behaviours of the less developed regions. In order to examine this, particular accent will be given in the province of Kosovo, and the issue of demographic increase (absence of measures for control of births) which resulted in the failure of regional policies to the extend that “demographic investments†absorbed the total capital directed to this region.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p604&r=geo
  109. By: Metin Ozaslan; Bulent Dincer; Huseyin Ozgur
    Abstract: This aim of this article is to examine the problem of regional disparities in Turkey applying to the economic and social development indicators. One of the main problems encountered in the field of regional development in Turkey is the difficulties in having access to qualified data as is the case in other countries. Therefore, it is of great importance to improve the information gathering and evaluation systems in Turkey. Social and economic development index (SEDI) rankings have contributed to the filling of the gap in this field by providing a considerable data input to development and planning initiatives conducted in Turkey on the basis of territories of various scales (districts, provinces, geographical regions, NUTS I, II, III regions). “The Socio-Economic Development Ranking Survey of Provinces and Regions (2003)â€, the main findings of which will be presented in this paper covers 81 provinces according to the existing administrative structure of Turkey and includes 58 variables selected from social (demographic, employment, education, health, infrastructure, other welfare) and economic (manufacturing, construction, agriculture, financial) spheres. The survey has applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a developed multi-variable statistical technique which allows the use of interdependent variables. The paper is composed of the following sections: The first section outlines the regional development trends in Turkey and evaluates the increasing importance of territorial development policies, applying to the relevant Turkish and international literature. The second section gives a brief summary of major regional development policies and practices that have been implemented in Turkey and the various problems of regional disparities.. The fourth section includes the methodology of SEDI studies. The fifth section evaluates and summarizes major findings of the survey and briefly lays down the results of SEDI Rankings of 81 provinces, geographical regions and NUTS II regions included in the survey. This section also includes a ranking of the industrial, health and education sectors. The fifth section presents the general conclusion and major recommendations to lessen territorial disparities in Turkey in the light of national and international discussions on the topic.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p858&r=geo
  110. By: Pelin Ocal; Gulden Erkut
    Abstract: Industrial clusters are important tools for regional growth all over the world. Firms develop different kind of cooperations in different fields with their subcontractors and their competitors against competition caused by globalization and liberalization. Competition conditions force firms to be innovative at technology, design and organisation. Information flow among the firms within clusters is also necessary for innovation. Spatial concentration of firms in a specific locality is not enough but collaboration among them is also necessary in order for the firms coming together physically work as a cluster. From the theoretical point of view, industrial firms tend to move from core regions to peripherial regions. Firms which need bigger land and cheaper labour diffuse towards small towns. Size of cities is another reason of relocation of industries.In other words, firms producing more standart products decide to settle in places where they can make cheaper production. Industry located in Istanbul Metropolitan area started to move towards Thrace region after 1970’s. Metropolitan city plans produced in 1970’s and governments’ decentralisation policies for them were the main reasons of this relocation process. In this paper, firstly, industrialization dynamics of Thrace region are described. Secondly, industry clusters and structure of industries in Corlu, which is a small industry town growing rapidly and having nearly 350 industrial firms in Thrace region, is focused upon. The results of a survey on firms were presented in this paper. The main locational determinant of firms and their main characteristics, the kind of cooperation they develop in the competition condition, main information channels between them, their innovation activities and impact on region’s economy are investigated. The main research question is, whether these firms only concentrate physically or they work as a real cluster as well. From this point, it could be possible to prospect about future of the region and to find out to what extent these firms may sustain at this locality?
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p685&r=geo
  111. By: Zerrin Hosgor; Reyhan Genli Yigiter
    Abstract: Urban open spaces present the good quality of life to communities. Open space systems must be considered as a sub-system of the urban infrastructure for creating the livable cities and the sustainability in rapid urban growth process. It has accepted to determine the necessities of some policies, finance managements and application tools to build the green infrastructure. When Istanbul metropolitan city has been investigated in this concept, some requirements that need functional and spatial connectivity, environmental protection and recreational opportunities for citizens appear in the environmentally insufficient areas. The landscape planning that will respond these negativenesses, present some solutions, provide some opportunities and prevent disappearance of the urban open spaces constitutes the conceptual framework of this study. In the last two decades, the modern landscape planning concept that called “greenway planning†in 21. century, the planners concern this concept with the aims of the nature protection that balances for both conservation and growth, creating livable environment and maintain open spaces. By enriching the existing green spaces and increasing their uses, helping to emphasize the values of the poor resources and linking them with each other. The firstly aim of the study is to define the greenway concept that is useful for urban metropolis. Greenway that is a special kind of linear landscape, represent the potential linking landscape features as historical/cultural, natural and recreational. Greenways has become a tool to reach the natural life by providing linkage to housing and parks, by saving unique elements of the natural and cultural heritage that is important for public recreation in this century. The second aim of the study is to define a methodology that is useful for greenway planning for Istanbul by adopting from planning methods in Europe and America to create areas that provide recreational an environmental benefits and the places that people escape from the urban stress of the daily life in there. After explaining the opportunities and benefits of the greenway for urban settlements, in this study the main purpose is to define the greenway like a solution and examine the feasibility of greenway that links the natural resources, parks, historical and cultural sites with each other or residential areas in some situations for Istanbul metropolitan city in which the green areas are disappeared with urbanization pressure. It was determined the planning principles in application phase by investigating the applied projects, concluded the study in local scale and emphasize Halic greenway plan like the beginning of the whole greenway plan of Istanbul.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p886&r=geo
  112. By: Helen Papadopoulou; Afroditi Efthimiadou; G. Siardos
    Abstract: A large number of areas in our country are characterized as mountainous and less developed due to some special characteristics of their natural environment and landscape, due to which agriculture operates under serious comparative disadvantages. However, at the same time, these special characteristics of he natural environment and landscape of the remote and mountainous areas can be considered as advantages for other income generating activities, such as alterative types of tourism. More specifically, hills, mountains and lakes, can attract visitors in the area and support leisure fun and sports activities like trekking, climbing, fishing, animal watching and outdoor sports, which can positevely contribute development for the local communities.Both visitors and people of the local communities can be benefited. Visitors relax in a peaceful natural environment whereas the residents of the area can diversify their activities in order to increase their income from other community-based sources. European Community Agricultural and Regional Policy emphasizes the role of the natural environment and landscape of mountainous areas in the community development. Special provision on the Agricultural Development Policy of CAP incorporates the environment in the local development strategy . Local Development Agencies apply a number of Local Development Plans(LDPs) and EU Initiatives, such as Leader in the EU regions with an emphasis on landscape and natural environment management, since 1988. This study examines the role of the LDPs in income generating, employment increase, infrastructure maintenance and improvement and the environment quality and preservation. The attitudes of permanent reseidences of a remote area-of the municipality of Vegoritida-Pella-Greece-towards LDP is also examined. The local stakeholders(residents) were interviewed during November-December 2005, having already a ten years experience of LDPs in their region. Data were processed with SPSS and useful results were drawn about the regional development policy in the agricultural area of Vegoritis.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p646&r=geo
  113. By: Annette Zeilstra; Paul Elhorst
    Abstract: This study investigates the causes of variation in regional unemployment rates in a cross-country perspective. The explanatory variables consist of both regional-level and macro-level variables. An appropriate econometric model of random coefficients for the former and fixed coefficients for the latter variables is developed, further taking into account that observations may be correlated over time and over space and that some of the explanatory variables are not strictly exogenous. On the basis of this model a regional unemployment rate equation is estimated, using data of 143 regions across 11 EU countries derived from Eurostat, 1983-1997, and national data on labour market institutions predominantly derived from the OECD.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p73&r=geo
  114. By: Altan Aldan; Esma Gaygisiz
    Date: 2006
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tcb:wpaper:0609&r=geo
  115. By: Miguel C. Manjon-Antolin; Josep Maria Arauzo-Carod
    Abstract: This paper analyses the determinants of industrial location processes distinguishing between the location of new establishments and the relocation of extant establishments. Using data from the Catalan Industrial Establishments Register covering 946 municipalities over the period 2001-2004 we find that institutional characteristics, such as e.g. being capital of the province, strongly affect the location decisions of industrial establishments. In contrast, measures of agglomeration and location economies are not that important. We also find a close statistical relation between new locations and relocations. We discuss several econometric strategies based upon Poisson models for cross-section and panel data, thus providing alternative sets of estimates to address the robustness of our conclusions.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p33&r=geo
  116. By: Jose Antonio Cabral Vieira; Joao Pedro Couto; Maria Teresa Tiago
    Abstract: This paper analyses differences in the return to education in Portugal across regions. For this purpose, we use an extended Mincer-type wage equation. OLS regression results indicate that differences in the rewards to education are substantially different across regions. In particular, they are much higher in Lisbon than in other regions. Since the average level of education in Lisbon is much higher in Lisbon than elsewhere such a differential is attributed to the fact that the demand for educated labour is much higher in Lisbon, likely due to differences in technology. A quantile regression analysis reveals that the return to education is not constant across the whole conditional wage distribution. This is valid for the 18 regions examined, although once again the impact of education on wages is higher in Lisbon regardless the quantile we examine.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p44&r=geo
  117. By: Sanna-Mari Hynninen; Aki Kangasharju; Jaakko Pehkonen
    Abstract: The study shows that a stochastic frontier approach applied to regional level data offers a convenient and interesting method to examine how regional differences in matching efficiency and structural factors contribute to aggregate unemployment. The study finds notable and time-wise stable differences in the matching efficiency across travel-to-work areas in Finland. If all areas were as efficient as the most efficient one, the number of hires would increase about 40 per cent. This would decrease the aggregate unemployment rate from the current 8.5 percent level to 6.0 per cent. If all the areas shared the same structural characteristics as the most favourable area, the aggregate unemployment rate would drop to 7.1 per cent.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p416&r=geo
  118. By: Carla D Uva
    Abstract: Croatian and Italian coasts get involved in seasonal tourism that affects the equilibrium of cities. This phenomenon causes many specific problems that can be solved by suitable urban planning strategies. The actual Croatian coast development seems to replay the situation of the Italian coast 20 years ago: in both cases, the absence of adequate planning causes inability to manage and control urban growth. With respect to these general issues, the author aims at identifyng the planning framework instituted in Italy and in Croatia, through the comparative analysis of local and regional planning instruments such as guidelines, directives and prescriptions for actual and future plans. This study concerns mainly the two coastal areas of Molise, in Italy, and of Split-Dalmacija and Dubrovnik-Neretva counties, in Croatia. The author illustrates how a lack of a suitable physical planning is a serious threat to the development of coastal areas. One of the main causes is that the actual local and regional devices are unable to answer positively to environmental and landscape emergencies, especially in Croatia. Some of the main themes analysed are the following: road and railway systems, architectural, environmental and natural resources, industrial and tourist growth. The planning process has a strategical and leading role in urban governance, both in preliminary and in putting in act phase, in order to reach a sustainable development of the territory. Some interesting results emerge from the comparison of the two government systems and from the resources still available in Italy and in Croatia. These results are useful for continuing the research of development strategies to enhance the territorial value in a compatible way with needs of environmental and nature protection.The planning design guidelines, based on the development capability assessment of the territory, should be answer the requirements of sustainability and valorisation of local resources. This study has been accomplished by the GES.S.TER. Interreg III A Adriatic Cross Border (the Head of this Project is prof. Donatella Cialdea, University of Molise, and the Cross Border Partner is University of Split). The author is a PhD student in “Landscape Analysis and Valorisation†by University of Molise, Italy.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p373&r=geo
  119. By: Sirin Saracoglu; Murat G. Kirdar
    Abstract: In this study, using econometric methods, we examine whether internal migration in the last 30 years in Turkey has had any effect on the speed of convergence across Turkish provinces. According to standard neoclassical theory, migration across regions is conducive to faster convergence in income per capita: migration occurs from regions with low per capita income towards regions with higher per capita income, thus per capita income in in-migration regions would fall while that in out-migration regions would tend to rise, holding all else constant. In this study, we first test for absolute convergence across 67 Turkish provinces for 1975-2000 using non-linear least squares method. We find that there occurs no absolute convergence, meaning that provinces with initial-low-income per capita had no tendency to grow at a faster rate than provinces with initial-higher-income per capita. This result may be due to the fact that there are significant structural differences among provinces. To test this likelihood, regional dummies and sectoral shares in gross provincial product variables (agriculture, industry and services) are added to the convergence regressions. As expected, when we control for regional and sectoral differences across provinces, convergence across provinces occurs. Lastly, in order to assess the contribution of migration to convergence, we include net migration rates as explanatory variables to convergence regressions. We use the Instrumental Variables method in order to control for endogeneity between growth in per capita income and migration. According to our preliminary results, contrary to the predictions of the standard neoclassical theory, for 1975-2000, internal migration is not conducive to faster per capita income convergence across provinces in Turkey. One probable reason is that the marginal returns to capital in most net out-migration provinces and regions are relatively lower than those in the net in-migration provinces and regions in Turkey. Accordingly, the incentives to invest in capital in net-out migration regions may well be less than those in the net in-migration regions. Faced with lower investment in gross capital formation, and thus lower economic growth, net out-migration provinces and regions may not benefit from out-migration in terms of convergence in per capita income.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p784&r=geo
  120. By: Blien, Uwe (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Kirchhof, Kai (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Ludewig, Oliver (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "How do agglomeration effects influence the demand for labour? To answer this question, approaches on labour demand are linked with an analysis of the classic 'urbanization effect'. We use models for static and for dynamic labour demand to find out, whether agglomerations develop faster or slower than other regions. Estimations of the static model show the influence of different degrees of regional concentration at the employment level. The model of dynamic labour demand is used to estimate the effect of different regional types on the growth rate of labour demand. The empirical results (received with the linked employer-employee database of the IAB) on long-run or static labour demand indicate substantial agglomeration effects, since c. p. employment is higher in densely populated areas. In the dynamic model, however, labour demand in core cities grows slower than the average. This is not a contradiction. Labour demand is especially high in large cities, but the other areas are slowly reducing the gap." (author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Arbeitskräftenachfrage, Region, regionaler Arbeitsmarkt, regionale Disparität, Ballungsraum, Stadt, Stadtregion, ländlicher Raum, Peripherie, Siedlungsdichte, Beschäftigungseffekte, Dienstleistungsbereich, Suburbanisierung, Nachfrageentwicklung, regionale Faktoren, Beschäftigungsentwicklung, Arbeitsmarktregion, IAB-Linked-Employer-Employee-Datensatz
    JEL: J23 R23 R11
    Date: 2006–12–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iab:iabdpa:200628&r=geo
  121. By: George Petrakos; Yannis Psycharis
    Abstract: This paper provides a broad overview of the most recent changes in regional policy in Greece. It is structured in six sections. After this introduction, the second section reviews the Greek regional problem and considers different approaches to understanding and perceiving it. The third section provides an overview of the recent key regional policy changes. The fourth section then focuses on changes to different components of regional policy i.e. regional incentives, regional programmes and the regional allocation of public investment. The fifth section discusses changes in the implementation and delivery of regional policy. The sixth section summaries the regional policy changes in Greece during the recent period.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p948&r=geo
  122. By: Hans Westlund; Wolfgang Pichler
    Abstract: As in other countries, urbanization and industrialization in Sweden was two sides of the same coin. To a large extent, the Swedish urbanization took place at a low level with the emergence of many small towns. The last decades, a redistribution of the urban population to bigger cities has happened. Simultaneously, the real countryside has increased its population around the big and mid-sized cities within commuting distance, but the countryside has also increased its share of the population in a majority of municipalities. Westlund (2002) found that the countryside’s population growth 1990-97 primarily could be explained by income and the size of the local labor market. In this paper, we examine the current trends of population development and extend the possible explanatory variables to among others, some variables measuring local social capital.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p326&r=geo
  123. By: Elias Kourliouros; George Korres; Emmanuel Marmaras; George Tsobanoglou
    Abstract: There is a huge literature regarding the main determinants and sources of economic growth. Most of the recent work emphasizes on the role of knowledge, and innovation activities typically produced by a specific sector of the economy, and furthermore in the role of entrepreneurship and analysing the implications and the importance for economic growth. Moreover, the socio-economic and public policies aimi to distinguish the determining factors of growth, in order to enhance the regional cohesion and the convergence process. Much of the recent work on regional growth can be viewed as refining the basic economic insights of economic geography. There are two principal theories of why growth rates are differ, the first is the theory of comparative advantage and the second is the theory of increasing returns to scale. This paper attempts to examine the main sources of regional growth through an inter-and intra sectoral analysis. In particular, the paper attempts to investigate through an empirical inter-comparison study using statistical-data from several Greek regions, the determinant sectoral factors and the implications to growth process. We also employ the empirical non-parametric analysis. We find support for the existence of economic geography effects in several manufacturing sectors and moreover we find that these effects are economically very significant.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p30&r=geo
  124. By: Nava Haruvy; Sarit Shalhevet
    Abstract: Regional planning should consider the impact of agricultural crops on housing value and leisure, as well as on the local environment. We designed an optimization model for allocating agricultural crops based on farmers profits as well as the impact on these three factors. Each crop creates a different landscape, as well as a different effect on shading and noise reduction. These in turn influence the value of nearby housing and the regional leisure opportunities. Each crop also has a positive and negative environmental impact, including potential use of treated wastewater as well as the effects of pesticides and fertilizers. All these factors were combined with economic considerations to suggest the optimal regional allocation of agricultural crops.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p822&r=geo
  125. By: Elias Kourliouros; George Korres; Emmanuel Marmaras; George Tsobanoglou
    Abstract: Unlike most enthusiastic narratives of various success stories in recent North European regional economic development led by innovation, localized learning, social capital and institutional embeddedness, this paper deals with a set of major stresses and problems of local economic development in peripheral, less favoured, regions. By drawing upon concrete research experience of regional development projects we try to shed light upon the processes of spatio-economic change and the management of local production in connection with prevailing cultural attitudes/values in less developed Greek rural areas. attidudes/values constituting a kind of localized “counter-social capital†deposit that impedes any likely innovative local development initiatives. The paper argues that the major problems facing these areas are not only or solely associated with the effects of market economy restructuring and the operation of macroeconomic and macropolitical forces at the regional and local level, but, also with inadequate management of human skills, lack of productive mentality and negative cultural values and attitudes. The policy relevance of our analysis calls for the elaboration of alternative development strategies aimed rather at enchancing local social capital potentialities than at improving hard infrastructures and providing financial incentives to local firms.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p28&r=geo
  126. By: Fernando Perobelli; Eduardo Haddad; Edson Domingues
    Abstract: The principal aim of this paper is to evaluate the interregional linkages based on the many-region input-output table for Brazilian regions, for the year 1996, elaborated by FIPE. This work utilizes the extraction method by Strassert, 1968 and Schultz, 1977 and modified by Dietzenbacher et al (1993). Instead of extracting one sector from a sector-based model, we will examine the effects of hypothetically extracting a region from a many-region model. The method calculates the “backward linkagesâ€; the “forward linkages†are obtained analogously from the matrix of allocation coefficients. The application of the methodology to the Brazilian inter-regional input-output tables shows that the states with high share in the Brazilian GDP presents a high degree of intra-regional interdependence both in terms of backward and forward linkages.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p414&r=geo
  127. By: Robert Stimson; Prem Chhetri; John Western
    Abstract: Quality of life studies typically focus either on aggregate measures of QOL variables using secondary data sources for aggregated spatial units or on primary data collected through sample surveys whereby individuals provide subjective assessments of QOL dimensions. This paper uses sample survey data collected in a 2003 survey of QOL using a spatially stratified sample design across the Brisbane-South East Queensland (SEQ) region, Australia's fastest growing metropolitan region in the 'sun belt'. Multi-variate statistical modelling and GIS-based spatial modelling techniques are used to derive summary masures of QOL dimensions from the survey data and to then produce estimated spatial patterns of QOL dimensions across the residential neighbourhoods comprising the SEQ region.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p42&r=geo
  128. By: Kostas Rontos; Christos Mavroudis; Theodore Georgiadis
    Abstract: This article studies the phases of urban development in Athens, the biggest metropolitan center of the country, in combination with the development of the Greek economy during the post world war II era, by applying techniques suggested by the theory of spatial cycle. Before application, an extended reference to the theoretical background will be presented, so that a comprehensive view of the spatial cycle hypothesis is established. Ã short historical analysis of the Greek economy will also be provided, so that the impact of several historical factors on the recent evolution of Athens Metropolitan Area be better understood. Since the beginning of the post-war period, the Athens Metropolitan Area has been going through a certain phase, i.e. the phase of suburbanization. Recently (1981-2001) the afore-mentioned area has shifted from the first stage of this phase to the second, i.e. from relative to absolute decentralization, facing not only a complete loss of core city population but also memorisation, unemployment and other depressive phenomena. As differences among western, southern or northern suburbs appear, an intra-suburb analysis will be carried out in order to identify the direction of urban evolution through time. The recent decline in the development of suburbs, in juxtaposition with the rapid emergence of some independent urban areas outside the Athens Metropolitan Area, provides some evidence of potential movement towards the next phase of disurbanization in the near future.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p939&r=geo
  129. By: Huseyin Ozgur
    Abstract: The main objectives of this paper are to question the criteria and establishment process of granting greater municipality status and to develop comprehensive and precise criteria and procedures for major Turkish urban regions. Currently, 16 greater (metropolitan) municipalities exist in Turkey in addition to 3200 other municipalities. All these greater municipalities were established by the Turkish Parliament based on the previous Act of 1984, which stayed in force until 2004. According to 1984 Greater Municipalities Act, major criteria were economic and social development level, which were to be assessed by the Government. However, social and economic development indicators were never established for such an assessment and decision for granting all current greater municipalities were made by the general political considerations and rough assumptions about the need and suitability of those urban areas. Only 5 of the greater municipalities’ population exceed 1 million, and still 5 of them are under 500.000 according to 2000 Census. Considering the lack of certain reasonable criteria for gaining greater municipality status, almost 15 other major (populous) municipalities with the population of around 500.000, have searched various ways and made several attempts to be granted greater municipality status by the Turkish Parliament. However, with the exception of Adapazarý (in 2000), all the greater municipalities were granted their status between 1984 and 1993. The exception for Adapazarý urban area was done due to major earthquakes in the Marmara Region in 1999. Yet, those other major urban areas having metropolitan characteristics are still waiting for being granted greater municipality status. The 2004 Act brings a new criterion, which requires settlements in a 10km diameter to have a minimum of 750.000 populations, which not based on academic and practical arguments. Ambiguously, economic and social development criteria are still effective in 2004 Act. However, middle-sized urban areas whose populations are around 500.000 and struggling for greater municipality status left administratively fragmented, and continue their existence being deprived of status, prestige, power, strong financial resources, administrative structure which greater municipality status may provide. Thus, determining precise criteria and processes for granting greater municipality status is an urgent and vital policy area in Turkish local government system. After summarizing the evolution of Turkish greater municipality system, this paper discusses establishing alternative and comprehensive criteria for granting greater municipalities in Turkey in a wider context of international literature and similar cases in European urban regions.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p873&r=geo
  130. By: Uwe Blien; Felix Rueb; Daniel Werner; Katja Wolf
    Abstract: In many countries labour market policy has to deal with fairly large and persistent regional labour market disparities. In the case of Germany, parts of the country are affected by a deep unemployment crisis whereas others show nearly full employment. Since these disparities cannot be reduced to only one dimension a classification system of labour markets was developed. The criterion of this system was the identification of the “regional disadvantage†for the success of labour market policy. This new classification is at the level of districts (NUTS 3 regions). To optimise the results a two-step classification method was applied. The first step included regression analyses to identify the exogenous determinants of the success of labour market policy. In the second step, different types of labour markets are determined from a specific variant of cluster analysis which used the weighted variables identified as significant in the first step. This classification is used in the Federal Employment Agency for benchmarking reasons. Besides that, the new classification obtained could also be employed in research, for example in the evaluation of labour market policy.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p147&r=geo
  131. By: Apostolos Kyriazis
    Abstract: The expansion of the European Union, the re-negotiation of the cohesion funds, the shrinkage of the public investments programme and the existing laws lead the middle-sized Greek cities to be in a disadvantageous position within the European urban network, while major urban problems still exist. The meaning of the words “Periphery†and “Centralities†changes its scale always preserving their inbetween ratio, depending on its use (i.e. continental - national – urban) the same way that Architecture does (from urban planning to industrial and detail design). The exploitation of the lost urban space (and time) based on existing urban planning legislation is a common target. The “Active city blocks†regeneration tool is able to provide the cities with new centralities, new landmarks and some new mobility. This paper is about some draft thoughts concerning the implementation of urban planning projects (about the rejuvination of existing urban areas of great density), combined with recent discussions on factors that give shape to Greece’s urban environment (for example withdrawal of semi-open spaces, basements added at total sq.m measurements, backyards etc.) to be regulated. The urban regeneration and the upgrade of the cities’ environmental standards remain a main objective. In addition to the aforementioned, some indirect objectives can also be achieved, such as the stimulation of the constructions sector, the diminishing of social segregation and the enrichment of the existing architectural typology.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p409&r=geo
  132. By: Stella Papapavlou-Ioakeimidou; Nikolaos Rodolakis; Ria Kalfakakou
    Abstract: At the duration of previous decades has been realised important research with regard to the results and the repercussions of tourism in local level. Even if the tourism is often represented as industry of low impact, the researchers have begun to recognize the tourism as a factor of environmental change. The tourism is considered as the activity that eminently expresses spatial interaction. That means, that the characteristic elements two or more units of space affect each other. The effective spatial management of is an increasing competitive and complicated undertaking, that requires the help of economic, social and geographical elements for the process of planning and development. Taking into consideration the heterogeneous nature of the tourism phenomenon and organisational and functional structures of tourist destinations, especially the coastal areas, it is obvious that it is enough difficult to delimit with precision the tourism sector, as a single total of competences, that they are distinguished easily by the remainder policies of tourist destinations, and to record the spatial changes in the tourism. This work faces an important challenge in the field of tourism and the basic aim of this paper is to present the economic relations between sub-regions in a coastal area in Greece, and spatial concentration of economic activities and examination of communities in the sense of socio-economic characteristics, emphasising in the analysis of the correlation between employment in the tourism sector and other economic activities. Furthermore, the geographical distribution of tourist lodgings, constitutes a very widely used clue in the measurement of spatial fluctuations of tourist activity. This is owed because the tourist lodging constitutes one of the more important elements of tourist product with material substance, so that it can be also still measured, and data which concern in the geographical distribution of tourist lodgings, provide useful elements with regard to the importance of tourism and its spatial structure.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p560&r=geo
  133. By: Achilleas Tsamis
    Abstract: Science and Technology Parks (STPs) have been widely used as innovation support and regional development instruments in most European countries. In Objective 1 regions of South Europe STPs projects were developed during the 90s through regional, national or EU structural funds as tools for promoting innovation and technology upgrade. Most existing studies cast doubt on the effectiveness of parks in achieving their goals, focussing on the traditional measures of the parks added-value (profitability and growth) to the tenant companies, the university-industry linkages developed. However, more recent developments of territorial innovation models stress the role of networks and interactions for knowledge creation and diffusion. While these approaches imply that the Parks – in their strict spatial nature – may become redundant in a networked space, they can also be used to identify additional performance assessment criteria focusing on the role of the park for the development of interactions, linkages and cooperation inside as well as outside its area. The quantity and quality of linkages inside and outside the STP area and its operation as an innovation cooperation promoter in the regional and broader space are used in this assessment. The present work assesses the performance of STPs in Objective 1 regions of South Europe. It develops an evaluation framework that integrates – together with the traditional linear performance criteria – the concepts of networking, interaction and cooperation and uses it to compare the performance of Parks in two regions in Greece (Thessaloniki and Crete) and two in Spain (Asturias and Andalusia). Our preliminary results from in depth analysis show that while there are different levels of success in terms of the traditional metrics/criteria, we observe in general low levels of interaction and cooperation developed inside the parks as well as with the broader region. The Parks do not seem to operate – at least so far – as places that facilitate intensive knowledge exchange inside and outside their area.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p443&r=geo
  134. By: Anne Paalanen; Vesa Harmaakorpi; Timo Pihkala
    Abstract: As a consequence of for example agglomeration economies, features such as good reputation and highly-skilled labour force tend to accumulate in university regions. The accumulation of highly-skilled labour and high research intensity secure a continuous flow of “raw-material†for innovations in the knowledge-based economy. However, in the regions lacking a university it is vitally important to find other ways of increasing innovation activity. Through implementation of non-linear innovation activity which combines knowledge of normal practice-based activities and science-based research, a region can create radically new perspectives of operating. The new theories of innovation suggest that a great potential of innovation exists in the structural holes and weak links of the innovation system. The new sources of innovation set demands for the innovating partners. In order to exploit the hidden potential in the innovation system the actors of the region must possess, for example, high absorptive capacity, tolerance for diversification and especially the bridging elements of social capital. The Lahti Region in Finland is one of the regions lacking strong regional research base. Determined to create a new source of competitive advantage, the Lahti Region is heading towards a vision of being a top region in promoting practice-based innovation activities. Therefore, the region has created a new policy framework to achieve the vision: network-facilitating innovation policy. The policy aims to promote networked innovation processes especially by exploiting the potential of the structural holes of the innovation system and linking the research-based knowledge from neighbouring strong research centres in the regional innovation processes. This paper examines the readiness of the regional actors to face the demands of the new policy framework. The case study is a compilation of 12 interviews of the key persons in the regional development field and a survey study among representatives of companies, educational and research organizations as well as public organizations.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p347&r=geo
  135. By: Yorgos Photis; Yorgos Grekousis
    Abstract: The effectiveness of emergency service systems is measured in terms of their ability to deploy units and personnel in a timely, and efficient manner upon an event’s occurrence. A typical methodology to deal with such a task is through the application of an appropriate location - allocation model. In such a case, however, the spatial distribution of demand although stochastic in nature and layout, when aggregated to a specific spatial reference unit, appears to be spatially structured or semi – structured. Aiming to exploit the above incentive, the spatial tracing and analysis of emergency incidents is achieved through the utilisation of Artificial Intelligence. More specifically, in the proposed approach, each location problem is dealt with at two interacting levels. Firstly, spatio-temporal point pattern of demand is analysed over time by a new genetic algorithm. The proposed genetic algorithm interrelates sequential events formulating moving objects and as a result, every demand point pattern is correlated both to previous and following events. Secondly, the approach provides the ability to predict, by means of an artificial neural network, how the pattern of demand will evolve and thus the location of supplying centres and/or vehicles can be optimally defined. The proposed neural network is also optimised through genetic algorithms. The approach is applied to Athens Metropolitan Area and the data come from Fire Department’s records for the years 2003-2004.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p910&r=geo
  136. By: Alex Deffner; Theodoros Metaxas
    Abstract: The role of city marketing has been increasingly important in Europe. Today it has become a necessity with regard to the processes of global competition of cities, tourist attraction, urban management, city branding and urban governance. Many European cities support their competitiveness through cultural and tourism development. In addition, the majority of the implemented city marketing policies relate with culture and tourism. City marketing has faced many criticisms, the main one being that it substitutes for urban planning. However, the work done in cultural planning indicates that, in order for cities to be successful, marketing must be inter-connected with planning. There are even international examples of cities that have elaborated marketing plans in order to attract the potential target markets (new investments, tourists, new residents etc). One recent approach argues that marketing can contribute to the sense of place. The data for this paper are provided by the INTERREG IIIc CultMark project (Cultural Heritage, Local Identity and Place Marketing for Sustainable Development) that has been in operation in five European places since 2004: Nea Ionia/ Magnesia/ Greece (lead partner), Chester/ UK, Kainuu/ Finland, Rostock-TLM/ Germany and Pafos/ Cyprus. The CultMark project is applying a place marketing strategy with a cultural approach. This means that it emphasizes the cultural dimension of marketing and the promotion of the cultural resources of each place. The innovative characteristics of this project are reinforced by the use of the two concepts of ‘creativity’, and ‘branding destination’. The main objective of the CultMark project is the development and implementation of innovative place marketing strategies, based on the elements of local identity and the cultural assets of the partner areas in order to contribute to their sustainable economic and social development. As a case study the elaboration of the marketing plan of Nea Ionia/ Magnesia/ Greece is chosen, and the aim of the paper is to show the interconnection of marketing and planning by trying to answer, among others, the following questions: a) does marketing planning constitute strategic planning?, b) how can marketing contribute to sustainability?, c) can cultural heritage be marketed?
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p889&r=geo
  137. By: Triantafyllos Kalliakoudas
    Abstract: The planning of space is a political process. It is a form social and political action that determines the way and the place where we will live. But who are these factors that shape the form of the city? Who are the data that influence the configuration of urban fabric? In our suggestion we will try to record the data and the factors, as well as their role in the configuration of urban fabric of a Greek middle size city. As such are usually comprehended the cities with population between 100 and 500 thousands of residents. The each city , small or big , is a unique case. The regrouping and generalisation become for charm of research. Among the data we have to report the below: - population - immigration - geographic place - topologike's peculiarities - technical infrastructures - mentality Also, the factors that they influence are: - economic - social - cultural - policies The example of Larissa Larissa is a formal Greek city of middle size with augmentative tendencies. Its population, in the inventory of 1991, was 113.090 residents while in the inventory of 2001 they are roughly 125.000 residents. It is found in central Greece, in the means of Thessalian plain and near of national road Athens - Thessalonica. The Municipality of Larissa does not have contact with the sea, but the city crosses of Penaeus river. Close by the city exists an airport of military service. The various districts of city are shaped concerning Penaeus river, the national road, the railway lines , the airport and of course the illegal building. The population in the neighborhoods of city is pull or repel by the reason of all the higher up , but also by the world that already lives in the region. All these has their role and these are that influences the configuration of urban fabric. Other than these least and other more. In any case , all these with the guidance of the government are that builds the modern cities where we see and live.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p826&r=geo
  138. By: Eleftheria Alexandri; Phil Jones
    Abstract: In general cities, and especially cities in hot zones, as the Mediterranean, suffer from raised temperatures in the city core, generally known as the heat island effect. Raised temperatures, especially in summer, may turn city centres into unwelcome hot areas, with direct effects on energy consumption for cooling buildings and morbidity and mortality risks for the population. These raised temperatures in the city centre derive from the altered thermal balances in urban spaces, mainly due to the materials and activities taking place in cities, by far different to those in rural areas. The notably raised thermal capacity of urban materials, their low albedo and their lack of porosity are of the main characteristics of urban materials, responsible for the formation of raised urban temperatures. The general lack of vegetation is a strong characteristic of the formation of the heat island effect. If building surfaces, which are greatly responsible for the formation of raised urban temperatures are covered with vegetation (roofs with grasses and walls with ivies), it is expected that urban temperatures could lower significantly. With the case study of the city of Athens, this paper explores quantitatively how raised urban temperatures could reduce in the hot and dry Mediterranean summer, when the building envelope is covered with vegetation. With the use of a prognostic, two-dimensional, micro-scale heat and mass transfer model, the effect of vegetation in urban canyons with different geometries and orientations is explored and how this could be applied at an urban scale. The effect of vegetation on the building envelope is examined on the outdoors thermal comfort and the energy consumption for cooling. Conclusions are drawn about the relationship of the effect of diverse amounts of vegetation with the urban geometry and orientation and whether such a proposal could prove beneficial for cities in the South of Europe.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p392&r=geo
  139. By: Vassilis Angelis; Eleni Gaki
    Abstract: The sustainable development of a region depends on its power to attract industrial units. Industrial mobility, however, is largely a voluntary process. Hence, a region’s growth or decline depends on its power to “pull†and “retain†industries but also the right blend of people to run them; this pulling power depends on what we call the Image of a region. At each time instant the region “sends out†its Image and depending on its impact on the people (both employers and employees) the region may be considered Attractive or Repulsive. The image of a region may be defined as a function of a multitude of factors physical, economic, social and environmental. One of those factors, ïn which our emphasis is placed in the present work, is the region’s proximity to influence centers (markets, resources and decision centers). This proximity may be expressed through a variable, which is referred to as the region’s Location Multiplier. As a first attempt to quantify this multiplier we may express it as a function of the region’s distance and / or transportation cost to and from the main influence centers. Such an approach, although sound and realistic in most cases, has a serious shortcoming as it cannot take into account the problems of spatial discontinuity faced by remote and especially island regions. To overcome this problem we may extend the above function so as to include the region’s spatial continuity dimension expressed by the availability in the region of all or only a number of the classic transportation modes. This new multiplier is clearly much improved as compared to the previous one, but still has a weakness, as it cannot take into account the opportunities offered to a remote region by the new Information and Communication Technologies. To alleviate this weakness we may extend the multiplier so as to include the information continuity dimension expressed by the availability in the region of the infrastructure required for the implementation of such technologies. Our objective in this paper is to define a region’s Location Multiplier, going through the three stages described above, suggest ways of quantifying it and finally applying it to a number of regions in Greece, a country with many islands and thus having an intense spatial continuity problem but also a lot to gain from an information continuity situation.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p888&r=geo
  140. By: Triantafyllos Michailidis
    Abstract: This study searches the cooperation and the competition among the metropolises in South East Europe. Especially, it focuses on the interaction between Athens and Constantinople. First, it outlines the contemporary regional network of cities of SE Europe. Secondly, it presents the location, the infrastructure and the investments of the private and the public sector in Athens and the Constantinople. Furthermore, there is a comparison made in each category between the two cities and there are pinpointed the opportunities of common actions. Ultimately, the conclusions of the study underline the potential created in SE Europe because of the interaction these metropolises. The study is useful due to the necessity to find out how the relationships of the two development poles in SE Europe, taking always into account the differences in culture between the two countries, affect important issues in planning as the Foreign Direct Investments, the urban governance and the networks between metropolises built by the cooperation and the competition.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p224&r=geo
  141. By: Annekatrin Niebuhr
    Abstract: Recent theoretical research deals with economic costs and benefits of cultural diversity related to immigration. Empirical evidence regarding the impact of cultural diversity on economic performance is still scarce. This paper aims at investigating the effects of diversity on innovation and at providing corresponding empirical evidence. We apply the knowledge production function approach to investigate the significance of cultural diversity of work force for innovation output. The regression analysis considers the determinants of regional innovation, focusing on the effect of diversity, for a cross-section of German regions in the period 1995 to 2000.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p31&r=geo
  142. By: Stijn Reinhard; Aris Gaaff
    Abstract: Increasing pressure on space demands careful assessment between competing functions in a planning process. Especially, in metropolitan landscapes, space is in short supply and hence expensive. Housing, industrial sites and office parks, and infrastructure are strong drivers of landscape change, often dominating nature and landscape which represent values with a more collective good character. Nevertheless, in The Netherlands, nature is becoming an important force in spatial planning. This assessment between competing functions, requires interactive planning and appropriate instruments. In the usual planning process, the costs and benefits of the development plans to society are only computed in the final stage of the process. We argue in this paper for integration of a social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA) in interactive regional planning processes. Firstly, it avoids time and money being spent on elaborating a plan, which is not beneficial to society. Secondly, it helps to prevent unwarranted enthusiasm for inauspicious plans among participants. From earlier studies, we learned that in the application of SCBA the discussion between researchers, clients and other participants should focus on two or three clearly distinctive models. Too much detail should be avoided. On the other hand, key indicators used in calculating effects have to be available and well documented. The summation of the costs and benefits provides a first impression of the financial and social feasibility of the plan. In a first planning session, therefore, a common understanding of the mechanisms underlying the assessment of the plan will be built up. This improves the support for SCBA of the final project. It also provides the stakeholders and shareholders with information about the feasibility of the plan at an early stage. Another advantage is that SCBA focuses on the benefits to society as a whole. Recently, we have spent much effort in the development of an interactive tool that is both relevant and user friendly. Relevant means that it takes into account the essential values of different types of land use and their interaction. At the moment we focus on spatial interaction and incorporating ecological network values. A prototype of the interactive integrated model is available for demonstration.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p402&r=geo
  143. By: Claire Dujardin; Florence Goffette-Nagot
    Abstract: This paper is aimed to examine how individual unemployment is influenced both by location in a deprived neighborhood and public housing. Of course, measuring neighborhood effects raises the issue of location choice endogeneity, which generates correlated effects (Moffitt, 2001; Durlauf, 2004). Indeed, individuals with similar socio-economic characteristics, labor-market outcomes, and unobservable traits tend to sort themselves into certain parts of the urban space. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to deal with endogeneity of location choices by means of a non-linear model, that offers conditions under which group effects may be identified (Brock, Durlauf, 2003 and 2004). Specifically, in a preliminary data analysis step, we classify neighborhoods as deprived or not deprived and then estimate a simultaneous probit model of (i) public housing accommodation, (ii) type of neighborhood, and (iii) unemployment, allowing for non-zero correlations between the error terms of the three equations. The large share of public housing units in France and their concentration in poor neighborhoods, where they may represent as much as two thirds of housing units, allow us to use public housing accommodation as a powerful determinant of location in these neighborhoods. Estimations of this simultaneous probit model by simulated maximum likelihood are performed on a sample of approximately 10,000 individuals, taken from the 1999 French Census and representing about five percents of households' heads participating in the labor-market in Lyon, the third largest city in France. Our results show that public housing does not have any direct effect on unemployment. However, living within the 35% more deprived neighborhoods does increase the unemployment probability significantly. Our estimate is comparable to that Topa (2001) obtained for Chicago. As expected, the effect of neighborhood substantially decreases when dealing with the endogeneity of neighborhood and when using public housing as a determinant of neighborhood choice.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p362&r=geo
  144. By: Dionissios Kalivas; Anastasios Giotis
    Abstract: In this paper a Geographical Information System programme has been built to analyse and present the territorial impacts of P.A.TH.E (Patra-Athens-Thessalonica-Eyzonoi) international road in the area around it, in Greece, using social, economic and transport indicators. Using the Visual Basic programming and MapObjects components, an intelligent GIS programme is developed which everyone, with no knowledge to geodatabases, has the ability to use it. It has the capability to retrieve, interpret and render the statistical and cartographical features on the map, applying functions and provide suitable tools such as add layer (shapefile, grid, cad, image, coverage, etc.), zoom in, zoom out, pan, full extent, buffer, overlay, intersection, dot density patterns for polygons, calculation of statistics, identify, printing, copy and features classification. These tools are needed in order to generate specialized solutions for desktop mapping and spatial analysis. Moreover the application is enhanced with simple and useful interfaces to everyone who wants to correlate geographical and statistical information. The developed GIS has been used to study the territorial impacts in six hundred and four municipalities (ninety-three of them are crossed by the road) which are contained in twenty - three counties around the P.A.TH.E road. The administrative division NUTS V (municipality) has been selected as geographical level for the analysis. All the municipalities have been separated in three categories: • the first contains the municipalities which the road crosses, • the second includes the municipalities which are included in the same county with the municipalities in the first category but the road does not pass through them, • in the third belongs municipalities that are in neighbour counties of the second. Nine indicators (total and by sex population changes, population density, employment and unemployment rates, net migration, mobility, road density and land use) in four different time periods (1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001) have been used to study the spatial impacts of P.A.TH.E.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p747&r=geo
  145. By: Matias Mayor Fernandez; Esteban Fernandez Vazquez; Jorge Rodriguez Valez
    Abstract: Spatial econometrics is a subdiscipline that have gained a huge popularity in the last twenty years, not only in theoretical econometrics but in empirical studies as well. Basically, spatial econometric methods measure spatial interaction and incorporate spatial structure into regression analysis. The specification of a matrix of spatial weights W plays a crucial role in the estimation of spatial models. The elements of this matrix measure the spatial relationships between two geographical locations i and j, and they are specified exogenously to the model. Several alternatives for W have been proposed in the literature, although binary matrices based on contiguity among locations or distance matrices are the most commons choices. One shortcoming of using this type of matrices for the spatial models is the impossibility of estimating “heterogeneous†spatial spillovers: the typical objective is the estimation of a parameter that measures the average spatial effect of the set of locations analysed. Roughly speaking, this is given by “ill-posed†econometric models where the number of (spatial) parameters to estimate is too large. In this paper, we explore the use of generalized maximum entropy econometrics (GME) to estimate spatial structures. This technique is very attractive in situations where one has to deal with estimation of “ill-posed†or “ill-conditioned†models. We compare by means of Monte Carlo simulations “classical†ML estimators with GME estimators in several situations with different availability of information.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p777&r=geo
  146. By: Lefteris Topaloglou; George Petrakos
    Abstract: The European Union’s eastward enlargement following 1st May 2004, has brought in the foreground a new geography in Europe, changing the EU’s external borders. The re-allocation of activities, opportunities and threats are changing the role and significance of the borders. Within this context borders and border regions have become an issue of great importance during the last fifteen years in both the areas of scientific research and policy making. The overall picture of the new dynamics occurring at the external EU border regions, in particular, remains rather unclear. The issue being dealt in this article focuses on the dominant policies, practices and perceptions in the Northern Greek border regions with Albania, FYROM and Bulgaria. The region of our focus is one of the most economically, socially and politically fragmented space in Europe, that has a low level of interaction and a mosaic of policies and restrictions towards each other. The paper attempts to answer to which degree cross border interaction (CBI), cross border expectations (CBE) and cross border policies (CBC) are associated with geography, urban system, obstacles, images of the “othersâ€, real economy and other parameters. The empirical analysis is based on a survey carried out in nine cross border areas in the EU’s external borders under the EXLINEA research program. The empirical work involved: a) Standardised questionnaires b) In depth interviews and c) focus group, data and document collection. Triangulation was used in the attempt to verify the validity of the various data sources as well as the methodology chosen.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p456&r=geo
  147. By: Isabel Cortes-Jimenez
    Abstract: During the last years have appeared several papers in the literature which provide empirical evidence of the importance of the role of tourism in the economic growth but always for a concrete country or for a sample of countries. In this paper, however, the importance of the expansion of the tourism sector is studied at regional level, that is to say, the relevance of tourism for the regional economic growth, within a country . For this objective, we focus this work in two of the most important countries in tourism terms around the world: Italy and Spain. In this sense, not only the effect of international tourism is analysed, as it is usual in this kind of studies, but also the importance of the domestic market. Complementary, in addition to analyse the Spanish and Italian regions jointly and separately, we take into account some criteria as, for instance, the geographical location of regions. The period of analysis is from 1990 to 2000. And regarding the methodology, the Arellano-Bond estimator for dynamic panels and the Kiviet’s finite sample correction are applied.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p61&r=geo
  148. By: Miles Finney
    Abstract: This study tests for the labor matching efficiency of cities by examining the relationship between urbanization and the skills variation of public school principals. The results imply urban labor markets are generally more efficient at matching the skills of residents to the skills required by employers. The variation in labor skills among school principals is found to decrease with urban size, which is evidence that urbanization fosters more efficient labor matches.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p372&r=geo
  149. By: Jose Miguel Giner Perez; Antonio Fuster Olivares; Maria Jesus Santa Maria Beneyto
    Abstract: The identification and analysis of the industrial districts in Spain using a quantitative approach is the aim of this research. In the first part, the industrial districts are identified applying the methodology developed by the Italian Statistics Institute (ISTAT). This identification is possible due to the availability of information about the local labour markets; these have been estimated with labour mobility data between municipalities and the industrial data used to analyse the location of the Spanish industry comes from the Industrial Register published by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce. This statistical source classifies the different industrial activities in 23 sectors. In the second part, the characteristics of the, previously identified, industrial districts are quantitatively analysed and the results are compared with those obtained in other similar researches developed in Spain and Italy. Some of the characteristics that will be analysed are the relevance of the industrial districts for the Spanish industry (in a national, sectorial and regional level), the industrialization degree, the sectorial specialization level or the predominance of small and medium enterprises in the whole industry or by sectors. Finally, with the quantitative results, a typology of the industrial districts in Spain will be constructed, that could be used in a further analysis based in qualitative techniques.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p765&r=geo
  150. By: Helen Caraveli; John Darzentas
    Abstract: This paper attempts an assessment of a number of basic statistical indicators of EU regions and countries from a New Economic Geography (NEG) perspective. After a brief overview of the underlying theoretical framework, two important hypotheses of NEG’s theoretical models are examined for the case of EU regions: (a) the existence of a center-periphery pattern, with the use of indicators measuring the “home market effectâ€; (b) the existence of Marshall-type “economies of localizationâ€, as well as of “dynamic external economiesâ€, on the basis of “knowledge-intensive†and “human capital†indicators. This analysis takes place on a regional scale. An assessment of the evolution of specialization in EU countries is also undertaken with the use of an index of “regional specializationâ€. The analysis provides clear indications that, the deepening of European integration led to both phenomena described by NEG models: (a) the strengthening of two types of concentrations – “the enlargement of the home market†and “local external economies†- in the traditional industrial centres of the EU; (b) an increase in the degree of specialization of its member-states. Policy implications point to the strengthening of factors that could lead to the development of new dynamic centres in peripheral EU regions.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p258&r=geo
  151. By: Blien, Uwe (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Hirschenauer, Franziska (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Phan, thi Hong Van (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "In many countries fairly large and persistent regional disparities can be observed for a variety of economic indicators. Since these disparities can not be reduced to one single dimension, a classification system is needed to give a parsimonious overview. The article presents a system which is designed to assess labour market policy in Germany. The innovation in this article is the development of a procedure that combines the analysis of determinants of regional disparities with standard classification approaches. The procedure is designed to solve two problems of many existing classification schemes: firstly, their purely descriptive nature and secondly, their interpretation with relation to arbitrarily chosen classification variables. The proposed method is used to identify 12 types which show the regional diversity of labour markets in Germany." (author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    JEL: R23 R11 R50
    Date: 2006–12–21
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iab:iabdpa:200629&r=geo
  152. By: Antonio Russo; Jan Van Der Borg
    Abstract: This paper illustrates the progress the ESPON 1.3.3 project “The Role and Spatial Effects of Cultural Heritage and Identityâ€, started in December 2004 by a network of 12 European Universities under the leadership of Ca’ Foscari University of Venice. The conceptual framework of this project lies on the assumption that the cultural heritage of Europe is not just an ensemble of tangible assets to be conserved, but rather an element of dynamism of the territory, affecting trajectories of regional development. Thus the identification and valorisation of the cultural heritage is to be considered an integral component of regional planning, with the potential to increase cohesion within an enlarged European Union. The establishment of an “European identityâ€, gaining from difference and variety, is also part of this vision (Graham et. Al, 2000: 26). In this light, the ESPON 1.3.3 project sets out to highlight the spatial expressions and effects of heritage assets and identify the (existing or potential) elements of territorial coherence at the regional and local scale, mapping the geographical aspects that are actually strengthening regional identities and networks. After introducing a list of regional indicators of the European cultural heritage and identity, reflecting elements such as heritage presence, concentration and diversity, based on the whole NUTS III regional delimitation, the paper addresses the issue of how cultural aspects are related to the main socio-economic trends shaping Europe and affecting regional cohesion. The study highlights existing spatial patterns in such relations, and identifies emerging issues for inclusion of the cultural theme in spatial planning, especially looking at significant areas for cross-border cooperation.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p482&r=geo
  153. By: Theodoros Andrianos; Michalis Karakotsoglou; Charalampos Rizos
    Abstract: The modern economical status and needs of regional development in Greece and the broader geographical area demand a high capacity highway, capable of fulfilling high speed requirements. Such a transportation corridor should connect Greek cities and regions with each other, as well as with neighboring countries. In Greece, Egnatia Highway is believed to be the answer to these needs. Thus, the planning and construction of Egnatia has been a major issue in Greece for several years. Egnatia highway is considered to improve connectivity between cities and regions in Greece and neighboring countries and serve their socioeconomic development. Meanwhile, in the framework of Pan-European Networks the development of Corridor 8 has been promoted. Corridor 8 crosses three countries northern of Greece and is considered by some to be competitive to Egnatia. The scope of the present paper is to investigate the relationship between Egnatia and Corridor 8. The technical and economical characteristics of these two transportation corridors are presented together with their consequences in the development of the Balkan Region. The advantages and disadvantages of these two corridors are described and how they affect each other. The cities and regions connected by these two corridors are portrayed and their prospective effects on the area are presented. Furthermore, an investigation is made on whether or not Egnatia succeeds in achieving the predefined objectives. Finally, an analysis is made about the complementarity of the two corridors in several fields.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p771&r=geo
  154. By: Yorgos Photis; Fotini Moustou
    Abstract: The problem of space-time human behaviour is currently a very active subject of research in the geography and transport literature. The main objective of this study is the investigation of the factors that configure the dynamics of in-the-city individual locomotion through the tracing of daily movements and with respect to a specific set of destination alternatives, originated by the place of residence. According to the proposed methodological framework, an activity-based model of daily locomotion of a specific socio-economic group can be defined through the combined utilisation of methods and techniques from the scientific fields of Use of Time and Spatial Analysis. In this respect, the application deals with the spatio-temporal analysis of diachronic daily locomotion and the definition of the space of activity through the determination of space-time intensity and concentrations and is based on questionnaire data obtained by students in the city of Volos, Greece.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p911&r=geo
  155. By: Tuzin Baycan Levent; Seda Kundak; Aliye Ahu Gulumser
    Abstract: The globalization process has led to the emergence of network of cities in which the cities have become more integrated to the new world system. ‘Eurocities’ or ‘Sister Cities’ are among the well known examples of network of cities which provide interaction and cooperation of the cities at the regional and global level. The ‘sister city movement’ can be defined as a further step of international relationships of the cities at the municipality level which is based on understanding the cultures of each other and aims to create common values. Additionally, sister city relationship provides international trade and economic development between two countries at the local level. Empirical findings show that there are 3 phases of sister city movement: i) the associative phase, ii) the reciprocative phase, and iii) the commercial phase. In this process, municipalities or local authorities have become ‘entrepreneurs’ in order to contribute to the economic and social dynamisms of cities. The present study investigates the relationships of Eurocities with their sister cities from the perspective of the development level or the degree of the relationship. Which factors are important in improving the mutual relationship? Which factors determine the development phases of the relationship? Under which conditions the mutual relationship creates business opportunities and reaches to the level of economic cooperation? What are the success measures of city-to-city affiliation? The study aims to compare and evaluate the current sister cities relationships of Eurocities on the basis of the actual performance in cultural dialogue, benchmarking and commercial activities. The data and information used for comparison and evaluation are based on extensive survey questionnaires filled out by relevant departments or experts of municipalities in Eurocities. As a rather novel methodological contribution, a recently developed artificial intelligence method, i.e. rough set analysis, is deployed to assess and identify the most important factors that are responsible for successes and failures of the relationships between sister cities.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p77&r=geo
  156. By: John Dewhurst
    Abstract: In recent years it seems that both regions and cities appear to have become more eager to present themselves as regions or cities in which new or mobile firms in certain industrial sectors (especially perhaps biotechnology) should locate. At the same time, in the UK at least, there has been devolution of the administration of regional policy, albeit with specific targets being set by the national government. Thus cities and regions have become, at least in part, more able to combine their publicity with financial support for the particular industrial sector they wish to foster. In this paper a model is developed which has the following properties. Cities allocate monies between two types of expenditure, (i) support for a nascent industry and (ii) support for social policies, with payoffs that differ for different cities. It is shown that, if firms in the nascent industry are attracted by relatively high levels of support, cities will generally spend more on industrial support than the national government would. This simple model is similar to those developed in the literature on Tax Competition. This feature allows a commentary to be made on both the policy implications and possible extensions of the model.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p58&r=geo
  157. By: Giuseppe Arbia; Roberto Basile; Gianfranco Piras
    Abstract: In this paper we suggest an alternative estimator and an alternative graphical analysis, both developed by Hyndman et al. (1996), to describe the law of motion of cross-sectional distributions of per-capita income and its components in Europe. This estimator has better properties than the kernel density estimator generally used in the literature on intra-distribution dynamics (cf. Quah, 1997). By using the new estimator, we obtain evidence of a very strong persistent behavior of the regions considered in the study, that is poor regions tend to remain poorer and rich regions tend to remain richer. These results are also in line with the most recent literature available on the distribution dynamic approach to regional convergence (Pittau and Zelli, 2006).
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p262&r=geo
  158. By: Giacomo Genna
    Abstract: Nowadays the society is based on the people and goods mobility, so that results necessary guarantee the efficiency of the transportation system as accessibility and mobility in the territory. The history of tourism in a territory is tightly connected to the evolution of its transportation system; we can affirm that is not present a tourist place, archaeological monument or other tourist attraction if the same are not somehow accessible. In every case the logical bond between transports and tourism must not be found in the simple relationship cause-effect between the transport evolution and the economic development of a territory, but in the complexity of the interdipendence relationships between transports and tourism and tourism and transports. The four principal transportation ways (by road, by railroad, by air and by water) differs one from each other for times, costs and served areas. Nevertheless, the globality of the transportation system can be considered as a component of tourist product when it is intended as a consume only not some tourist destination, but also of the itinerary to be followed for moving from the residental place to the tourist destination. If we consider the geographical marginality of Sicily in the EU, the transportation system represents a strategic role in the throwing down of the "geographical barriers to the entrance" or "local diseconomies". The present paper explores the effects of the recent Regional Plan of the Transports and the Mobility on the Sicilian Tourist Development with particular reference to the occupational aspects both direct, indirect and induced. Moreover it will be highlighted the conclusive role that the regional economic politics can play on transports, by monitoring the market with special rates and limits to the competition.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p652&r=geo
  159. By: Dubravka Jurlina Alibegovic; Zeljka Kordej De Villa
    Abstract: In this paper, urban indicator system is investigated in the context of urban policy processes. Indicators are seen as a tool to enhance urban management and special attention is given to their role in providing assistance in monitoring municipal development and performance. The paper will present desirable features of useful indicators from the city perspective, as well as framework to include these indicators in urban policy and management successfully. Formulation of proper indicator system requires a good understanding of the utilization, diffusion and dissemination of information in policy processes, so the paper will consider basic constraints related to these preconditions such as existing knowledge gaps within the indicator developer community vs. their theoretical limitations, communication concerns, human and technical capacities, policy issues etc. This paper will also elaborate modest Croatian experience in developing urban indicator system and lessons learned will be used as guidelines in making illustrative proposal for Croatian cities. In addition, this paper will try to define particular environmental, economic and governance variables/indices that should be adopted as urban indicators, taking in account Croatian specificities. We conclude this paper by addressing future challenges related to integration of urban indicator system within urban policy in Croatia.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p354&r=geo
  160. By: Nadia Bessa
    Abstract: Expanding urban areas face growing land use conflicts particularly in the peri-urban zone, which is defined as a zone outside the city, occupied both by ‘classical’ rural land uses, and construction of road infrastructure and commercial shopping centers, which result as rapid changes. These changes of the peri-urban zone lead to complex patterns of land uses as evidenced in terms of the intensity and structure. To the extent that modern societies need to understand such patterns in order to formulate appropriate guidance policies, it is interesting to develop a relevant framework of analysis. It is necessary to assess land-use change in order to assist urban planning and related decision-making. The proposed approach explores an analytical framework combining GIS and a system of PSI (pressure-state-impact) indicators aimed at the analysis of urban growth and land use change in the peri-urban zone of Thessaloniki. Thessaloniki is the second largest city of Greece which is located in the Northern part of the country and has approximately one million inhabitants.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p599&r=geo
  161. By: Jorge Miguel Reis Silva
    Abstract: Beira Interior is a Portuguese region located at the centre of Portugal, close to the Spanish border, and traditionally seen as a strongly peripheral region. In the last years the decrease in population and weaknesses of the industrial park have been justified on basis of shortness and/or lack of quality in transport infrastructure. In order to evaluate whether there is in fact a case in favour of infrastructure shortage we have developed a methodology that would allow us to identify the accessibility gains in the recent past, the ones foreseeable in the usually adopted planning periods and the ones possible in a asymptotic scenario of strong generalised accessibility, enabling this way to make explicit identification of the gains already achieved and the ones still possible. The evolution of values of the studied region was compared with the corresponding values in the region Litoral Centro – the region that was also used as benchmark in a previous consultation process to industrial key informants operating in Beira Interior. This thematic is extremely important for the region and for the country since the conclusions obtained will enable a better supported discussion on additional investment in transport infrastructure.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p7&r=geo
  162. By: Vasileios Galifianakis
    Abstract: The downgrade of natural environment in the last decades is obvious and the source of problem is located in urban centers. Respectively, the solution of the problem should be sought there. The ecological urban planning aims at the upgrade of urban space, redefining its relationship with residents. The present article methodizes the approach to the ecological urban planning and it is one of the there are too. Particularly, it essays an approach to the ecological urban planning through the management of those elements that compose the operation of a city and concerns the management and the control of green space, energy, water, transports, litter and society. In this way, a catholic consideration and management of the urban space, as well as a set of policies and actions for its upgrade, is achieved. Furthermore, specific references to examples in Greece – problems and perspectives – are made. Coinstantaneously, the study of international and European cities that have achieved a high level of quality of life is the proof that the ecological city does not constitute a utopia, but a challenge for the society, the planners, the local governments and the residents-users. Finally, the institutional frame and the policies, that support the ecological urban planning, are analyzed, as these are the base for its implementation.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p408&r=geo
  163. By: Dora Konsola; Zoe Fotiadi; Aliki Marinou
    Abstract: The introduction and pilot application of innovative methods in the field of cultural heritage can have a significant effect on local development by boosting tourism and the related economic activities, increasing familiarity with new technologies and creating a sense of local pride. The five Centres for Heritage Interpretation that were developed in the Region of Sterea Ellada within the framework of the RI-SE Innovative Actions Programme offer a good example of this process, illustrating the contribution of innovation to local development and the integral role played by the Local Authorities. This paper aims to examine the role of cultural innovation in local and regional development, mainly through the promotion of cultural tourism. The use of new technologies in the interpretation of cultural heritage upgrades the services provided to the visitors of cultural sites and can promote archaeological and historic monuments and sites that are less known to the wide public, therefore channeling the flow of tourists to under-developed areas of a Region. Furthermore, it is a means of introducing new technologies and innovation in a way that is user-friendly and appealing, regardless of the user’s degree of familiarity with information technology. The European Regional Innovation (RI-SE) Programme for Sterea Ellada, was implemented in 2003-2004, and aimed to introduce and incorporate innovation in the region’s economic and cultural activities through the provision of new services and the utilization of high technology. Within the framework of this programme, five pilot Centres for Heritage Interpretation were established in the towns of Orchomenos, Lamia, Gravia, Karystos and Fragista, in close collaboration with the respective Municipalities. The case study will examine the methodology and criteria that were used for the selection of the specific heritage sites from the plethora of monuments of the Sterea Ellada Region. It will also present the different multimedia solutions that were employed in each case and outline the reception of the Centres by the public. In addition, it will focus on the contribution of the Municipalities to the success of the project and analyze its effects on local development, both in the specific Municipalities, but also in the entire Region. Finally, the project’s demonstration effect will be evaluated and the prospects of its implementation in other Regions and other countries will be considered: the RI-SE programme developed an innovative model that can easily and successfully be adapted and implemented in every country with a rich cultural heritage (like, for example, in the Mediterranean countries: Spain, Italy, Turkey), especially in areas that are not included in major tourist routes.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p316&r=geo
  164. By: Ludo Peeters
    Abstract: This paper investigates inter-municipal migration flows in Belgium using a Poisson gravity model. Besides distance, the model also includes municipal-specific factors as explanatory variables. The model is tested using aggregate, cross-sectional, data on migrations between the municipalities of the Belgian province of Limburg, over the period 1998-2003. The model assumes heterogeneity of the distance-deterrence effect. The model also accounts for unobserved origin/destination characteristics. To overcome the problem of under-determinacy, we use the method of Generalized Cross-Entropy estimation. A number of major findings stand out. Firstly, we find evidence of a "U-shaped" relationship between the distance-deterrence elasticity and distance, where the distance elasticity is smaller for short-distance moves. Secondly, distance between origin and destination reinforces (attenuates) the pull effect of local employment opportunities (amenities). This finding may indicating a shift in the composition of migration flows from residential migration to labor migration as distance increases. Finally, the spatial distribution of the net pull effects of unobserved factors seem to coincide with proximity to major roads and railway stations.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p585&r=geo
  165. By: Lasse Sigbjorn Stambol
    Abstract: Well-functioning local labour markets are expected to become net receivers of labour from other regions. In addition these regions are also expected to attract the most qualified labour and thus be the winners in the competition for the best human capital. For an examination of the two concepts "brain-gain" (a relative gain of qualified persons) and "brain-drain" (a relative loss of qualified persons), we do introduce a concept of average education based on the number of years each person have been in education altogether. There are thus reasons to expect that the regions with the highest net in-migration to job also benefit from a "brain-gain" through the migration process and vice-versa that regions experiencing a strong net loss through the migration process also suffer from a "brain-drain" in this respect. Some regions may, however, compensate a negative net-migration with a "brain-gain" through the migration process, whilst some regions may experience a "brain-drain" through migration in spite of positive net in-migration. The "brain-gain", "brain-drain" approach poses also important questions in terms of intra- and interregional competitiveness of human capital across the different industrial sectors, which is also taken into consideration in the analysis. We have as well put forward hypotheses expecting that employed persons that add to their highest formal education another year of formal education will also raise their income above the average increase of income. On the other hand the most qualified labour expects to achieve as much return on their human capital investment as possible, pushing their careers in direction of those regions and those sectors of the economy that actually give the best return. The final section of the paper is thus stressing two main aspects of these topics, first analysing the relative rise of income among employed persons changing their educational level, and second analysing the return to human capital by help of changes in personal income in different person groups by industrial sectors and regional typologies.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p787&r=geo
  166. By: Thomas De Graaff; Jaap Boter; Jan Rouwendal
    Abstract: This paper looks into the effect of distance on market shares of Dutch museums. To this end, we assume a generic distance decay function for all museums. In addition, we allow for spatial dependence between museums to account for local competition or synergy effects. Using a unique transaction database with the visiting behavior of 80,821 museum cardholders to 108 Dutch museums, we are able to calculate market shares of each museum in all 484 Dutch municipalities. To account for possible measurement error in the market shares, we adopt a spatial two error component model. Finally, we allow for additional heterogeneity by segmenting the 108 museums using a mixture approach. Without segmenting, preliminary results indicate positive spatial dependence between museums, which points to the conclusion that -- in general -- museums benefit from each others presence.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p387&r=geo
  167. By: Francesco Quatraro
    Abstract: The paper investigates the patterns of Total Factor Productivity (TFP) convergence across Italian regions, in the period 1982-2001. According to the main theoretical approaches, two different concepts of convergence may be devised, strongly intertwined. Beta-convergence applies when poor, lagging behind countries tend to grow faster than the rich and leading ones, while sigma-convergence refers to the reduction of the cross-regional dispersion of the productivity index over time. We start from the distinction between “first†and “second†capitalism, representing two areas interested by different and idiosyncratic evolutions of the industrial structure after the World War II. The former area consists of North-western regions, while the latter basically refers to North-eastern and Adriatic regions. While North-eastern regions were characterized by higher TFP levels in 1982, the “second capitalism†regions showed up sensible lower levels. The hypothesis of convergence of TFP found strong econometric support, as we could reject both the hypothesis of no-mean reversion and that of no convergence (Lichtenberg, 1996). The evidence abut sigma convergence is even more striking, as TFP dispersion has been decreasing since 1985, with a speeding up in the second half of the 1990s. We argue that this pattern of convergence is the result of catching up process in which laggards are still able to deploy the growth potential of the post-fordist model of industrialization, while leading regions, according to the Wolff’s law, have slowly exhausted those opportunities. Empirical evidence suggests that this is occurring through the routinization of innovative activity and the support of R&D carried out within Universities and public labs. This witnesses the key role of both innovation and knowledge spillovers from academia to the business system and stresses once more the need to sustain the provision of funds to the public research system.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p831&r=geo
  168. By: Jenifer Ruiz-Valenzuela; Rosina Moreno-Serrano; Esther Vaya-Valcarce
    Abstract: Despite the important role of the service sector in the economic activity, the majority of the studies, both at international and at the Spanish level, have focused their attention in determining the degree of concentration of the manufacture sector. The main purpose in this article is to analyze the concentration and the location pattern both of the manufacturing and the service sectors in Catalonia using different methodologies proposed in the economic literature, such as the Ellison&Glaeser index (1997) or the methodology used by O’Donoghue and Gleave (2004), among others. The calculation of the different indices using the municipalities of Catalonia as the geographic unit of the analysis allows us to make a comparison of the results between indices, and also to compare the location pattern and the degree of concentration of the manufacturing and service sectors. Moreover, the results that we obtain for Catalonia are compared with those obtained for other economies (United States, United Kingdom, France, Sweden, etc.). In a second step, we re-calculate these indices using as the geographic unit the local labour systems of Catalonia instead of the municipalities. The election of these two kind of geographic units is motivated thanks to the ongoing debate about what is the ideal geographic unit when analyzing the concentration of economic activity (Duranton and Overman (2006, forthcoming) and Marcon and Puech (2003), at the international level and Viladecans (2004), at the Spanish level). Using local labour systems will overcome the problem of working with geographic units based on administrative borders, like municipalities, that are not based in real economic areas. The calculation of these indices for the two kind of geographic units allows us to compare the results for the two areas. Once we have calculated these indices, we use the techniques of the Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis in order to study the geographic distribution of the concentration of the economic activity. Finally, in order to perform a more in-depth analysis of the relationships among different sectors, we use the Porter (2003) methodology to define clusters of activity.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p197&r=geo
  169. By: Marius Theriault; Francois Des Rosiers; Jean Dube
    Abstract: Purpose – This paper bridges the gap between, on the one hand, supply-driven (urban form and transportation networks) and demand-driven (action-based) accessibility to urban amenities and, on the other hand, house price dynamics as captured through panel hedonic modelling. It aims at assessing temporal changes in the valuation of accessibility, while ordering households’ priorities among access to labour market, schools and shopping outlets. Design/methodology/approach – Several indexes are built using a methodology developed by Thériault et al. (2005, published in Journal of Property Investment and Finance). They integrate car-based travel time on the road network (using GIS), distribution of opportunities (activity places) within the city, and willingness of persons to travel in order to reach specific types of activity places (mobility behaviour). While some measure centrality (potential attractiveness considering travel time, population and opportunities) others consist of action-based indexes using fuzzy logic and capture the willingness to travel in order to reach actual specific activity places (work places, schools, shopping centres, groceries). They summarise suitable opportunities available from each neighbourhood. Rescaled indices (worst - to 100 - best) are inserted simultaneously into a multiplicative hedonic model of single-family houses sold in Quebec City during years 1986, 1991 and 1996 (10,269 transactions). Manipulations of accessibility indexes are developed for ordering their relative impact on sale prices and isolate effects of each index on the variation of sale price, thus providing proxies of households’ priorities. Moreover, a panel-like modelling approach is used to control for changes in the valuation of each property-specific, taxation or accessibility attribute during the study period. Findings – This original approach proves efficient in isolating the cross-effects of urban centrality from accessibility to several types of amenities, while controlling for multicollinearity and heteroscedasticity. Results are in line with expectations. While only a few property-specific attributes experience a change in their marginal contribution to house value during the study period, all accessibility indexes do. Every single accessibility index has a much stronger effect on house values than centrality (which is still marginally significant). When buying their home, households put more emphasis on access to schools than they put on access to the labour market, which in turn, prevail over accessibility to either shopping centres or, finally, groceries. The ordering is rather stable but the actual valuation of a specific amenity may change over time. Practical implications – Better understanding the effect of accessibility to amenities on house values provides guidelines for choosing among a set of new neighbourhoods to develop in order to generate optimal fiscal effects for municipalities. It could also provide guidelines for decision making when improving transportation networks or locating new activity centres.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p756&r=geo
  170. By: Panagiota Tsolakaki; Ioannis Fragopoulos
    Abstract: This paper deals with contemporary planning projects that are correlated with community-university partnerships. It studies the ways in which the socio-spatial and national conflict in Belgium in the ’60 led to an innovative resolution which is correlated with planning projects (the transformation of rural space) and a new form of contemporary ‘new cities’. The main subject of work is the new city named Louvain-la-neuve that was created in order to accomodate the French-speaking university of Leuven after the linguistic conflict of 1968 and the social problem of the difficulties of the coexistence of two different nationalities. Through this project of the city in question, which was mobilized by the administration of the university (UniversitéCatholique de Louvain), the French-speaking Belgian government also aimed in the creation of a new pole of development in the French-speaking region (Wallonie) which would force the development of the whole region and would restore the French-speaking community in the limelight (as it was in an earlier time). More specifically, the research surveys the characteristics of the project according to some parameters: b) the role of the university in the planning processes c) the way that education consists the motivating force of a city and creates agglomeration economies d) and the planning theory in practice and the knowledge of university in planning matters, e)the results of the project in the national and regional economy in the local society and in the sustainability of the city. The local research including living in the area for several months took place in the year 2001 and the main research was made between September 2003 and August 2004 and the analysis of the data followed. The research was based on the local research as well as in two structured interviews with two off the main staff of both the French and Dutch-speaking administration committee of the university of Leuven, visual and photographical survey and group discussions with the local population permanent and temporary, and collection of all possible planning and policy documents as well as surveys concerning the project and the city. The outcome of the research shows the way in which the well-known Belgian national problem resulted in a partnership between the community and the university and in the creation of a new contemporary city that in our days tries to survive and ameliorate its environment through the knowledge-theory and the resources that the university can continuously ensure for the city’s development. The research has shown a new innovative approach of the Belgian planning processes that is deeply correlated to a socio-political problem.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p931&r=geo
  171. By: Yiota Theodora
    Abstract: Although the start of the debate on the contribution of universities to the local and regional development dates back to several decades ago, it is only in the past 25 years that it has been intensified and seen from a new angle of investigation and consideration. It is therefore imperative that the “higher education – development†relationship be reviewed and placed on different basis. The causes for this is the major change in the content of “development" and the concept of “university†[mainly in terms of its role in the society and economy], the new policies and socio-economic conditions globally, the contemporary weight attributed to new technologies and knowledge dissemination as a “development factorâ€, as well as the large number of unsuccessful attempts to use the universities a “means†for development. In the context of this general consideration at global level, it is investigated whether the Greek regional universities- as they have been established, allocated, organized and operating- have played, and may play, some part in the development of the broader areas [region, town]. In other words, it is investigated whether the expansion of higher education institutions throughout Greece has contributed to the improvement of the education quality standard and resolution of the country’s “regional problemâ€. The approach to this question is based on the grounds of two principal pursuits. First, it is studied whether and how the expansion of university education has been used as a “means of development†at the principal stages of the country's “regional development†[1946-1999]. It is, therefore, investigated whether the policy on regional universities planning and establishment was integrated in the broader framework of policies on development and education, also taking into account the regional and local specificities, needs and capabilities. Second, it is studied which are the main “operational factors†that seem to have influenced the development role of regional universities and the relationship of the latter with local societies. The implementation of the study was based on the investigation of the relevant international and Greek bibliography, and on a series of surveys focusing on : a) the Greek planning system for “developmentâ€, “spatialâ€, “regional policies†and their association with “higher education†and b) the entirety of regional universities [8 universities, 1999] and cities - prefecture capitals of Greece [53], placing special emphasis on the seventeen university-cities [2003].
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p540&r=geo
  172. By: Anastasios Michailidis; Efstratios Loizou; Konstadinos Mattas; Aikaterini Melfou
    Abstract: Regional development depends highly in the allocation of developing funds -through development policies- among the various sectors of regional economies. In order to safeguard the most efficient use of investments analytical tools visualizing the economy as a whole in the form of a general equilibrium should be adopted. In this paper the role of agro-food sectors and agriculture in regional economic growth is examined. Despite the diminishing contribution of agriculture and agro-food sectors in the formation of an economy’s gross output and employment, their indirect influence upon the rest of the economy most of the times is not completely cast up. It is evidence that over the last two decades the share of agriculture in Greece’s GDP is substantially dropped. This fact many times used as a guide to support decisions in directing regional developing funds far from agriculture. On the other side, food sector’s share in processing industries is growing and its contribution and interrelation with other sectors has not been well assessed. Thus in the present paper, the indirect contribution of agro-food sectors in a region’s economy is measured and compared to non-agricultural sectors. Linkage relationships and interdependencies between food and non-food sectors are sought and their role in strengthening the regions growth is contemplated. The identification of such relationships is very important, as the path to development in some regions is very sensitive to sectoral interdependencies. To accomplish the aforementioned objectives, an Input-Output framework was employed in a regional level (Thessalia, Greece). Utilizing an employment based Location Quotient (LQ), developed by Flegg et al (1995) -the FLQ- the national I-O table is regionalized for the Greek (NUTS 2) region. The regionalization procedure was performed by following the hybrid GRIT technique. Employing the regional I-O table, linkage coefficients, that identify the dynamics of key sectors, were estimated. In addition the regional output generated due to food sector and non-food sector activity traced out to compare the relative dynamics. Results clearly demonstrate that the nexus of food non-food sectors is determinant in regional growth plans and the particular interdependencies, in every particular region, must carefully considered.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p854&r=geo
  173. By: Filipe Lage-De-Sousa
    Abstract: Brazil has experienced two trade shocks in the 90’s: unilateral liberalization, which weighted average nominal tariff reduced from 37.7% in 1988 to 10.2% in 1994; drastically real devaluation of 47% in the exchange rate in 1999. These two effects has influenced the location of industry in Brazil, since the industry center of Brazil, Sao Paulo State, reduced its participation in the industry sector from 52% in 1985 to 43% in 2002. This occurs when the dispersion forces overcome the agglomeration ones. The main dispersion force evidenced by the literature is the increase of competition, not only in the goods market (a new product), but also in the factor market (demand of labor, which increases wages). In a trade agreement, the most common trade shock, these two forces occurred simultaneously. At this case, it is possible to distinguish between two dispersion forces: competition of the imported goods (first shock); competition in the labor market (second shock). One way to evaluate these effects can be by investigating the effectiveness of transport cost to understand the regional differences in wages and if it has reduced (or increased) its explanation power after the trade shock. In order to do that, the methodology of Hanson 1997 will be used as a basic framework. It is possible to analyze the effects of these trade shocks in the disparities of regional wages in Brazil with his methodology. However, there will be some differences to his framework. First, Hanson uses state level data and this paper has a more disaggregated regional data (microregion, which divides Brazil into more than 500 parts). Second, Hanson doesn’t take into account any change in educational level, infrastructure improvement or government intervention, which are considered in this investigation. The first results show that transport cost is important to understand differences in wages between Brazilian microregions and trade shocks have influenced in some sense these disparities, but not so consistently as transport costs. Moreover, it seems that dispersion force of the second shock was greater than the first one, therefore, competition to hire new employees expel more plants to lower wages regions than comptetion with new products.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p441&r=geo
  174. By: Nami Tanaka; Kazunari Tanaka; Yamaguchi Keiko; Tamagawa Eri
    Abstract: The paper discusses the initial field surveys to understand the conditions of tourism development and its perspectives of contribution towards regional development in developing countries. The case studies of Salt and Karak cities in Jordan are focused, where some international aid projects are under implementation. It is believed some clues for sustainable tourism development for the regional development, which may be referred to other regions, can be extracted. The reasons of focusing on Jordanian cases are the increasing potential and demand of tourism development in Middle East and an accessibility of information of existing master plan and ongoing projects supported through the ODA by Japanese government. The interview survey of party concerned and field survey carried out in 2005. Both cities were established and perished in 19th century that they inherited the historical resources such as Ottoman architecture and religious ruins. However, as same as many other local cities in the world, contemporary changes in social system such as governance, transportation, economic activities, and demography forced them into decline. Therefore, they are straggling to keep their sustainability through tourism development. Yet, their tourism resources are neither popular nor equipped to attract mass tourism from all over the world such as Petra, Madaba, and Dead Sea. As the intention of the study is to focus on the impacts of tourism development in the regional development that those less advantaged and in need of revitalization areas are picked up for case studies. The study will preliminary applies the Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threat (SWOT) analysis for assessing the cities. Based on the results of analysis, some positive factors of tourism development in the regional development will be discussed. The findings may includes some aspects of tourism development measures such as utilization of available tourism resources, application of renovation and re-routing of existing tourism resources in order to make use of available resources and creation of network among them, provision of technical assistance from the outside including international aid agencies and NGOs, participation and ownership building of local residents in tourism development activities, and involvement of existing training institutions in the area.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p79&r=geo
  175. By: Julia Georgi; Sophia Sarikou
    Abstract: The green spaces in the urban environment facilitate the movement of air masses that act as air refreshment in the wider region. The unification of urban open spaces and their enrichment with vegetation affect the micro-climate positively and act as a decisive factor for the increasing of urban thermal comfort, via the shading and the phenomenon of evapotranspiration. The planning of urban public spaces can support a habitat network encouraging the connectivity of the man-made environments with the surrounding natural ecosystems. The present paper aims to promote the unification of urban open spaces, with bioclimatic criteria by emphasizing the role of vegetation aiming the enhancement of living conditions in settlements. In particular is analysed the data collection like the proportion of building height with road width H/W, the road orientation and the solar access, the paving materials, the existent vegetation and concludes to an urban unification in a central part of Drama city in Northern Greece, by creating walkways and green corridors. The issue of solar access outdoors has been briefly discussed as an additional criterion in landscape designing the street. Design recommendations are also outlined for designing comfortable urban spaces.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p893&r=geo
  176. By: Franz Toedtling; Patrick Lehner
    Abstract: Innovations are increasingly seen as result of an interactive process of knowledge generation and knowledge application. According to the innovation systems model the business sector, the science sector, and policy actors are involved in this process. What is often neglected in existing literature is the aspect that different kinds of innovation may require specific types of relations. Radical innovations often draw on new scientific knowledge generated in universities and research organizations. The exchange of this type of knowledge requires intensive personal interactions and thus might favor local / regional levels over others. Incremental innovations on the other hand are often taking place in interaction with customers and suppliers which are often located at higher spatial levels beyond the region. In the present paper we will analyze the relationship between the different kinds of innovation and the respective knowledge links – characterized by the type and location of innovation partners as well as by the mode of knowledge exchange. Preliminary results show that firms introducing products new to the market are relying to a higher degree on patents and they are cooperating with universities and research institutes. Hereby, researchers seem to exert a bridging function between the business and the science sector. The mode of knowledge exchange seems to be also influenced by location. Knowledge between geographically close science and industry partners is exchanged through cooperation, whereas over longer distances knowledge is more often acquired by contract research.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p513&r=geo
  177. By: Gulden Erkut; Mete Basar Baypinar
    Abstract: The political change in the 1980’es and 1990’es in the Black Sea Region has introduced many questions regarding its future as the region faces massive problems like conflicts on territory, drop of production levels in the 1990’es and related poverty, and last but not the least, environmental problems. The size of the region also blurs the picture. However, briefly there are three major influences that mark the future development of the region: globalization, regionalization and Euro-Asian integration. We propose that under these three influences, a new global integration zone, consisting of multiple networks between cities of the Black Sea Region is emerging. Our proposition that a new global integration zone is emerging within the Black Sea Region depends on three assumptions: Our first assumption is that neo-liberal globalization and regionalization (and particularly Euro-Asian integration) lead to development of similar political changes in the region. Our second assumption is that neo-liberal globalization and regionalization lead to development of similar spatial socio-economic developments within the Black Sea Region which brings some cities to the fore to gain power in the national and global organization of production. Our third assumption is that there is increasing trans-national integration between subject cities. Emergence of such a zone is perhaps most important for policy makers at the local level who have to face either positive or negative on-site effects of globalization and regionalization. Increasing socio-economic inequalities, excessive agglomeration of economic activities and population, diversification of population and increasing complexity of problems cripple traditional city management and planning practices in these countries which have a strong central planning and administration background. Due to practical reasons, we limit our study to integration of two sub-national regions, the province of Istanbul, and the province of Odessa which are also sister cities. Province of Istanbul may be recalled as Greater Istanbul, or Istanbul Metropolitan City since at 2004 due to change in the administrative legislation. Province of Odessa includes the city of Odessa as well as other cities within the province. We may conclude that there is progressive convergence in the political grounds between Turkey-Ukraine and Istanbul-Odessa, mainly in the framework of the global structures that are predominantly part of the Euro-Atlantic supra-structure. Though there is not much evidence of similarity in spatial development of Istanbul and Odessa, particularly due to political inclarity and problems of administrative decentralization in Ukraine, there is evidence of economic and social integration, between Turkey-Ukraine and Istanbul-Odessa, which experiences slow development, and negative side effects like informal activities. As a conclusion we may argue that integration of two regions might heavily depend on the Ukrainian foreign and domestic policies, and the decisions of supra-national structures like the World Trade Organization and EU. We may expect a progress in economic integration by the removal of trade barriers, where Istanbul and Odessa would be direct beneficiaries as both production and transfer centres. Further administrative decentralization in Ukraine might lead to a re-population in Odessa Region, as happened in Istanbul after the 1980 period.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p466&r=geo
  178. By: Giulio Cainelli; Donato Iacobucci
    Abstract: Vertical integration, i.e. the control of activities along the production chain, is a fundamental issue for understanding firms’ strategic choices and production organization. In this paper we analyze the determinants of vertical integration in Italian manufacturing firms testing some hypotheses drawn from the transaction cost economics (TCE) and the property rights theory (PRT). Specifically, we focus on the role played by structural variables, such as spatial agglomeration and technology. While the role of technology in influencing vertical integration has been already investigated, the impact of spatial agglomeration is a novel contribution of this paper. The PRT makes the prediction that greater technology intensity of producers should be associated with greater vertical integration while greater technology intensity of suppliers should be associated with less vertical integration. The TCE makes the opposite hypothesis as the technology intensity of suppliers is associated with investment specificity, thus inducing vertical integration. As far as spatial agglomeration is concerned PRT makes the prediction that spatial proximity encourages vertical integration by raising the threat of knowledge appropriation by competitors. This effect is positive in high tech sectors while should be negligeable in low tech sectors. On the contrary TCE predicts a negative relationship between spatial agglomeration and vertical integration due to the reduction of opportunism within spatial clusters, such as industrial districts. In the empirical part of the paper we take advantage of a large data set on Italian business groups referring to 2001 which allow us to identify the production activities controlled by the same owner. In addition, using the Italian input-output table we are able to assess when these activities can be considered as vertical integration. Technology intensity is captured by the R&D expenditure while spatial agglomeration is captured by the belonging of firms to industrial districts as defined according to the Sforzi-ISTAT procedure. On the basis of these data we test different econometric specifications to detect the statistical relevance of technology, spatial agglomeration and their interaction in explaining firms’ vertical integration.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p286&r=geo
  179. By: Marijana Sumpor
    Abstract: Through the increasing importance of networking and use of participatory strategic planning approaches in the regional development practice, it seems that local and regional development theory moves from the concept of competitive advantages towards collaborative advantages. This conceptual move implies a redefinition of inter- and intra-institutional relations of the public and private sector, and therefore, calls for defining new forms of governance. The exploration of the concept of collaborative advantages might contribute to a better understanding of the relations between the European concepts of competition and cohesion. As networking in various forms and creation of collaborative advantages requires significant “coordination†of multiple development actors and activities across different territorial levels, a broad spectrum of research questions can be opened. This research paper is focussed on the problem of coordination, which is often mentioned as one of the main problems of local and regional development. Before any development activity can be coordinated, some preconditions have to be fulfilled, namely development actors have to be willing to communicate and to cooperate. Only then collaboration in the implementation of concrete development activities might occur. This process involves formal and informal institutional relationships, as well as multi-level governance. The main goal of this research paper is to explain and define the concept of collaborative advantages and coordination in the context of regional development policy. In Addition, a conceptual policy coordination model that combines horizontal and vertical relationships between the main development actors, while planning and implementing local and regional development activities, is presented. The regional development policy coordination model is developed on the basis of recent insights into regional, institutional, organizational and planning theories and practice. It is tested on the basis of the institutional framework and strategic planning experiences in Croatia, particularly in the context of the future integration into the European Union. The results indicate that the model is applicable in other countries and it contributes to a better understanding of institutional relationships in coordinating regional development activities and creating collaborative advantages.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p280&r=geo
  180. By: Georgia Alexandri
    Abstract: Discourse on the phenomenon of gentrification has mainly focused on western cities of the US, Canada and the UK. However gentrification is experienced worldwide. Nonetheless as the socioeconomic and political context is different in each city, the process develops differently in each case with regard to the distinct background. However, research about gentrification in the Mediterranean region is limited. From this viewpoint this article deals with the gentrification process of the Athenian inner district of Gas. Although gentrification is privately led, the role of the State is crucial for the development and implication of this urban trend. Governments, central and local, facilitate this process and encourage private investments as in the short term they gain benefits and economic profits. However, in Gas the attraction of outside capital in special forms such as entertainment amenities overruns the local potential. This change in land-use results in the displacement of the local population, thus encouraging the conquest of the city’s core by the middle and affluent income classes. The article highlights the process of gentrification in this inner city area of Athens. Its basic purpose is to draw some general conclusions of the gentrification process in the Southern European context of Athens.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p356&r=geo
  181. By: Joerg Lingens; Joerg Heining
    Abstract: Social interaction, i.e. the interdependence of agents' behaviour via non-market activities, has recently become the focus of economic analysis. Social interaction has been used to explain various labour market outcomes. An important result arising from the literature is the proposition that labour markets are characterised by multiple equilibria. Thus, social interaction is used as an explanation for regional unemployment disparities. Building on this, we construct a Pissarides (2000) type search model with social interaction. Despite social interaction, this type of model is characterised by only one stable equilibrium. Using a unique data set on un-/employment spell data for Germany we analyse whether multiple equilibria in regional labour markets exist. After controlling for structural differences we are able to show that the data supports the assumption of a unique equilibrium. As such, social interaction cannot explain regional unemployment disparities.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p43&r=geo
  182. By: Jean-Marie Huriot; Lise Bourdeau-Lepage
    Abstract: In a preceding paper (Louvain Economic Review), we define city globalization as the process by which a city gains the ability to coordinate complex economic activities at a global scale. The resulting “global cities†carry out the functions of design, decision and control in the global economy. However, the logic of city globalization is not universal. It does not apply equally to different regions in the world. A large part of the less developed countries (LDCs) remains at the margin, despite the dramatic growth of its major cities, especially the “large urban agglomerations†and the “megacities†as defined by the United Nations. In 2003, 15 of the world’s 20 megacities were located in LDCs. We stress the differentiation of the city globalization process and the possible divergence between city size and city globalization, i.e. between global cities and mega-cities. We propose some avenues for explaining this divergence. We use both statistical and theoretical arguments based on the economic theory of agglomeration (Fujita and Thisse), the theory of world cities (Friedman, Sassen, Taylor and GaWC) and the theory of institutions (North). In a large part of the literature, it is considered that a large city can more probably become a global city than a smaller one, because city size favors the diversity of activities, a high level of human capital, of communication equipments, and ability to benefit from increasing returns. However, this logic is not universal. City size is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition of city globalization. It appears that the level of development of the country gives only a partial explanation of the divergence. The ability to coordinate complex activities at a global scale, which characterize global cities, depends closely on the nature and the quality of institutions. The bad quality of governance, the low level of social connectivity (Sassen), the high level of corruption, are important obstacles to city globalization in LDCs. The existence of an important informal sector can explain that cities in LDCs beyond the size compatible with their economic resources and with their ability to generate externalities favorable to city globalization
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p894&r=geo
  183. By: George Mihailidis; Giorgos Georgiadis; Nikos Koutsomarkos
    Abstract: (This paper is the result of a research program that was carried out by the Laboratory for Evaluation of Development Policies and Programs, University of Thessaly). Greek economy, after nominal converging with other western European countries and meeting the accession criteria to the European Monetary Union, sets as a new objective the attainment of “real†convergence. Success in this objective, while operating in a globalized economic environment and the single European market, will be judged on the choice of a development policy focused on competitiveness and regional development. This paper exactly aims at informing the strategic planning of a regional competitiveness policy. Especially, it intends to set specifications for a regional competitiveness strategy, to define actions at an institutional level for its implementation and to propose a quantification and measurement system of its results. Based on the definition of competitiveness and its determinant factors for each level (national, branch, enterprise, regional) and how they are intertwined, the necessity for a regional competitiveness strategy is validated by a critical analysis of Greek economy¢s recent related data and performance. The frame in which Greek regions¢ competitiveness problems will be addressed is analyzed under the light of the European Union¢s new regional development policies Furthermore, the article analyzes the competitiveness strategic planning of Greece and Greek regions in interventions of the current programming period. Namely, it evaluates the extent at which competitiveness is identified and specified in the Community Support Programme, the Competitiveness Operational Programme and the SWOT analyses of the Regional Operational Programmes. Moreover the policies that implement the European regional policy (CSP, OP) and the competitiveness policy (COP) are being evaluated on aspects that include fund allocation, strategy update, regional priorities, implementation progress, efficiency, performance, and synergies, as far as competitiveness and its determinant factors are concerned. Based on literature review, the paper assesses and analyzes the most renowned benchmark systems of countries¢ and regions¢ competitiveness. This paper results to a coherent set of proposals for regional competitiveness policy strategic planning. Particularly, it defines requests towards the aforementioned policy and identifies important issues for the forthcoming programming period. It proposes the establishment of regional agencies analogous to the National Competitiveness and Development Council, alternative organizational forms and a typical action plan. It defines an index set for Greek regions¢ competitiveness benchmarking, a synthesis and utilization methodology, and evaluates the documentation of available data.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p837&r=geo
  184. By: Riccardo Cappellin; Luigi Orsenigo
    Abstract: The paper aims at investigating the transfer of tacit knowledge both at the regional and at the interregional level and it focuses on the factors and forms of the processes of interactive learning between small and medium size in medium technology sectors. The analysis proceeds from the contributions of four strands of literature, focusing on economics of agglomeration, cognitive economics, industrial strategic alliances and governance in a knowledge economy. While industrial economics interprets technology spill-over at the local level as an automatic and chaotic process allowed by geographical proximity of the firms, regional economics identifies different specific types of flows and networks, which link together in an organized way the various firms and other private and public actors within a given regional innovation system. Cognitive economics may bring a significant contribution, as it considers the relevance for economics of human cognitive aspects and it discovers the key role in the creation of new ideas of selected factors, such as the stimulus by changes in the external environment, the process of “neurognosis†or negative reaction aiming to the protection of the internal integrity, the search process constrained by cognitive proximity, the success in pattern making and the achievement of consistency and compatability, the process of “exaptation†or reconversion leading to path-dependency, the creation of new connections and routines and institutions, which allows to save the limited cognitive capacity of individuals and organizations. This theoretical framework in the analysis of the processes of knowledge creation may be schematically represented through the model of “Territorial Knowledge Managementâ€, which aims at promoting the interactive learning processes within the regional innovation systems and focuses on a selected list of knowledge levers, such as: market orientation, accessibility, receptiveness, common identity, creativity and governance. On the base of these theoretical concepts and tools, the paper analyses various case studies of firms embedded in different industrial clusters in Europe, focusing on the forms of the process of interactive learning and innovation between the various regional actors. Finally, the paper attempts to derive from that analysis useful indications for the possible extension of knowledge and innovation networks at the interregional and international level and for decreasing the regional divide in a modern knowledge economy. The research has been undertaken within the framework of the project: “IKINET – International Knowledge and Innovation Network†(EU FP6, N° CIT2-CT-2004-506242). Keywords: knowledge creation, interactive learning processes, industrial clusters, innovation policies, European integration, medium technology sectors, small and medium size firms.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p334&r=geo
  185. By: Pedro N. Ramos
    Abstract: The main focus of this paper is the importance of the balance-of-(international and interregional)-payments for the regional economies. Discussion centers on two points: 1) on one hand, we do believe that for regions, as a rule, at the overall balance-of-payments (BP) level, the size of imbalances is reduced; 2) on the other, we argue that even if relatively important imbalances arise their effect on regional economies is small. There are several reasons why regional BPs remain relatively well-balanced at overall level. The most important is that trade and current imbalances, that regions run very often with a considerable size, are easily financed by offsetting flows recorded as well in the BP. These trade and current imbalances, that do not pass into overall imbalances, are of benign kind. We present several reasons why that easy financing – allowing for trade and current imbalances – happens. As for the argument that a BP disequilibrium – if it arises – do not hit significantly a regional economy, that is the aftermath of a nationally integrated financial system, where the great majority of the regional units are only branches of national institutions operating all over the country. In this environment, a variation in the regional money stock (that is the counterpart of an overall BP imbalance) is not magnified by a money multiplier. We then conclude that as regions do not face any significant BP constraint, exports do not have any peculiar role in the regional growth process, and therefore the regional competitiveness debate is misplaced.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p32&r=geo
  186. By: Maria A. Caraballo; Carlos Usabiaga
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effects of supply shocks on the Spanish inflation rate. Our goal is to determine if there is a homogeneous behaviour across regions with regard to that issue or if, on the contrary, there are regions more inflationary than others. In this sense, this paper tries to throw some light on the causes of the recent increase in the Spanish inflation rate and the relation of this fact with the evolution of oil prices. The methodology applied is based on the seminal paper of Ball and Mankiw (1995). Those authors assume that a good proxy for supply shocks is the third moment of the distribution of changes in relative prices, and show that for no trend inflation regimes the presence of nominal rigidities, like menu costs, implies a positive relationship between inflation and skewness -i.e., the supply shocks-, that is magnified by the variance of the distribution. In order to achieve these goals, we have chosen the 1993-2005 period, given that it fulfils the features required to apply the methodology above mentioned. The data used are the monthly consumer price indexes of each region, disaggregated in 57 categories. As a first stage, we have checked that the skewness of the distribution of changes in relative prices is a good proxy for supply shocks. After that, the relationship between inflation and the higher moments of the distribution is estimated. Moreover, control variables as interest rates and unemployment rates have been introduced. The analysis has been carried out in two ways. On one hand, each region is analysed separately and, on the other hand, we have used panel data techniques in order to test homogeneity across regions. Our results point out that Spanish regions show a common pattern with regard to inflation behaviour and that they are vulnerable to supply shocks.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p335&r=geo
  187. By: Catarina Aroso; Aurora, A.C. Teixeira
    Abstract: The urban mobility became an international problem and several countries joined together in different consortium, signing international agreements and developing projects in a way that propose new standards to actual mobility, leading the transportation to a new sustainable future. Although such worldwide increasing effort regarding sustainable mobility issue, namely by the most proactive European cities, it is not yet clear why measures towards sustainable mobility are not implemented by the generality of local authorities. The main goal of this paper is to identify the different sustainable mobility strategies and perceptions by local public authorities. Such governance aspects are not yet deal properly and in a convincing way. The handicap is especially acute in Portugal where sustainable urban mobility management is still an undeveloped and scarcely studied reality. Through a direct inquiry to all Portuguese municipalities we provide brand new evidence on their perceptions and strategies regarding sustainable urban mobility management. Proxying municipalities’ perception towards sustainable mobility by three alternative (though interrelated) variables – having a mobility study; having a mobility plan; and having performed a mobility related inquiry – we concluded sustainable mobility is not yet a prominent issue among Portuguese municipalities. Of the respondent 193 municipalities (62.5% response rate), less than half (46.4%) claimed to possess a mobility study, only 29.8% stated to have a mobility plan, and a meagre percentage (17.9%) have performed a mobility-related inquiry to its citizens. Moreover, estimates based on a logit regression indicates that the most mobility-conscious municipalities are, on average, those that are richer, possess alternative transport (i.e., bicycles) parks and routes, have a larger and more human capital intensive departments (which are responsible by mobility issues), and (somehow surprisingly) belong to inland regions.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p832&r=geo
  188. By: Isabelle Thomas; Vojtech Eksler; Sylvain Lassarre
    Abstract: This paper aims at showing and understanding the spatial regional disparities hidden behind average national statistics on road fatalities in Europe; special attention is given on the EU last enlargement. The work is not limited on differences descriptions, but unveils what is hidden behind the observed infra-national heterogeneity in terms of road risk. It is indeed common practice to compare countries in terms of road safety performance and to rank them in terms of a risk indicator such as the mortality rate, which is often expressed by the number of fatalities due to road accidents per 100,000 inhabitants. Some countries are known for their very bad risk records and are often pointed out by national or international authorities, without any understanding of the regional differences hidden behind a national mean value. The data analysis shows that changes in the level of spatial aggregation of the data produce significant differences in the variables describing the level of road safety, and hence in operational recommendation and conclusions. Beside the differences in national conditions and polices, the regional differences in road environment characteristics, traffic performance, road user mix, travel speeds, seat-belt use, and availability of emergency care have been major contributors to these variations. Road safety professionals and decision makers should be aware of the differences existing when trying to reduce road toll of the country in sustainable and cost-effective way.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p223&r=geo
  189. By: E. Umran (Mrs.) Topcu
    Abstract: This paper investigates the spatial and temporal characteristics of periodic markets ( pazar ) in Ãstanbul, by means of analyzing the behavioral patterns of sellers and buyers. Periodic markets have their own products, their own ways of marketing, their own architecture and their own olfactory characteristics. All these factors together create a local culture. some periodic markets have been operating in the same place since the ottoman times. Others have sprung up both in squatter ( gecekondu ) neighborhoods and newly planned urban neighborhoods. So, they can be classified as traditional and modern. Neighborhood markets and the term "going to the market" is part of a traditional life style both in Turkey and Ãstanbul. Periodic markets range from farmers' markets that open up in a relatively more central empty location, on certain days of the week, to periodic markets that open up in central locations in the city, on certain days of the week. So, they happen to be representations of spatial cultural differences. besides providing basic needs for consumption ( food,clothing etc.), they also provide an environment of social interactions. Ãstanbul is a city that provides, anything and everything that can be bought, to her inhabitants. Like elsewhere in the world, new shopping trends are forcing the periodic markets for structural changes. Even in the most traditional neighborhoods, periodic markets are surviving the changes and no decline has been observed in the "going to the market" habits of Ãstanbul inhabitants.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p366&r=geo
  190. By: Grigori Fainstein
    Abstract: In the transition to a market economy the countries of Eastern Europe underwent a significant structural changes. There is a plenty of literature on the structural changes in industry in transition countries. Some works on industrial restructuring have appeared in Estonia as well. By now the time series of data on this field are long enough to conduct this kind of analysis in a more systematic and formal way. The aim of this work is an analysis of the structural changes in the Estonian manufacturing in transition and it relation with regional development. The changes in manufacturing output structure is analyzed by the NACE classification broad sectors. Changes in values and real output are considered. The development of relative prices, industrial employment and labor productivity are also examined. A set of indices are calculated to study regional manufacturing dynamics. After that econometric analysis of relation between industrial restructuring and the regional development is considered. The paper ends with the conclusions.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p559&r=geo
  191. By: Ahmet Kivanc Kutluca
    Abstract: Turkey has many geological disadvantages such as sitting on top of active tectonic plate boundaries, and why having avalanche, flood, and landslide and drought prone areas. However, this natural structure is inevitable; the only way to survive in such a harsh geography is to be aware of importance of these natural events and to take political and physical measures. Natural hazards are generally forgotten shortly after a while. Many projects that are planned to mitigate future hazards are suspended soon after natural hazards happened. Instead of taking pre- disaster measures and precautions, only emergency measures for recovery and post- disaster aid to the victims of a calamity are applied. Izmir which is the third biggest city in Turkey survived as a big city throughout its history of 5000 years and has been frequently renovated under geopolitical and geological influences. Izmir has been greatly affected by some disasters such as earthquakes, fires, epidemics and etc. Thus many edifices that would reflect historical background of the city did not survive until today and present remains are generally few and known only by experts and the neighboring people (Towards Agenda 21 in Izmir, 1998). Population increases and its development pressures on rural areas are inevitable problems for Izmir. Urban housing supply could not meet the demand, the housing policies could not be integrated with that of urban land and the housing subsidies could not help to serve low-income groups. Natural environmental features of Izmir increase its natural hazard risks. Izmir has sloppy topography that surrounds the city shape. Further more, soil geology is unsuitable for to settle down in built up area. On the other hand natural hazard risks increase because of the spread of the illegal urban settlements and because of the feeble building types. The major aim of this research is to bring up the magnitude of natural hazard risks in Izmir built-up zone, not being taken into consideration adequately. Because the dimensions of the peril are not taken seriously enough, the natural hazard risks, which are commonly well known, are not considered important or they are being forgotten after some time passes. Within this research, the magnitude of natural hazard risks for Izmir is being presented in the scope of concrete and local researches over Izmir risky areas.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p377&r=geo
  192. By: Guido De Blasio
    Abstract: By diminishing the cost of performing isolated economic activities in isolated areas, information technology might serve as a substitute for urban agglomeration. This paper assesses this hypothesis by using Italian household level data on internet navigation, e-commerce, and e-banking. Empirically, I find no support for the argument that the internet reduces the role of distance. My results suggest that: (1) Internet navigation is more frequent for urban consumers than their non-urban counterparts. (2) The use of e-commerce is basically not affected by the size of the city where the household lives. Remote consumers are discouraged by the fact that they cannot see the goods before buying them. Leisure activities and cultural items are the only goods and services for which e-commerce is used more intensively in isolated areas. (3) E-banking bears no relationship with city size. In choosing a bank, non-urban customers evaluate personal acquaintances as an important factor more intensively than urban clients. This also depends on the fact that banking account holders in remote areas are more frequently supplied with a loan by their bank.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p440&r=geo
  193. By: Katharina Hampel; Marcus Kunz; Norbert Schanne; Ruediger Wapler; Antje Weyh
    Abstract: Labour-market policies are increasingly being decided on a regional level. This implies that institutions have an increased need for regional forecasts as a guideline for their decision-making process. Therefore, we forecast regional unemployment in the 176 German labour market districts. We use an augmented structural component (SC) model and compare the results from this model with those from basic SC and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Basic SC models lack two important dimensions: First, they only use level, trend, seasonal and cyclical components, although former periods of the dependent variable generally have a significant influence on the current value. Second, as spatial units become smaller, the influence of “neighbour-effects†becomes more important. In this paper we augment the SC model for structural breaks, autoregressive components and spatial autocorrelation. Using unemployment data from the Federal Employment Services in Germany for the period December 1997 to August 2005, we first estimate basic SC models with components for structural breaks and ARIMA models for each spatial unit separately. In a second stage, autoregressive components are added into the SC model. Third, spatial autocorrelation is introduced into the SC model. We assume that unemployment in adjacent districts is not independent for two reasons: One source of spatial autocorrelation may be that the effect of certain determinants of unemployment is not limited to the particular district but also spills over to neighbouring districts. Second, factors may exist which influence a whole region but are not fully captured by exogenous variables and are reflected in the residuals. We test the quality of the forecasts from the basic models and the augmented SC model by ex-post-estimation for the period September 2004 to August 2005. First results show that the SC model with autoregressive elements and spatial autocorrelation is superior to basic SC and ARIMA models in most of the German labour market districts.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p196&r=geo
  194. By: Henk Folmer; Johan Oud
    Abstract: A strong increase in the availability of space-time data has occurred during the past decades. This has led to the development of a substantial literature dealing with the two particular problems inherent to this kind of data, i.e. serial dependence between the observations on each spatial unit over time, and spatial dependence between the observations on the spatial units at each point in time (e.g. Elhorst, 2001, 2003). Typical for spatial panel data models is that the causal direction cannot be based on instantaneous relationships between simultaneously measured variables. Rather the so-called cross-lagged panel design studies compare the effects of variables on each other across time. Although they circumvent the difficult problem of assessing causal direction in cross-sectional research, the cross-lagged panel design studies are usually performed in discrete time (Oud, 2002). Because of different discrete time observation intervals within and between studies, outcomes are often incomparable or appear to be contradictory (Gollob & Reichardt, 1987). This paper will describe the problems of cross-lagged space-time models in discrete time and propose how these problems can be solved through a continuous time approach. In this regard special attention will be paid to structural equation modelling (SEM). In addition, we shall describe how space-time dependence can he handled in a SEM framework
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p19&r=geo
  195. By: Sandy Dall'erba; Eveline Van Leeuwen
    Abstract: Studies dealing with the impact of public support on employment have given varying results, depending on the estimation process, sample and type of subsidy. In this paper, we investigate the impact of support from the Common Agricultural Policy and Objective 5 funds on agricultural employment changes in European regions. We use a spatial econometric approach to consider the fact that employment dynamics in one region also depend on the dynamics of its neighbors. Our conclusions raise interesting issues for the ongoing debate on the role of support to the agricultural sector and provide several policy perspectives for the new member countries where this sector still influences economic performance.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p96&r=geo
  196. By: Elias Soukiazis; Tulio Cravo
    Abstract: This paper examines the convergence process among the Brazilian states using different concepts of convergence and giving special attention to the role of human capital as the conditioning factor to convergence. Different measures of human capital are used in the estimation of the convergence equations and the results show that they play a significant role in explaining the improvement of the standards of living of the Brazilian population. An interesting finding is that different levels of human capital have different impacts on the growth of per capita income depending on the level of development of the Brazilian states. Lower levels of human capital explain better the convergence process among the less developed states and higher levels of human capital are more adequate for controlling differences in the “steady-states†of the more developed Brazilian regions. The impact of the intermediate levels of human capital on growth is stronger in all samples.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p50&r=geo
  197. By: Sennur Akansel; Berk Minez
    Abstract: Over a long history, the city of Edirne has been developing as an important settlement centre due to its geopolitical location. The importance of Edirne increased especially after it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks and served as the capital city of the Ottoman Empire for a long period of time. It is city of a peculiar character and identy with its many monuments and samples of civil architecture. Kaleiçi, as the first settlement nucleus of Edirne, has still many historic houses which could manage to survive, reflecting the social and cultural life of the city around the end of 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries. The dwellings those reached up to the present in Kaleiçi neigborhood, which can be considered as the center of settlement in Edirne, are very few in number. The conditions that expedited the deformed look of present Edirne are as follows: the regulations which led way to the new reconstruction after the earthquakes and fires, the illegal practises in the area, the dense commerce in Saraçlar Avenue, in turn, the deterioration of the characteristics of the plan and facade of the area and problems resuled from changes in the dwelling owners. Following a brief history of Edirne Kaleiçi, the objectives of this study are to determine and classify the characteristic of the plansand facades of traditional dwellings and to develop suggestions for the preservation of these houses and the spatial qualities of whole fabric of the area.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p665&r=geo
  198. By: Dimitris Foutakis; Elisavet Thoidou
    Abstract: e-Governance has recently emerged as a new field of interest for both researchers and public policy makers. This has to do in the first instance with the rise of information and communication technologies and with the strategy for promotion of the information society. It also reflects growing interest in the capacity of various forms of governance to manage complex development issues and facilitate decision-making in the era of globalization. The potential of e-Governance extends from improvement of public services at the various levels of administration to empowerment of community engagement within decision-making processes. e-Governance is also of manifest relevance to questions such as the digital divide and democratic participation. Metropolitan areas in particular are considered to be at the centre of the developmental process. They thus become the appropriate spatial level for the implementation of development programmes aimed at enhancement of competitiveness and employment. New forms of multilevel metropolitan governance emerge, in response to the economic and institutional transformations occurring in them. e-Governance represents a new challenge for metropolitan governance and in particular for development programming. In the context of the EU structural regional policy, development programming in Greece identifies the development of metropolitan areas as one of its main policy objectives. e-Governance is in any case a basic component of the Information Society strategy. This paper examines the implementation of e-Governance in the Thessaloniki metropolitan area, in the specific context of development programming. From this starting point, lessons are drawn for the necessity of e-Governance as an element of metropolitan governance.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p548&r=geo
  199. By: Ilias Kordas
    Abstract: Lignite (brown coal) is Greece's most important energy mineral raw material. Lignite exploitation has made a highly significant contribution to the development of energy sector of Greece on past 50 years, and will, according to estimations, continue to supply energy for another 40 years. Greece is very rich in Lignite resources. The two main basins - from where Lignite is extracted by opencast mining - are a) in Western Macedonia (northen Greece) where is generated the 70% of the whole electricity of Greece and b) in Central Peloponese (Southern Greece) where is generated the 10% of the whole electricity of Greece. In this respect, Public Power Corporation of Greece cooperates with the local administrative authorities and finances or undertakes social "compensation" projects for life improvement, and social and financial support of the residential areas near mines. Also provides technical services and contributes to the carrying out of small projects in municipalities and communities. Finaly provides thermal energy from the power stations for the district teleheating of the towns of Kozani, Ptolemais and Megalopolis and surrounting settlements. In addition to the works of social regeneration and the duty for the development of industrial areas, for the redevelopment works and environmental protection of the new ground at the lignite mines, more than 500.000 Euros are spent on a yearly basis (350.000 Euros at West Macedonia and 150.000 Euros at Central Peloponese). Moreover, according to data taken from the statement of accounts regarding only the operation of the mines (salaries, commossions, contracts assigned etc) the amount of 367.000.000 Euros is spent in the local societies of Kozani and Florina Prefectures. As a result, Lignite contributes to the regional Development of the country. Lignite mining and the generation of electric power take place in less developed areas, ensuring employment for a large number of scientific and labor personel, reducing unemployment and urban attraction and increasing the per capita local income in these areas.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p938&r=geo
  200. By: Galina Golobokova
    Abstract: Establishing of Special (Free) Economical Zone (SEZ) in Magadan region has become an actual task to support surviving of the territory in the condition of being remote from central regions of Russia and limited financial resources. This is determined by slow accumulation of local funds and constant sufficient flow of capital from Northern regions to the central parts of Russia. In 1999 on the territory of SEZ the preferential economical mechanism was applied. It allowed the companies registered within the SEZ not to pay federal taxes and customs fees in order to improve their financial status and also to create the Fund of SEZ which is used to new companies establishing and regional social problems solving. By 2004 the number of SEZ participants has reached 440 including 125 gold mining companies producing 63% of gold in region, and small entrepot companies covering 64 % of regional production. Due to SEZ region managed to obtain stable dynamics of growth of gross regional product, installments to consolidated regional budget, and reduce the number of companies failing to pay wages in time. The Fund of SEZ financed construction of blasting material plant, silver processing line of Kolyma refinery plant; new mining complexes were set in operation. Due to foreign economical activity development new equipment and machinery for enlargement of output were delivered to Magadan region. Due SEZ the territorial so called “points of growth†were created. They had multiplicative direct and indirect effect on different sectors of economy. Magadan region, which is counted as a depressive region was able to reduce the decline of production, hold the inflation level, hold unemployment growth, improve social condition of population. The governmental restriction of period of SEZ existence and also problems resulting in SEZ operations are as follows: legislation instability, defective structure of management, unreadiness of some branches of economy for effective use of preferences, lack of innovative approach. This makes to review in prospects institutional and legislative basis of SEZ.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p542&r=geo
  201. By: Anne Otto
    Abstract: New firms play an important role for the emergence and development of clusters. In recent years only a few studies have analyzed the (inter)relationship between entrepreneurship and clusters, but most of them have not taken into account the different development-stages of clusters. In accordance with the concept of industry life cycles the evolution of clusters can be seen as a series of several phases. In the first phase new firms build the critical mass for the emergence of a cluster. A growing cluster is characterized by an increase in employment due to the growth of existing firms and a rising number of new firms. In a self-sustaining cluster the number of start-ups corresponds with the number of closures. In contrast, clusters while declining experience a decrease in the number of new firms. The objective of this paper is to analyze the direct effects of new firms on the evolution of clusters. In the first part of my paper I will give an insight into different theoretical frameworks which discuss the role of entrepreneurship for the evolution of clusters. The second part of the paper shows the results of an empirical analysis about the relevance of newly founded firms for the economic development of clusters considering their different development stages. The ‘Establishment File’ of the German Social Insurance Statistics is used as data source for the number of firm foundings and closures and for the survival rates of young firms in Germany. This data source provides longitudinal data about the number of employees in firms. Thus, it is possible to study the employment growth of new firms. This paper compares entrepreneurial activity of industry clusters over the period 1983/84 to 2001/02. Firstly, intra-industry comparisons are performed for several regional clusters of the media, machinery, automotive and textile industry in West Germany as examples of different stages. In a second step, I contrast the aggregate results for the different industries. Finally I analyze the employment effects of start-up cohorts on the evolution of regional clusters in Germany.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p275&r=geo
  202. By: Chris Jensen-Butler; Bjarne Madsen
    Abstract: In the input-output tradition regional and interregional spill-over and feedback effects are related to changes in the real economic activities. However, the effects of changes in costs and prices on real economic activity have usually been neglected, despite the fact that the redistributive effects from this dual element in the intra- and interregional economy might be considerable and have effects on economic activity, which are comparable with the quantity effects. CGE-models on the other hand have explicitly addressed this issue using non-linear functions to overcome theoretical problems related to the use of fixed coeffients, permitting for example a more satisfactory treatment of substitution between factors of production or commodities as well as the effects of changing costs on patterns of trade and other forms of interaction. Following the input-output tradition, a structural model for the formation of prices in a local economy involving the price determination through local economic interaction such as commuting and shopping an interregional interaction, such as trade the general interregional price model is derived. The equations of the general interregional price model are presented together with the solution of the model. The theoretical changes examined include a set of new geographical concepts and in the context of an interregional SAM the development of the two-by-two-by-two approach, involving two sets of actors (production units and institutional units), two types of markets (commodities and factors) and two locations (origin and destination). Finally, a simultaneous solution to the combined general interregional quantity and price model based upon the most simple link is outlined.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p183&r=geo
  203. By: Fernando Perobelli; Rogerio Silva De Mattos; Weslem Rodrigues
    Abstract: This paper analyses the interdepence between the State of Minas Gerais and the rest of Brazil with regard to energy consumption. A hibryd interregional input-output model, by means of which energy intensity measures are computed, is used to undertake the analysis. The energy measures allow, for instance, to assess the degree in which a sector production in Minas Gerais impacts the energy consumption inside and outside the state. Also, the measures allow to assess the degree in which sector production in the rest of Brazil (outside Minas Gerais) impacts energy consumption inside and outside the state. The analysis presents disaggregate information for 14 economic sectors, two spatial areas (Minas Gerais and the rest of Brazil), and one kind of energy use (total energy), thus allowing to trace an accurate portrait of interdependence patterns.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p666&r=geo
  204. By: Piyapong Jiwattanakulpaisarn; Robert Noland; Daniel Graham; John Polak
    Abstract: A number of macro-level studies attempting to establish the statistical link between public investment in highway infrastructure and employment have applied econometric techniques to estimate the effect of highways while controlling for the effects associated with other factors. Unfortunately, direct use of empirical findings from these historic and recent studies, in shaping transport policy and supporting particular investment decisions, has been rather limited by mixed and inconclusive evidence in the literature. Apart from the common differences among these studies in scope and methodology, another possible reason for the contradictory evidence is that much of the previous work has generally suffered from several methodology drawbacks. In many studies, for instance, several important determinants of employment growth are omitted, and the choices of control variables included in the estimated equations generally are not based on theory. Those studies based solely on cross-sectional data also typically do not account for unobserved regional heterogeneity that may explain spatial differences in employment changes. Moreover, the possibility that the causal relationship between transportation investment and economic growth could work in both directions is generally ignored. This paper attempts to shed some light on this controversy by analysing the effect of highway investment on county-level employment in the State of North Carolina, United States. We derive a reduced from model of equilibrium employment that considers the effects of highways and other potential factors on the supply and demand for labour. Given the potential for lagged responses of the labour market to any exogenous shock, we assume a partial adjustment process for actual employment in our empirical model. A panel data set for 100 North Carolina counties from 1985 to 1997 is used in order to control for unobserved county and time specific effects using panel regression techniques. We also address the causality issue by the use of a two-stage least squares procedure with an instrumental variable. Our main results are that the employment effect of highway infrastructure depends critically on model specifications considered, and failure to account for the dynamics of employment adjustment could lead to an upward bias in the estimated effect of highways.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p207&r=geo
  205. By: Ilias Plaskovitis
    Abstract: The Integrated Mediterranean Programmes of 1986-92 and the Regional Development Programmes implemented via the three Community Support Frameworks (CSFs) of the period 1989-2006, consist the best evidence of real, on-the-ground objectives and strategies followed by Greek regional policy-makers over the last twenty years. The proposed paper shall focus on the evolution of priorities, goals and modes of intervention exhibited by the above programmes during a period of great changes inside and outside the Greek economy. It will analyse the change in the relative weight of sectors, regions and social groups that occurs through successive planning exercises. It will compare such change with developments in the E.U., the Balkans, and Community policy priorities. Given that all 13 NUTS II Greek regions have been eligible under Objective 1 of E.U. structural funding throughout the above period, a total of 39 regional programmes have been designed and implemented under the 1st, 2nd and 3rd CSF for Greece. All of them have undergone different types of external evaluation (ex-ante, mid-term and ex-post) but nobody, to my knowledge, has attempted to compose their findings and outline overall trends with respect to their strategic objectives. Moreover to compare expressed objectives, derived from programme documents, with actual priorities, emerging from the phase of implementation through the concentration of resources and the relative weight of interventions. To examine potential conflicts both between programmes and within programmes, such as the degree of internal programme consistency as far as the different levels of objectives are concerned. It is finally worth examining the relationship between regional programme objectives and national policy priorities as the latter are expressed in the sectoral programmes also included in the CSFs of the above period. To what extent the former support national policy priorities and to what extent the latter serve the overriding goal of a more balanced regional development? In a last brief section the paper will attempt to draw conclusions that can be considered a useful contribution to the new programming framework for the 2007-13 period currently under preparation.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p209&r=geo
  206. By: Cornelius Baehr
    Abstract: Economic and social cohesion between the EU Member States is one of the explicitly stated goals in the Treaty on European Union. The EU’s Structural Funds as a part of the Union’s regional policies are a mechanism of conditional grants that provides co-financing for growth enhancing investments. Evidence on the effectiveness of the Structural Funds is mixed. While Boldrin and Canova (2001) find no sign of a catch-up effect of regions receiving aid for the period of 1980-1996, Beugelsdijk and Eijffinger (2005) find a positive relationship between (lagged) Structural Funds expenditure and GDP growth at the national level covering 1995-2001. De La Fuente (2002) points to the fact that the inclusion of conditioning variables might also play a crucial role for the results. Ederveen, deGroot and Nahuis (2002) find that Structural Funds themselves have a negative impact on growth. However, the impact turns out to be significantly positive, when interacting variables measuring institutional quality are taken into account. Similarly, Esposti (2005) shows that additional policy measures (spending on CAP) can have significant counter-effects on the effectiveness of Structural Funds expenditure. So far the federal structure of the EU Member States did not attract much attention when the effectiveness of the Structural Funds is considered. Although the EU Commission requires the inclusion of regional authorities and stakeholders in the planning and implementation procedure of programs funded by Structural Funds, one should expect that the performance is better, where the sub-national authorities are more accustomed to pursuing economic policy and implementing programs. This should be the case in states with a higher degree of sub-national autonomy. Using panel-data for a sample of 13 EU Member States from 1960-1995 the effects of Structural Funds on growth are analysed. Then a decentralization index by Stegarescu (2004) is introduced as an interacting variable in order to measure the degree of sub-national autonomy. This paper shows that increasing sub-national autonomy has a significantly positive impact on the effectiveness of the Union’s Structural Funds expenditure.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p470&r=geo
  207. By: Antonis Rovolis; Katia Lazaridi; Margarita Kehagioglou
    Abstract: This paper presents the results from a comparative study of solid waste costs of the municipal authorities in Attica. At first, it attempts to estimate the economic cost of solid waste for a number of municipal authorities of the Attica region. The solid waste costs are determined by a number of factors, including the quantity and composition of the solid waste, collection and transportation processes, etc. A number of efficiency indicators are also estimated for each municipality in terms of solid waste disposal policy. In its last part, the paper attempts to identify the causal factors for the differentiation of municipal costs by using regression analysis.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p876&r=geo
  208. By: Paolo Buonanno (Department of Economics, University of Bergamo)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between labour market conditions and crime in Italy accounting for both age and gender in unemployment measure and considering regional disparities between North-Centre and South of Italy. Using regional data over the period 1993-2002, we study the impact of wages and unemployment on different types of crime. To mitigate omitted-variables bias we control extensively for demographic and socioeconomic variables. Empirical results suggest that unemployment has a large and positive effect on crime rate in southern regions. Our results are robust to model specification, endogeneity, changes in the classification of crimes and finally, to alternative definitions of unemployment.
    Keywords: Crime; Unemployment; Panel Data
    JEL: J00 K40
    Date: 2005–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:brg:wpaper:0504&r=geo
  209. By: Christina Kritikou; Michalis Agorastakis
    Abstract: The participation of women in the labour market is being effected by their biological circle and by social standards and stereotypes that delineate domestic work as woman’s primary activity. Particularly in Greece, the sovereignty of Mediterranean family model undermines the effectiveness of policies aiming to promote feminine employment and thus, constitutes a brake for labour equality between the sexes. Consequently, female employment rate continues to remain in the lowest levels among E.U. countries, despite the fact that several issues have been raised during the past years, such as: the evolution of the legislative system towards equality, higher educational level of women, increased consuming needs, the decrease of fertility, the struggle of women for economic independence etc. Nevertheless, the participation of Greek women in the labour market continues to be 8-10 percent below the average of E.U. countries. In this paper, we try to identify and represent the participation of women in the work force, in terms of employment and unemployment, while emphasizing to the spatial and age-structured patterns in national level. The data used in this analysis, emanate from the latter Population Census of 2001, conducted by the National Statistical Service of Greece (ESYE). The spatial level of reference is the Municipality administrative level, which allows us to identify the "unfavorable" regions of Greece, with increased unemployment and low participation in the economically active population, forming clusters with similar characteristics in the employment sector. Using statistical methods of multivariate analysis, we examine employment indices of economically active and inactive women, employed and unemployed women, as well as the distribution of employment according to the three sectors, focusing on age-related groups, responsible for the intensity of the phenomenon. In-depth spatial and age-related analysis of feminine employment reveals the intense problem of mountainous and rural regions, while the age distribution concerning unemployment is identified. Finally, we are able to draw coherent conclusions for the degree of convergence/divergence between administrative units in Greece and also with the E.U. average.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p257&r=geo
  210. By: Zhong-Ren Peng (Center for Advanced Spatial Information Research, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee); Yi Zhu (Center for Advanced Spatial Information Research, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee); Shunfeng Song (Department of Economics, University of Nevada, Reno)
    Abstract: In a rapid economic development environment with rising income, escalating motorization, and growing urbanization, it is natural for government policies to focus on solving congestion related problems caused by the increased car ownership and usage. The mobility needs of the urban poor have been traditionally neglected in policy and in practice, particularly in developing countries. This paper addresses the mobility challenges the urban poor are facing based on a household travel survey in the City of Hefei in China. It first presents travel behaviors, transportation costs and commuting problems of the urban poor. It then discusses the urban transportation policy implications and examines the prevailing trends of urban transportation policies and plans in Chinese cities. Policy recommendations are suggested to improve the mobility needs of the urban poor.
    Keywords: Urban transportation, poverty, mobility
    JEL: R40 J60
    Date: 2006–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unr:wpaper:06-004&r=geo
  211. By: Alexis Politakis
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of the relocation of Athens International Airport (AIA), one of the most significant urban developments in the modern history of the city of Athens, on land uses and the property market around the former airport site (FAS) and the new Eleftherios Venizelos airport (EV). Airport relocations are in themselves relatively rare events. In this dissertation, for the first time, sources from various fields are brought together to bear on this relocation case. Finally, this study highlights the opportunities being missed in development and planning terms, as a result of chronic weaknesses of the Greek planning system.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p132&r=geo
  212. By: Zygmunt Zminda; Tomasz Zminda
    Abstract: Almost every textbook related to management includes chapter devoted to four key functions of management. Even a little-perceptive researcher will easily find the term of “controlâ€. However in literature there is definitely lower attention paid to the term of ‘monitoring’, especially if it refers to Regional Strategy. It entails difficulties to find ideal practices of monitoring and evaluation of Regional Innovation Strategythat would be suitable for Polish conditions. However, we can derive lessons from the best practices – (solutions) models that have been introduced and turned out to be useful in other regions of Europe or even the globe. The article covers the most important issues concerning essence of monitoring. It includes a consideration of some of the world best practice in search for the origins of monitoring of regional innovation capacity. At second part of the article authors present the conception of a simple monitoring and evaluation system of Regional Innovation Strategy that has been created and implemented in lubelskie region of Poland. Finally we show how to strengthen regional policy using monitoring system outlets we described.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p598&r=geo
  213. By: Anastassios Karaganis; Angelos Mimis
    Abstract: In this paper a pioneer method for evaluating the probability of occurrence of a traffic accident in different segments of national road is described. The line segments describing the road have been divided into sections and for each one of those sections it is assumed that the probability of a traffic accident follows an inhomogeneous Poisson distribution. The overall model is build up by using a spatial point process. The Poisson parameter is estimated with the help of a spatial SUR method which exploits the characteristics of national road as described by a specially designed weight matrix. This methodology has been applied to data collected from the Greek national road and has been analyzed in this perspective. Specifically the influence of weather conditions as well as the presence of daylight has been examined.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p640&r=geo
  214. By: Francois Coppens; Frederic Lagneaux; Hilde Meersman; Nathalie Sellekaerts; Eddy Van De Voorde; George Van Gastel; Ann Verhetsel
    Abstract: The importance of ports is usually measured by indicators such as added value, employment and investment on a much aggregated level. This paper tries to define the importance of the port of Antwerp for the regional and national economy on a disaggregated level. It attempts to identify, quantify and locate the mutual relationships between the different players in the port and between these players and other industries. Finally, it proposes a method to calculate the effects of changes in port activity at a detailed level. A sector analysis is done by means of a reduced regional input-output table, through a bottom-up approach. The most important customers and suppliers of the port's key players or stakeholders are identified. A geographical analysis is feasible by using data on a disaggregated level. Each customer or supplier can be located by means of their postcode. In this way, the extent of the economic impact of the port of Antwerp is quantified.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p388&r=geo
  215. By: Mihalis Kavaratzis; G.J. Ashworth
    Abstract: The re-branding of places whose existing brand image has become for various reasons inappropriate or ineffective poses particular challenges to the marketing of major multifunctional cities. The position of Amsterdam as the national cultural capital and major international cultural centre has for some time been threatened by a sharpening of competition from other cities both within and outside the Netherlands and by social and economic trends within the city that have seriously undermined the previously successfully promoted brand image. Furthermore, one of the main elements of the city’s international image associated with the liberal attitude towards soft drugs and prostitution is now seen as inappropriate for the city, as it overshadows other more desirable aspects of the city’s aspirations. This has focussed official thinking and led to a serious and fundamental attempt at strategic re-branding involving a far-reaching examination of stakeholders, goals and competitive positioning. The main tangible result so far, is the recent launching of the ‘I amsterdam’ brand. This paper will first elaborate on the context of the intensifying inter-urban competition expressed through the re-branding of cities. In this context, the process of developing the brand and the ‘I amsterdam’ campaign that has followed will be described and explained and its likely success will be assessed.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p346&r=geo
  216. By: Juan R. Cuadrado-Roura; Raquel Llorente; Carlos Iglesias
    Abstract: Foreign immigration is still a recent phenomenon in Spain, but its magnitude and growth has been extraordinarily important during the last years. According to the available data (Foreigners Official Register), foreign residents have increased by 382 percent between 1996 and 2005, that is from around 538.000 to more than 2.5 million people. It is generally accepted that immigrants may have, according to their magnitude, important effects on labour markets of the destination countries. First, because immigrants are a rather different population group due to their personal and labour characteristics compared to domestic population. So, immigrants may constitute a potential factor of changing the dynamics or the domestic labour markets. On the other hand, in the Spanish case immigrants population is characterized by displaying an unequal territorial distribution, with remarkable regional differences in terms of immigration rates and aggregate figures. On the basis of these ideas, the aim of the paper is to analyse to what extent the massive immigration flows to Spain along the last years has modified the parameters of regional labour markets, contributing or not to change regional differences of the main characteristics of the domestic markets.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p444&r=geo
  217. By: Andres Rodriguez-Pose; Vasileios Tselios
    Abstract: The paper provides an empirical study of the determinants of income inequality across regions of the EU. Using the European Community Household Panel data set for 102 regions over the period 1995-2000, it analyses how microeconomic changes in human capital distribution affect income inequality. Human capital distribution is measured in terms of both human capital stock, as well as human capital inequality. Income and human capital inequalities are calculated by a generalised entropy index (Theil index). Different static and dynamic panel data analyses are conducted in order to reduce measurement error on inequalities and minimise potential problems of omitted-variable bias. The regression results suggest that, in the short term, human capital inequality is negatively associated to the average regional income and the average level of education of the population. The results also highlight that a highly unequal distribution of education level completed is associated to lower, rather than to higher inequality, highlighting the effectiveness of the European social system or, from a different perspective, the lack of responsiveness of EU labour market to differences in qualifications and skills. Additionally, high unemployment is associated with higher income inequality, while urbanisation has the opposite effect.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p370&r=geo
  218. By: Alex Deffner; Vassilis Bourdakis
    Abstract: One of the main problems in recent urban planning is how to make more practical very broad and commonly used theoretical, and interrelated, principles such as sustainability and governance. The main aim of the paper is to demonstrate how one of the main issues of urban governance, i.e. public participation in planning, can be helped through the use of new technologies. The data are provided by the PICT (Planning Inclusion of Clients through e-training) project which was a three-year (2002-5) pilot project co-funded by the Leonardo da Vinci Programme of the European Commission. The main aim of the project was to encourage and facilitate effective public participation in planning by providing the necessary skills to planners and the public to communicate with each other and by developing the appropriate tools that would make such communication meaningful. The project addresses all participants in the planning process, the key objectives being to introduce key IT skills, fight technophobia and disbelief, improve communication skills, acquire an understanding of the built environment and spatial representations, and finally introduce game like activities to implement VR support tools. The PICT partners came from the UK, Greece, Belgium and Hungary. The Project Contractor was Knowsley Metropolitan Borough Council (UK) and the Project Coordinator was PRISMA Centre for Development Studies (Greece). The paper focuses on the curriculum developed for the Municipality of Agia Varvara which lies to the west of the City of Athens. It has a population of approximately 30,500 people with a multicultural identity and high unemployment rates. The developed curriculum consists of three parts: a ‘core’ part that is shared by both planners and the public, and two distinct parts: one addressing the public and the other the planners. Each part consists of several modules, to cater for different learning levels, abilities and interests. The structure is flexible and the whole idea was to have a curriculum with a scientific, and not a ‘journalistic’, basis that could, at the same time, be simple, but not simplistic.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p891&r=geo
  219. By: Janneke Bemmel Van
    Abstract: Urban Renewal is carried out to renovate, demolish and rebuild houses in problematic urban areas. Urban renewal processes are complex; many actors are involved, the goals and strategies of these actors can change over time, and contextual factors (such as the housing market, residents’ wishes, the political direction) change constantly. This creates a lot of uncertainty in urban renewal processes; uncertainty about knowledge and values (substantive uncertainty), uncertainty about the intentions and strategies of the parties involved (strategic uncertainty), and uncertainty about when, where and by whom decisions are made (institutional uncertainty). With learning, this uncertainty can be made more manageable. The creation, sharing, use and evaluation of knowledge in urban renewal networks helps to respond to changes in, amongst others, residents’ wishes, the housing market, and technological developments. Learning can be defined as the creation of knowledge that is applicable in the activities of the parties involved. In urban renewal, four important steps towards learning can be recognised: the (collective) development of knowledge, the mutual sharing of knowledge, the use of the relevant knowledge available, and the evaluation of the knowledge gathered. A complex urban renewal project has been studied in the second largest Dutch city; Rotterdam, in the district ‘Hoogvliet’. This case study, that has an explorative character, exists of interviews with professionals working on urban renewal in Hoogvliet and observations during meetings at several levels of the cooperation network. Preliminary findings suggest that the development and sharing of knowledge in urban renewal in Hoogvliet takes place mainly through face-to-face contact, for instance during meetings and debates, and not so much in writing, for instance in databases or guidebooks. Another finding is that for collective learning to occur, a minimum of collective knowledge is needed; the parties involved must know the basics of the tasks and responsibilities of the other parties and of the knowledge built up earlier in the process. Furthermore, to increase the potential for learning, it seems smarter to sketch the outlines of complex long-term projects and concretize these along the way, then to make detailed plans far in advance.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p785&r=geo
  220. By: Andra Aldea-Partanen; Jouni Ponnikas
    Abstract: This paper aims at analysing the current regional and rural development tools available for Romania and Finland, as well as common encountered problems and differences in the local realities. The theoretical framework covers contemporary concepts typical for regional development and for rural development, such as learning regions, knowledge creation, social networks, innovation, bottom-up versus top-down approaches, and social, cultural and economical sustainable development. References to the specific problems encountered in remote areas or related to the communities with limited access to various resources are made and the existing policy trends are compared. Rural reality embraces very particular characteristics both in Romania and Finland. However, the history trends have been different and the actual situation of countries’ economy indicates a potential of learning in case of Romania and available solutions to similar problems in case of Finland. Still, transferring models and solutions is not an easy task and the particular challenges encountered in Nordic knowledge transfer projects are mentioned as a starting point helping to formulate assumptions related to the impediment to be expected in such a transfer case. Project Cycle Management in its newest version is brought in the discussion in an attempt to asses in what extent its recommendation could be useful and applied in the case of rural development programmes. The potential quality increase and the high technicality of the used terms are some of the analysed features of project Cycle Management. The concrete examples used in the paper are based on the interviews carried on by the authors in different and common research and evaluation projects in Finland and Romania. The paper brings into discussion the lacks existent in rural and regional development policy in an EU country and a accession one, as they appear using the initially proposed theoretical framework. Recommendations to be followed in the coming year are suggested in this paper evaluating comparatively some of the existent problems affecting local development
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p943&r=geo
  221. By: Zhuo Chen (the Chicago Center of Excellence in Health Promotion Economics, The University of Chicago); Shunfeng Song (Department of Economics, University of Nevada, Reno)
    Abstract: This paper utilizes a unique county-level dataset to examine technical efficiency and technology gap in China’s agriculture. We classify the counties into four regions with distinctive levels of economic development, and hence production technologies. A meta-frontier analysis is applied to the counties. We find that although the eastern counties have the highest efficiency scores with respect to the regional frontier but the northeastern region leads in terms of agricultural production technology nationwide. Meanwhile, the mean efficiency of the northeastern counties is particularly low, suggesting technology and knowledge diffusion within region might help to improve production efficiency and thus output.
    Keywords: China’s grain production, county-level, metafrontier, stochastic production frontier, technical efficiency
    JEL: D24 N55 O13
    Date: 2006–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unr:wpaper:06-005&r=geo
  222. By: Milena Lecca; Giancarlo Deplano
    Abstract: In the last decades in Italy the debate on the urban planning crisis (Balducci, 1991; Urbani, 2000) had showed a shift from practices informed by politics and negotiation to new positions where planning methods are characterized by a communicative adaptive evaluation of a set of options about land uses and transformations. Within this framework the need emerged of new approaches to planning able to fulfil community expectations. In the light of recent developments in the economic sector and his branches, and primarily in business management, various tools for urban policy making have been recently adopted and implemented in many Italian local authorities: - Implementation of certificated systems for environmental management (Varese Ligure was first Italian municipality to obtain an ISO 14001 certification in 1999); - Use of control and evaluation systems like environmental and strategic plan design aiming at the integration of these practices in a single comprehensive tool, articulated within three phases (organizational, social accounting (18 municipalities have already test these tools and a bill is discussed for their insert in public authorities management); - Employment of participatory practices in the government of environmental problems (Local Agenda 21 processes is hitting an advanced level of implementation both in the municipal and in the provincial level especially in regions like the Emily and Romagna, the Marches, Tuscany, Liguria); - Use of means of communication addressed both to internal members of public authorities and to stakeholders and local community (for example environmental and social statements drawing up by local authorities or sustainability reports like that compiled within 21st Olympic Games organization). However, the analysis of many case-studies showed often the use of these tools it is not directly coordinated with urban planning instruments. In this paper the authors propose a tentative framework for a sustainable decisional and operative) cyclicly. The objective is, as far as these practices are promoted by main international and European agendas and declarations, to connect by this tool local government choices to most important policies on sustainable development.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p739&r=geo
  223. By: Jasmina Osmankovic
    Abstract: The paper is a review European Commission support for local and regional development in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1999 to 2006. In focus are The Quick Impact Facility Project Phase I (QIF 1) 1999-2002, European Union-Quick Impact Facility Project Phase II (EUQIF II) 2002-2004, European Union support for Regional Economic Development in Bosnia and Herzegovina Phase I (EU RED I) 2004-2005 and Europe Union support for Regional Economic Development in Bosnia and Herzegovina Phase II (EU RED II) 2005-2007). The paper contents background information, previous assistance, other related programmes, European Commission funded projects, non European Commission funded projects, definition on participants, target groups or beneficiaries, employed domicile populations, start situation, objectives, scope of work, methodology and approach, transparency, visibility, expected outputs and indicators, funds or budget, reporting, monitoring and evaluation. The paper presents knowledge transfer about local and regional theories and policies from experts European Commission to local experts. The paper shows funds. (Regional Development in Tuzla 1.2 Million Euro, Regional Development in Brcko 1.0 Million Euro, Mostar Economic Development 500.000 Euro, Sarajevo Economic Region 200.000 Euro, Quick Impact Facility 5.5 Million Euro, Foreign Investment Promotion 1.0 Million Euro, European Fund 55 Million Euro, specific activities 3,200.000 Euro and Project Fund 3,800.000 Euro, EUQIF II about 3 Million Euro, etc) and benefits for EU and B&H. In the end, the paper presents cost-benefit analysis, and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats this projects and message for future projects support for local and regional development in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other developing countries
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p57&r=geo
  224. By: Evert-Jan Visser; Oedzge Atzema
    Abstract: This paper deals with the policy implications of a research project based on a non-traditional approach to innovation measurement in a Dutch region. This region is characterized by an ‘innovation paradox’, as it lodges large numbers of ‘creative’ people while it also underperforms in traditional innovation measurements. A survey among experts regarding regional innovation yields large numbers of innovative firms in a wide range of industries, which in traditional studies would partly go unnoticed. Further data analysis reveals that innovation in the region has no clear face in terms of firms and sectors. This is due to the embroynic state of clustering in different subsectors, the mostly social and informal nature of network ties between entrepreneurs in the region, the international level at which much innovation-oriented networking takes place, and the lack of connectivity between the latter networks and local informal networks and the embryonic clusters. In terms of their innovation profile, firms in the region are strong in creative, non-technical and combined forms of innovation. So, dynamic capabilities especially show up ‘downstream’, connecting novelty with clients and markets, and translating this into change management and new practices. Next, we found that firms strategically engage in innovation ventures, in the three ways that were explained before by Bathelt et al. (2004), i.e. seeking and combining international knowledge with one’s own (constructing ‘global pipelines’), strengthening regional ties, identity, contact and linkages (‘local buzz’), and relying on one’s own resources for innovation (‘stand alone’ strategy). One challenge for policy is to exploit these three strategies of firms. Such can be done in three ways. One is to use the abundant social capital in the region, with a view to strengthening the economic relevance of existing local networks by constructing and extending ‘global pipelines’. The second is to display leadership and formulate a ‘community argument’ for innovation (dealing with the following sub questions: why must I innovate, why must I interact in networks and clusters, and why should I do so at different spatial scales?), thus strategically reorienting the available ‘local buzz’ and enhancing its economic relevance. Together, these two proposals serve the purpose of stimulating knowledge flows ‘outside-in’ and ‘inside-out’ (cf. Wolfe & Gertler 2005). The third is to correct for the policy myopia on cluster and network initiatives. The price we pay for the Porterian approach to clustering (cf. Martin & Sunley 2003; Hospers 2005) is that a significant number of firms in the region under review that individually engage in innovation processes, are not part of ‘global pipeline’ and ‘local buzz’ processes. Hence, they do not enrich nor benefit from these processes, and may thus relatively easy leave the region. Finally, they may be less effective in innovation, in terms of speed and the market fit of new products and processes. So, both from a regional and firm-level perspective, stand-alone firms merit attention.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p265&r=geo
  225. By: Daniela-Luminita Constantin
    Abstract: Starting with 1998, when the process of Romania’s accession to the EU was officially launched, the legal and institutional framework for regional development policy has been created, followed by the elaboration of the National Development Plan. As the programming document that builds up Romania’s access to the structural-type funds in the pre-accession period and to the structural and cohesion ones after accession to the EU, the NDP responds to both ‘internal necessities’ and ‘external requirements’, revealing the philosophy of the EU support via pre-accession instruments, which has a twofold significance: on the one hand the financial aid is viewed as a way of reducing economic and social disparities between the candidate and the EU member countries; on the other hand, working with pre-accession instruments, creating the institutional framework for measures implementation, action monitoring and impact evaluation allow the candidate countries’ authorities to get used to European Commission’s procedures and, thus, to be prepared for the administration of the much higher amounted financial funds after accession to the EU. Though, in the case of Romania the institutional framework for regional development policy has suffered a lot of changes since 1998, with negative consequences on the absorption capacity of EU funds, serving as a good example for explaining why so many times Romania has been severely criticised by EU for institutional instability and delays in institutional reform. This paper proposes an analysis of Romania’s regional development policy in the perspective of accession to the European Union, with a particular emphasis on the institutional transformations and future challenges, especially those referring to the post-accession period. The author’s contribution to a recent study on Romania’s capacity to absorb the EU funds (developed under the auspices of the European Institute of Romania) will be presented, offering an evaluation of the components that characterise the administrative capacity of absorption in programming field.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p142&r=geo
  226. By: Bohdan Linda; Jana Kubanova
    Abstract: The district authorities were canceled and substituted by self-governments branch offices after the public administration reform in the Czech Republic. So-called municipalities with extended sphere of authority were proposed for placing of branch offices. These branch offices were chosen regardless of their transport availability. The article deals with the problem of determination of optimal number of branch offices and of their attract areas, from view of their transport availability. The problem is solved with the methods of mathematical programming. The problem was by the help of Lagrange multiplicator converted to incapacitated location problem with criterion function sum(fyi)+sum sum (cij xij) where xij is arbitrary variable expressing whether the municipality j is allocated to the branch office i, cij is a coefficient representing distance from branch office i, weighted with population of the municipality j, yi is bivalent variable expressing whether in the municipality will be established the branch office and f is constant presenting branch office establishment costs. Model is solved with Erlenkotter method realized by the help of BB dual algorithm.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p495&r=geo
  227. By: Giovanni Circella
    Abstract: The widespread of technological innovations is rapidly changing the way modern societies are organized. Such phenomenon highly affects the economy of most developed countries (and, more recently, of developing countries, too), influencing work organization and habits. Besides, technological innovations modify the way in which transport systems are organized, by introducing new transport solutions as well as by upgrading the performances of the existing transport systems, in accordance to a more efficient organization. Several tools have been designed to predict the effects of the adoption of technological innovations in transport. The aim of this paper is to deal with the decision processes involved in the definition of the transport policies for the introduction of such technological solutions. To do this the way in which the new transport solutions affect the local context is analysed. In particular, this work aim to identify the most relevant attributes which influence the decision processes on the adoption of such technological solutions, with reference to their impact on the territory and on the economic activities. To do this, the analysis focuses on the effects involved by the use of wireless technologies and radio frequency identification into seaport infrastructures. Such technologies enable an easier identification of goods in transport terminals; this implies advantages in the organization of the terminal activities, allowing lower time and costs for handling, and at the same time it ensures a greater compliance to security requirements, thus upgrading the level of the performances in these transport systems. On the other hand, the effects of the improvements in transport systems affect the economic context in which transport infrastructures are set. Thus, the adoption of such a technological innovation can represent the chance for local development of the region, due to the better performances of the transport system and to the consequent increased territorial accessibility.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p556&r=geo
  228. By: Ferhan Gezici; Ayfer Yazgan Gul; Elif Alkay
    Abstract: The coastal concentration of tourism activities has been the main characteristics of the Mediterranean Countries. However, they are working on new approaches and solutions for the problems of coastal areas since they have faced a decrease in their high shares of the world tourism market. Although Turkey, as one of the Mediterranean Countries, is endowed with a variety of tourist attractions, it still does not receive the expected revenue from the tourism industry. Since the beginning of tourism planning in Turkey, the coastal regions have taken priority for tourism investments and not only the spatial pattern but also the socio-economic life of these regions have been transformed. According to the studies of the State Planning Organization (SPO) on socio-economic development level, coastal provinces along the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, which have concentrated on tourism activities, indicate positive socio-economic development index values. In this paper, coastal-led development pattern of tourism is analyzed in Turkey based on the main indicators (tourism and economic development indicators). However, it seems that coastal tourism development pattern is similar for all the provinces, it will be examined if there are some clusters and typologies among them in terms of tourism development. After putting forward a historical perspective and descriptive frame for the coastal provinces and districts, the principal component analysis will be conducted in order to see the main components. The relationship between the trends of supply and demand side of tourism and the development level will be put forward in order to realize the significance of economic sustainability of tourism areas. Furthermore, the results will be evaluated considering tourism policy of Turkey and experiences of other Mediterranean Countries.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p494&r=geo
  229. By: Stavros Rodokanakis
    Abstract: The basic aim of this paper is to test the impact of the educational level of individuals on their job prospects and of training programmes (apprenticeship, intra-firm training, continuing vocational training, popular training) on participants in three Southern Greek Regions (Attica, Southern Aegean and Crete) during the implementation of the first Community Support Framework (1988-1993). Namely, we try to see if the educational level itself and participation in training programmes increase the chances of finding a job. We test the human capital theory, namely whether the more educated and the more trained a person is, the higher the probability of him finding a job. The originality of this research is that we use individual anonymized records (micro-data) of the Labour Force Survey (LFS) for both employed and unemployed (about 53,000 records per year for Attica, 3,300 records per year for Southern Aegean and 6,300 records per year for Crete, namely 1.5% of the total population of each Region). Since the dependent variable takes two possible values (employed versus unemployed) the analysis will be conducted using a logistic regression model. The models were fitted using SPSS version 13.0. The expected value of the dependent variable under the model is a conditional probability of a given individual being employed or unemployed ceteris paribus. The explanatory variables are the (four) types of training completed (as mentioned above), six levels of education, gender, age (four categories), marital status and residence location (Athens, the rest of urban areas, semi-urban areas and rural areas). More specifically, we research what are the social and demographic characteristics that increase the chances of someone in the examined population finding a job, how probabilities change (if they do) after the introduction of training courses and, also, if the University graduates, in contrast to most of the rest of the EU member states, face greater difficulties in finding a job than the non-University graduates, as a series of studies or statistics for Greece conclude. To the author’s knowledge, such a study - based on individual anonymized records of the LFS - has never been undertaken for Attica, Southern Aegean or Crete.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p940&r=geo
  230. By: Eduardo Haddad; Alexandre A. Porsse; Eduardo P. Ribeiro
    Abstract: Interjurisdictional tax competition is a controversial theme little studied in an empirical approach in spite of the great advance in the theoretical debate at last decades. This paper aims to build a bridge between such theoretical issues and the empirical tools using an interregional general equilibrium model to evaluate the welfare effects of an experimental game of tax competition between two regional governments of the Brazilian federal system. The model recognizes the horizontal and vertical fiscal linkages underlying the Brazilian federalism. The results imply in a welfare-improving Nash equilibrium, in opposition with many theoretical issues. It can be seen that the fiscal externalities of tax competition does matter for such output not only due the mobility of the regional tax base but also because the substitution effect between regional goods and international goods since tax competition reduces the domestic prices. Additionally, the constitutional rules impose a rigid mechanism of fiscal transfers from central government to regional governments and contribute to alleviate the reduction pressures on the regional public goods because the increase in central government’s tax base also increase the regional government revenues. Then, interjurisdicional tax competition in the Brazilian federal system can be associated with gains in private consumption that overcome the reduction in regional public good provisions, reinforcing the welfare-improving equilibrium.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p359&r=geo
  231. By: Angeliki Pardali; Constantine Stathopoulou
    Abstract: The economic development of the port industry that followed the Second World War was based upon two economic theories trends. Until the late 70’s the model based on Keynesianism forms the basic idea for ownership, infrastructure, investment, pricing policy and role of ports. Since the early 80’s neoliberalism is adopted as a new model of development oversetting what was taken for granted until now and employing a new basis for the port production. Within this framework container ports are the spearhead. The reformed container port industry focuses on container terminals as links in the logistics’ chain with effectiveness in port production and in the integrated logistics’ chain being their main aim. For this purpose private investment and private port operators come forth. This paper tries to examine whether and in what ways the modern port affects the economic development of its local (port city) or broader (region) hinterland. How is this accomplished in the age of globalized economy?
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p459&r=geo
  232. By: Peter Nijkamp; Tuzin Baycan Levent; Aliye Ahu Gulumser
    Abstract: The future of Europe’s rural peripheries as well as the future of rural societies is one of the most important development and planning issues of the EU. Several typologies of rural areas and different rural development indicators have been developed by researchers and international organizations such as OECD and EU to better understand the dynamics of rural areas and to develop relevant policies for these areas. The typologies of rural areas are based on sub-national territories and administrative or statistical units (i.e. local, regional, NUTS3, NUTS5), whereas rural development indicators include a wide range of indicators from population and migration to economic structure and performance and from social well-being and equity to environment and sustainability. Against this background, the aim of this paper is to compare and evaluate Turkey’s rurality with the EU-25 countries on the basis of rural development indicators. The data and information used for comparison and evaluation are based on EUROSTAT data. A multicriteria analysis technique, factor analysis is deployed to define Turkey’s rurality in the European context. To map out the characteristics and dynamics of Turkey’s rurality may also help to develop relevant policies for rural development of the country.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p641&r=geo
  233. By: Mark Mcgovern; Nurcan Temel Candemir
    Abstract: The goal in this paper is to sketch a line of approach which may help order considerations of transition in various regions. Adjustments to change can occur in various ways, and they do. Dealing with such diversity is a challenge for analysts and policy makers in various sectors, regions and organisations. The regional analyst has particular issues in dealing with diversity both within and between regions for which existing tools and approaches provide only partial support. Agents are a key and dynamic part of any region. They combine perceptions, decision making and activity in pursuit of selected interests. Their actions have impacts, including on enterprise, societal and regional development. They stand in contrast to the markedly more limited decision maker and the determinable system. Their potential contribution to understanding transition and regional development appears little recognised. Of particular interest is the active agent who is sensitive to institutions and other contextual aspects. A socio-environmental rational agent (SERA) is presented. Its use provides a promising and more adequate way to advance understanding of regional transition issues. It is a more adequate formulation that the conventional self-interested rationalist (SIR). This is demonstrated conceptually and through a European case application. Institutions are recognised as a key part of a transition economy or society. Their explicit incorporation allows specific framing of key aspects of transition. Determinable solutions are not expected. Rather heuristics, simulations and specific methods as explored in this paper enable regional possibilities to be more clearly grasped.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p788&r=geo
  234. By: Guyslain K. Ngeleza; Raymond J.G.M. Florax; William A. Masters (Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Purdue University)
    Abstract: This paper tests a series of prominent hypotheses regarding the determinants of per-capita income using a novel spatial econometric approach to control for spillovers among neighboring countries and for spatially correlated omitted variables. We use simultaneous equations to identify alternative channels through which country characteristics might affect income, and then test the robustness of those effects. We find support for both “institutionalist” and “geographic” determinants of income. A time-varying index of institutional quality has a strong independent effect on current income, but there is also a persistent effect of geographic factors such as seasonal frost, malaria transmission, and coastal location, which influence income through their links to agricultural output, health, urbanization and trade. The data cover 95 countries across the world from 1960 through 2002, which we use to construct a pooled dataset of nine 5-year averages centered on 1960, 1965, and so on through 2000. We use both limited and full information estimators, partly based on a generalized moments (GM) estimator for spatial autoregressive coefficients, allowing for spatial error correlation, correlation across equations, and the presence of spatially lagged dependent variables
    Keywords: economic growth, geography, institutions, spatial econometrics, simultaneous equations
    JEL: C31 C33 I18 O13 R12
    Date: 2006
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pae:wpaper:06-15&r=geo
  235. By: Ines P. Murillo
    Abstract: The main objective of the present paper is to analise the differences in returns to education and rates of human capital depreciation between regions in Spain, during the period 1995-2002. To this end, the theoretical framework proposed by Raymond & Roig (2004) is used to incorporate the depreciation of human capital into the analysis of the private returns on education. Aditionally, the distinction between the two sources of human capital depreciation is approached by means of an estimation by sector –Neuman & Weiss (1995)- and an estimation by occupation.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p60&r=geo
  236. By: Nikolaus Ibesich; Rainer Wunderl; Jakobus Schurz
    Abstract: Today catch phrases like too much energy consumption, energy shortage and declining energy supplies can be heard throughout the “western†world. Given that oil and natural gas are non-renewable resources, it is inevitable that at some point there will be a peak first in worldwide oil and later in natural gas production. In times of limited energy resources, decision makers and planners should draw their attention to long lasting structures – such as settlements – and make them sustainable. Historic cities, which we perceive as “niceâ€, “quaint†and “worth livingâ€, emerged from the satisfaction of different human needs in the scale of self-regulating internal body energy consumption. Some examples of grown cities are Toledo, ES; Siena, IT; Hallein, AT and Nurnberg (centre), DE. With the advent of external energy usage at the end of the 19th century, the scale of settlements exploded, leading to the now evident urban sprawl. The separation of functions envisioned in the “Charter of Athens†led to low density housing subdivisions, shopping- and recreational centres, office parks, civic institutions and endemic car usage in between. As a result, area-wide provision of public transport often becomes infeasible, forcing city planners to build large highway networks and parking infrastructure. The evident problem is the excessive level of motorized transport and its adverse effects, which to this extent can no longer reasonably be sustained. Current attempts to solve this issue are under way, but they do not use the right level of impact. One way to resolve the problem in the long run is to change the way settlements are organised. Arnum is located in the southern periphery of Hannover, Germany. In the course of a proposed extension of the city railway from Hannover to Arnum, an architectural contest was undertaken for Arnum West. Our paper will be a follow up and a complement to our contribution to that competition. We will identify sustainable settlement structures and their main indicators. After analysing a variety of different instruments, we will highlight effective tools to make settlements sustainable – such as integration of functions, preference of pedestrians, cyclists and public transport or parking space management – and show ways how they can be implemented in the context of the Arnum West case study. Furthermore, we will demonstrate the impacts of different settlement structures on the environment using three scenarios: business as usual, business as usual with the impact of the sustainable Arnum West case study as part of the existing settlement – a state of transition so to speak – and a fictitious sustainable settlement as a whole. We want to show ways how to change the settlement structure, because it forms the basis for human behaviour. On a long-term basis, it is imperative to change the behaviour towards a sustainable way of living.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p364&r=geo
  237. By: Ioannis Katsikis; Klas Eric Soderquist; Gregory Prastacos
    Abstract: Elaborating on the notion innovation hot spots, we examine the case of the computer services sector in the Region of Attica, Greece. Fast-growing, geographically and industrially clustered firms are becoming an increasingly important factor for innovation and regional development. As a result, innovation hot spots enjoy rapid growth, leading to job creation, knowledge expansion and, in the best cases, sustainable development. The most recent European Trend Chart Reports (2004 and 2005) present Greece as innovation leader in the computer services sector. Computer services are characterized by a high knowledge creation and knowledge diffusion intensity meaning that the hot spots exploiting such services position high on an innovation intensity scale. Consulting, implementation, operations management and support services enjoy similar growth since they are complementary industries forming the Attica IT innovation hot spot. The purpose of our research within this field is twofold. First, we present the conditions under which this innovation leadership has emerged and come to flourish. We argue that growth in the Region of Attica has been boosted by the Information Society Program, the Olympic Games and the necessity for modernizing Greek firms, which leads them to favor investments in new technologies. Moreover, the region presents a favorable macroeconomic environment, characterized by high rates of development, increase of consumption and investments. Second, we analyze and propose a framework for maintaining the dynamics in the region -and in innovation hot spots in general- as there is a significant risk of rise-and-fall patterns occurring, leading to former hot spots transforming into “blind spotsâ€, and core competencies developed turning into core rigidities and cultural lock-in.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p429&r=geo
  238. By: Irene Daskalopoulou; Anastasia Petrou
    Abstract: Research findings indicate that the successful performance of small businesses is an important determinant of regional development. Successful business performance is affected by a number of firm-specific factors including human and social capital. Although, small and medium firms comprise the vast majority of the tourism production system, research on small business performance in tourism is rather limited. Drawing on recent advances and empirical evidence from enterpreneurship and small business literature we control first, for the role of human and social capital and second, for the role of owners'/managers' perceptions of place attractiveness over small business performance. We hypothesise that such perceptions should have specific effects on tourism business performance. Analysis is based on cross-sectional data gathered from face-to-face interviews with small tourism businesses owners/managers in Patras, Greece.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p399&r=geo
  239. By: Candau, Fabien
    Abstract: The contribution of this paper is twofold. Firstly, we explore the e¤ects of trade liberalization and commuting costs on the location of entrepre- neurs. The model reveals a dispersion-agglomeration-dispersion con…g- uration when trade gets freer. Furthermore we prove that when both commuting costs and trade integration are high, then dispersion Pareto dominates agglomeration. Secondly, we use this framework to investigate the e¤ect of trade on corruption at di¤erent levels of democracy and in- stability. We show that corruption is bell-shaped with respect to trade liberalization in stable and democratic regimes but also in unstable dic- tatorships.
    Keywords: Economic geography; Cities; Trade; Corruption.
    JEL: R12 H25
    Date: 2006–05–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:1156&r=geo
  240. By: Moritz, Michael (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Gröger, Margit
    Abstract: "Using the IAB Employment Sample (IABS) covering 1980-2001 we investigate what impact the fall of the Iron Curtain has had on the skill structure of employment and wages in the western German districts neighbouring the Czech Republic. The introduction of free trade in this region, which has one of the world's largest spatial wage differentials, can be seen as a natural experiment. We presume that changes in skill and wage structures are particularly apparent in the regions situated immediately on the open border. Distinguishing three skill categories we obtain unexpected results. Though we observe a general shift from low-skilled jobs towards skilled jobs and a convergence trend of border regions towards the national average, we do not find a special effect for the period after the opening of the border, neither concerning the skill structure nor the wage differentials." (author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Grenzgebiet, Qualifikationsstruktur, Lohnhöhe, osteuropäischer Transformationsprozess - Auswirkungen, IAB-Beschäftigtenstichprobe, Bayern, Tschechische Republik, Bundesrepublik Deutschland
    JEL: R23 J31 F16
    Date: 2007–01–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iab:iabdpa:200701&r=geo
  241. By: Wilbert Grevers; Anne Veen Van Der
    Abstract: This paper explores the implications, from a public sector economics point of view, of combining welfare assessments concerning land use in urban and environmental economics respectively. Urban economics has a long tradition in determining the optimal allocation of land (or space) as a consumption good, while land use issues in environmental economics are predominantly rooted in hedonic pricing as a valuation method for optimising the allocation of public goods. Recently, hedonic pricing methods have been extended by adopting location choice models for the valuation of non-marginal changes in levels of local amenities. Following a possible revision of the location choices by the population, endogenous prices are introduced and compensated for in a willingness to pay. Some of the new methods also allow for social interactions by means of endogenous amenities. While endogenous prices are the main contribution of these so-called sorting models to the valuation literature, until now little attention has been paid to the efficiency of the market equilibrium assumed, in terms of the consumption of space. This is surprising, because social interactions as endogenous amenities might alternatively be interpreted as positive external effects. As such, they are likely to result in an oversupply of land in a competitive market. The dominant characterisation of the equilibrium on the land (or housing) market in sorting models is market clearing, given a fixed supply. In this paper, the total amount of land used in the market clearing equilibrium will be compared with the competitive market equilibrium and the allocation by a benevolent social planner maximising social welfare. It is shown that under relatively general conditions and allowing for endogenous amenities, market clearing with a fixed supply will yield a total amount of land used that is smaller than in a competitive market, but larger than in the case of land use planning. This result suggests that in public policy recommendations, sorting models could benefit from complementing the valuation methodology with the internalisation of external effects for optimising land use.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p522&r=geo
  242. By: Cigdem Tarhan; Omur Saygin; Ali Kemal Cinar; Yelda Yetis; Gfkhe Basaran
    Abstract: In the 21st century, GIS based Campus Information Systems (CIS) have been used by many universities for different aims and become an effective tool. CIS is a wholeness and integrity that is formed by hardware, software, data and users in order to collect spatial and non-spatial data about the university and its sub-units (both academic and administrative), transfer them to computer, store, query, analyze and present the result reports as graphics or non-graphics. In general, the goal of this study is to prepare a GIS-based Izmir Institute of Technology (IIT) CIS. Moreover, after preparing maps of campus area in desired formats, the objectives of the project are to store the maps to plan or update, to provide rapid and easy access to personal and sharable information about campus, to prepare the databases about each department, and to use them for administrative purposes. Therefore, it would have been achieved two main objectives in terms of planning and interactive access for students and staff. At first, by this system, it has been achieved more scientific spatial analyses about land use decisions depending on the natural capacities of the campus site. Then, some negative sides and impacts have been determined relating to the physical developments proposed by the existing campus plan. Thus, it has been achieved crucial results about these defects supporting our initial observations about campus. Secondly, to achieve all information about campus referring spatial or non-spatial by students, academic & administrative staff, and inter-active information access would be created. In order to create CIS for IIT, the spatial and non-spatial data about campus including maps, attribute data were collected; maps, databases, spatial analyses and queries were produced via ArcGIS. At the end of the study, site location of IIT, 1/50000 environmental plan, 1/5000 IIT Master Plan, existing map of campus area, proposed implementation plan of campus area, thematic maps & spatial analyses about topography, geology, soil capability and vegetation and other natural features and suitability analysis for campus site were produced as result productions.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p305&r=geo
  243. By: Zoran Njegovan
    Abstract: The policy of regional rural development has to be efficient. It must relay on so called “good governanceâ€. But in last few decades the results on this segment in the republic of Serbia couldn’t be qualified as significant. So the primary objective of the paper is focused on how to reverse the process of continued impoverishment of the local rural areas and create conditions for social, cultural, economic and environmentally sustainable development based on local initiative. In order to meet this objective, an attempt is made to define systematic, continuous and cyclic approach of setting up priorities and policies as a basic tool for strategic action planning on a local level (LSAP). Decentralization of the state, strengthening of local municipalities and participation of citizens are three processes which had to be articulated and which through their validity has to gain strength and importance in republic of Serbia. The paper can provisionally be divided into two parts. The first part encompasses the importance of local strategic planning as well as justification of theoretical approaches while the second part gives the bases for methodology of strategic action planning on the local level formulation. In such approach two basic preconditions of LSAP could be specified: adequate institutional base i.e. strong participation of local community and its main stakeholders like local government, citizens, NGO’s and others; as well as high level of professional knowledge which builds local stakeholders ability of planning. Introducing of the regional rural approach on the local level is connected with development of LSAP in three basic sectors: institutional – civil society, infrastructural and economic. Local community must be aware what does LSAP mean, why it is so important, what preconditions are important in its development, how it’s structure look like, how it has to be developed, and how to stimulate local initiative, participation, transparency and democracy to reach sustainability.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p172&r=geo
  244. By: Andrew Narwold
    Abstract: The State of California enacted the Mills Act in 1976. This act allowed local municipalities the option of setting up a historical designation program. The main feature of the program was to allow the owners of historical buildings a reduction in their property taxes in return for an agreement to not alter the exterior facade of the designated building. The extent of the property tax deduction runs anywhere from 40 – 80 percent. This means that for a $1,000,000 house, the tax benefits may run to $8,000 per year. Theory suggests that the value of this tax benefit should be fully capitalized into the price of the home. The degree to which it is not may suggest the cost to the homeowner for agreeing not to alter the building. This paper uses hedonic regression analysis to estimate the value of historical designation to single family residences in the City of San Diego.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p245&r=geo
  245. By: Laurie A Schintler; Rajendra G Kulkarni; Sean P Gorman; Roger R Stough
    Abstract: Designing resilient and reliable networks is a principle concern of planners and private firms. Traffic congestion whether recurring or as the result of some aperiodic event is extremely costly. This paper describes an alternative process and a model for analyzing the resiliency of networks that address some of the shortcomings of more traditional approaches – e.g., the four-step modeling process used in transportation planning. It should be noted that the authors do not view this as a replacement to current approaches but rather as a complementary tool designed to augment analysis capabilities. The process that is described in this paper for analyzing the resiliency of a network involves at least three steps: 1. assessment or identification of important nodes and links according to different criteria 2. verification of critical nodes and links based on failure simulations and 3. consequence. Raster analysis, graph-theory principles and GIS are used to develop a model for carrying out each of these steps. The methods are demonstrated using two, large interdependent networks for a metropolitan area in the United States.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p917&r=geo
  246. By: Tomaz Dentinho; Vanda Serpa; Paulo Silveira; Joana Goncalves
    Abstract: The agenda explain the historical evolution of land uses in São Jorge Island (Azores- Portugal) between 15th-20th century.The economic exploitation of the island space prosecuted itself in simultaneous with his colony, one form to guarantee the auto supplying of the populations. First we assess the capacity of the island territory for different uses based on agronomic analysis and transform these capacities in attractiveness coefficients.Then we design a spatial interaction model with five different sectors which employment can be closely related with surface area, first to five zones in the island and within those zones to small plots of 1 hectare each.Finally we use historical data on population and main export crops in order to calibrate the model for each century. Therefore, based on data on the export crop and on the population it is possible to estimate the different land use of the island for all the sectors and to assess the carrying capacity of the island.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p91&r=geo
  247. By: Jose Cadima Ribeiro; Laurentina Cruz Vareiro; Xulio Pardellas De Blas
    Abstract: Empirical evidence shows that tourism can give a real contribution to regional development and, in the case of certain remote and economic lagged territories, it is the sector best placed to achieve this goal. This role of touristic activity as to do, namely, with the possibility of taking profit from endogenous resources of these territories and in the particular case of Minho-Lima sub-region an important tourist potential exists seating in the variety and singularity of its resources - the beauty of its landscapes, the architectonic wealth of secular buildings, the exuberance of the gastronomy and of many cultural manifestations are a reality of the identity of this portuguese sub-region. Taking this in consideration, this paper attempts to catalogue and evaluate the tourist resources of Minho-Lima, as well as to analyze the complementary elements and the external factors related with the image of the destination. The methodology followed relies on a two-stage process. Firstly, taking the primary components, the consistency of the territory as a touristic destination was analysed, evaluating its tourism potential and configuration. In a second stage, considering the secondary elements, the components of the image of the common tourist destination were analysed through the study of the local, regional and national promotion in what brochures and web sites is concerned. Simultaneously, as a second approach, contact was established with a sample of tourism operators, applying an inquiry-type to restaurants (special protagonists in the range of the touristic offer of the area of study), as well as interviews with the institutional agents, in order to check the perception of the destination as common destination and the agents’ commitment on it.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p393&r=geo
  248. By: Luca Pieroni; David Aristei
    Abstract: The aim of the present study is to analyse the dynamics of regional consumption and income to explain two significant empirical evidences that have characterized Italian economy in the last two decades: (i) the fall in private saving rate; (ii) the persistence of a wide gap between consumption and income levels of Central-Northern and Southern areas of Italy. The theoretical framework adopted to investigate the effects of economic growth on saving is based on the life cycle hypothesis (LCH) (Modigliani and Brumberg, 1954). As highlighted by recent empirical works, the effect of economic growth on individual saving rates strictly depends on how labour income is affected by growth (Deaton and Paxson, 2000). In this study, we provide a measure of the impact of productivity changes across generations both at the aggregate level and among regions, by tracking income and consumption behaviours of cohorts of households. Moreover, working with household rather than individual data, we adopt an appropriate equivalence scale in order to account for the different resources and needs of each family member; this problem is particularly significant for countries like Italy, in which the presence of multigenerational household is common. The empirical analysis is based on a series of repeated cross-sections of the Bank of Italy’s Survey of Household Income and Wealth (SHIW) for the period 1989-2002 and consists in the decomposition of the cohort, age and time effects of household’s income and consumption along the line of the works of Attanasio (1998), Jappelli and Modigliani (1998), Jappelli (1999) and Kapteyn et al. (2005). The results obtained in the benchmark model show an increase in the productivity of younger generations in the Central and Northern regions together with a positive and increasing age profile for consumption, while in the South the results are floating. The basic model is successively extended by including the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the household. From the sensitivity estimations, it clearly emerges that household composition, working status and education levels significantly affect income fluctuations in the South, playing an active role in determining the persistency of growth rate differences among regions.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p799&r=geo
  249. By: Eva Aguayo; Pilar Exposito; Emilia Vazquez
    Abstract: Tourism is a very important sector for the economic growth and the employment. It is also important to stress that this relationships have not been studied enough, this is even more important if we take into account that we consider the economic impact, not the major determinants of tourist demand, which is the most common feature of tourism studies. In this paper we analyse the economic impact of tourism in the economy of 50 regions of transition countries. The political and economic changes in these countries have brought the attention in this area, making it a desirable destination for an important part of tourists, both in Europe and other parts of the world. Nowadays tourist are not seeking just sun and beaches as it happened in the past, other factors such as culture, history, archaeology or natural parks can explain some of the changes in the movement of tourists around the world. We study the difference among the countries and regions, considering the importance of resident and non-residents tourism in each of them. Through this analysis we would like to point those countries, and regions, which are already in a good position, such as the Czech Republic, Hungary or Poland, comparing them with those others which offer an important potential to develop this sector.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p743&r=geo
  250. By: Nenad Starc
    Abstract: The paper deals with impacts of large scale patterns of socio-economic development on small island communities and their economies. The Croatian island of Unije (17 km2, 100 islanders) is chosen as a representative case due to its relatively rich resources and turbulent economic and social history. The paper describes the island's ecosystem, resources, population and built environment and analyses ups and downs that the island experienced in last two centuries. The inability of usual analytical methods to capture features of small economies and communities is observed and discussed. The main external economic factors of changes of the Unije community have been the fishing industry with its dynamic spatial pattern and the tourist industry which has been the main activity on the island in the last 40 years. Other factors have been changes in the geo-political environment and general socialist development policies. Development of both industries and corresponding state policies are discussed in order to reveal the inability of policy makers to take into account insular development specificities. Policy failure to take into account different effects that the same measure may have in different parts of the territory in which it is applied is also discussed. In the remainder, decentralisation of development management and bottom-up top down policy mix are proposed and elaborated as solutions for existing policy failures.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p244&r=geo
  251. By: George Korres; Christos Kitsos; Stamatina Hadjidena
    Abstract: The importance of entrepreneurship for economic growth has been emphasised by economic literature. The recent debate on the determinants of output growth has concentrated mainly on the role of knowledge, typically produced by a specific sector of the economy, and furthermore in the role of entrepreneurship and the implications on economic growth. Much of the recent work on economic growth can be viewed as refining the basic economic insights of classical economists. The statistical analysis is therefore very important. Nowadays there are well-organized databases, and the researcher can easily decide about the sample, rather than some years ago. Research and Development, technical change and entrepreneurship are directly related with industrial infrastructure, productivity effects and regional development. Entrepreneurship aims to reinforce the competitiveness, and to succeed the modernisation process and the convergence between firms and industries in the member states, adopting statistical techniques, using the appropriate software. This paper attempts to examine the role of entrepreneurship, and those of innovation activities (technical change, research and development and diffusion of technology) and the effects of output growth, using both a theoretical and empirical approach in a Greek case study. In particular, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the framework, the obstacles, the determinant factors using the appropriate statistical techniques and furthermore the role of female entrepreneurship in the Greek firms. It also attempts to examine the role of female entrepreneurship on innovation activities and the effects on sustainable development and in the implications on growth, economic integration, regional development and social change.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p29&r=geo
  252. By: Javier Revilla Diez; Ludwig Schatzl
    Abstract: This paper presents empirical evidence on university-industry relations (UIR) and knowledge transfer in the regional innovation system of Bangkok and broaches the issue of adapting well-established concepts for the analysis of innovation processes in newly industrialising countries. The potential for UIR is restricted due to 1) a weak and fragmented innovation system, 2) low technological and absorptive capacities in the industrial sector, and 3) slowly improving research capabilities in the scientific sector. Hence the level of UIR in the regional innovation system of Bangkok is mainly limited to occasional and personal modes. It is suggested to strengthen the knowledge transfer capabilities within both actors and to establish effective mechanisms for bridging institutional barriers between academia and industry.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p882&r=geo
  253. By: Alex Christie; Kim Swales
    Abstract: A wide range of geographically decentralised governance structures exists across countries (Ter-Minassian, 1997). These differences in administrative and constitutional mechanisms come about, at least partly, by historical accident and wider political factors. However, in this paper we focus on the more narrowly defined efficiency implications of such arrangements. This is useful for identifying the motives that might underlie particular administrative set ups and the possible efficiency losses associated with specific forms of decentralisation or devolution. In particular, we develop a framework that allows a comparison of the effectiveness of implementing policy through three alternative systems. These are: a centralised; a decentralised; and a fully devolved structure. In this analysis we build on the work of Canes-Wrone et al, (2001) and Maskin and Tirole (2004) on representative democracy. The novelty is that we place this analysis in the context of a potentially decentralised or devolved regional administration. We find that the choice of appropriate administrative form depends upon the degree of homogeneity between regions, the relative efficiency of regional decision makers and their time discount rate.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p533&r=geo
  254. By: John Carruthers; Ralph Mclaughlin; Marlon Boarnet
    Abstract: This paper evaluates growth management in Florida by using a land use based regional adjustment model to project adjustments toward equilibrium densities of population and employment at the county level. The analysis utilizes a unique data set that contains detailed information on initial outcomes of the 1992 plan review in the State of Florida. These plan review outcomes are interacted with adjustment variables to test the hypothesis that Growth Management-specific policies have affected equilibrium adjustments in the following time period. The analysis is motivated by three specific research questions: Has Florida’s (1985) Growth Management Act increased changes in density during any of the three year time periods? Does plan compliance affect the growth trajectories of approved counties? And, finally, does the inclusion of optional plan elements further affect these growth trajectories? The findings suggest that compliance with state growth management mandates in Florida may push the adjustment process toward higher population densities in the1992-1997 time period. Additionally, the inclusion of an optional educational plan element may also push adjustments toward higher density. The results indicate that growth management efforts to address the technical planning process, as well as human capital needs, can increase the desirability, and thus the density, of sprawling counties in the Atlantic Southeast. Finally, because population and employment growth are jointly determined in the Atlantic Southeast, the long-term sustainability of economic development in Florida may depend on policies that preserve its desirability as a place to live. This paper elaborates upon work by Carruthers, McLaughlin, and Boarnet (2006) that shows Florida’s growth trajectory during the early 1990’s was significantly different than the Atlantic Southeast region.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p544&r=geo
  255. By: Capriati Michele
    Abstract: The work is based on the belief that the suggestions of important economists and international organizations on the aims of human development are particularly important to define the most efficient policies for local systems. These contributions emphasize the role of instrumental liberties in the determination of a wider access for the individuals to the occasions of self realization offered by the context. On these basis has been realized an empirical analysis and has been proposed a synthetic index of effective freedom in the Italian provinces. It has shown the existence of interesting territorial differences, which is not always possible to bring back to the north-center/ south dichotomy. The end of the essay is focused on some first indications of policies for local development.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p360&r=geo
  256. By: Maria Luisa Decuir-Viruez
    Abstract: Different factors have been included in order to explain the causes of growth and the disparities observed in the last century. This paper examines the role of institutional factors in the growth rates observed among the 32 states in Mexico in the period 1970-2000. The institutional elements considered are the “strategies†of local governments, in order to assess if the active strategies (those that are participative, open to global economies and less dependent upon central authorities) have better results in terms of growth than the passive type (those that are dependent on central authorities and have restricted external links). Following on from the documents presented at the ERSA Annual Conferences of 2003/4/5, this paper presents the final assessment of the relationship between institutional elements and growth. This includes identification and measurement of the institutional elements (strategies) through Principal Components Analysis (PCA); and its evaluation with growth using Ordinary Least Square Regressions (OLS). The PCA results identified components related to hard and soft institutional elements (strategies and social networks). Meanwhile, the OLS results suggest that institutions matter; in the case of Mexico, the strategies taken by regional governments in the period 1970-2000 have had some influence in their paths of growth and levels of investment. Furthermore, after 1985 there is evidence that the active strategies (which have substituted the national regional policy) are related to a positive performance, in contrast to the passive type.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p344&r=geo
  257. By: Boris A. Portnov; Jonathan Dubnov; Micha Barchana
    Abstract: In behavioral studies, ecological fallacy is a wrong assumption about an individual based on aggregate data for a group. In the present study, the validity of this assumption was tested using both individual estimates of exposure to air pollution and aggregate air pollution data estimated for 1,492 schoolchildren living in the in vicinity of a major coal-fired power station in the Hadera sub-district of Israel. In 1996 and 1999, the children underwent subsequent pulmonary function (PF) tests, and their parents completed a detailed questionnaire on their health status, and housing conditions. The association between children’s PF development and their long-term exposure to air pollution was then investigated in two phases. During the first phase, the average rates of PF change observed in small statistical areas in which the children reside were compared with average levels of air pollution detected in these areas. During the second phase of the analysis, an individual pollution estimate was calculated for each child covered by the survey, using a "spatial join" tool in ArcGIS. While the analysis of aggregate data showed no significant differences in the PF development among the schoolchildren surveyed, the comparison of individual pollution estimates with the results of PF tests detected a significant negative association between changes in PF results and the estimated level of air pollution. As argued, these differences are attributed to the fact that average exposure levels are likely to cause a misclassification bias of individual exposure, as further demonstrated in the study using pattern detection techniques of spatial analysis (local Moran's I and Gettis-Ord statistic). The implications of the results of the analysis for geographical and epidemiological studies are discussed, and recommendations for public health policy are formulated.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p18&r=geo
  258. By: Jan Stejskal; Tana Karlikova
    Abstract: Czech Republic has become one of leading destinations for production foreign investments in Europe in last ten years. This success has been influenced by several factors including history, geography, policy development, economic and social progress transformation and also from Czech Republic’s entrance into NATO and the European Union. We must also take into account traditions, labour skills, price and labour productivity. The central and regional government initiatives (from municipalities and larger regions) can play active roles in foreign investment attraction. Local and central government agencies of western countries are sources of such new and direct investments to Czech Republic. Because of higher economic standards in these countries, they are able to invest internationally with greater ease and comfort. National entrepreneurs are also sources for economic development and new business. The goals of the public policies focused on the “aftercare†can be: - Support with development and expansion, - Assisting with problem solving during enterprise development, - Training and help with restructuring, - Support and assistance for multi-national corporations and investors with: research and development, design, setting up centres with a network of experts, mentors and shareable resources, - Support and assistance with networking (and advertising?), - Developing “clusters†which are centres concentrating on excellence within global competition and markets, - Many more. These specified activities can be realized with financial support from the Structural funds from the European budget and by current operating programmes already in place within the Czech Republic. This paper focuses on the research analysis interpretation of entrepreneur environment. This case study (or research) was held in Czech Republic in May 2005. We would like to make some recommendations (in the form of “best practisesâ€) to inspire other countries (which solve similar problems) and provide information. Attention will be given to defining recommendations and offering conclusions to the compatibility with the new “learning regions†theory.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p407&r=geo
  259. By: Kleanthis Sirakoulis; Alex Deffner
    Abstract: The role of youth leisure in cities is of special interest and university students (as young and generally more active personalities) hold an important place. The available time of students, exempting usual factors that generally influence leisure (age, sex, work, social class, spatio-temporal constraints), is mainly affected by the subject they choose to study (including their obligations) and by their perception of the city where the institution is located. There are few relevant international studies and even fewer Greek studies. The aim of this paper is to compare the leisure preferences of students in the capital of Greece (Athens) and a medium-sized city in central Greece (Larissa), as well as the impacts of leisure in their quality of life. A questionnaire based survey was used for the data collection. A sample of 440 students in both cities (400 of them in Athens and 40 in Larissa) participated in the research. Important inequalities exist in the most popular activities according to the place of study. One major contradiction (which pinpoints to the time-space interrelationship) is that, although there exists a greater plurality of resources in the capital, there also exist more constraints especially as far as transportation time is concerned.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p916&r=geo
  260. By: Javier Alfonso-Gil
    Abstract: Information (the level of, and its rate of increase) is key for creation and diffusion of innovation and more so in an increasing interconnected world. Therefore, knowing how information is transform in innovation, who are the agents responsible for it and where and why is mostly going to happen are important questions to answer. Furthermore, besides dealing with the production of innovation we have to confront with its diffusion both, between firms within the same geographical proximity and between firms in different regions and nations. The result of this diffusion will be the formation of “innovation nodes†that will interact not only within them but, more significantly, with other faraway nodes. The increase in knowledge (information) have made possible to overcome geographical distant as a barrier to business engagement. The aeronautical sector will be the specific subject studied in this paper. It shows that in that sector, the creation and diffusion of innovation, and the proper organization of production, is accomplished with the combination of big firms (in an oligopoly market) and small and medium enterprises (SMS) in a more competitive market. A typology of innovation and diffusion by this hybrid method will be exposed and explained.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p256&r=geo
  261. By: Amanda Mackloet; Veronique A.J.M. Schutjens; Piet Korteweg
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship is crucial to a vital and thriving economy, even on the neighbourhood level. This fits into current urban planning policy in the Netherlands, which aims at combining housing and economic functions within neighborhoods. Since an increasing number of entrepreneurs start from home, this calls for insight in the combination of work and home. However, there is limited knowledge about the specific role of the dwelling in the decision to start a firm from home and to stay put. This explorative paper focuses on the use of the dwelling as location of a firm, both in the start-up phase and beyond in the firm life course, and its explanations. Our research questions are: what determines the decision to start a firm within the dwelling of the entrepreneur and its duration in time, and how does this relate to the propensity and decision to move? In our empirical analyses a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods is used. We analyzed data from 130 questionnaires send out in April 2005 to young entrepreneurs who owned a firm in two Dutch urban neighborhoods. These questionnaires were followed by in-depth interviews with 10 entrepreneurs. We have found that most home based businesses did start from home and are strongly tied to the dwelling - and therefore the neighbourhood. Both firms with past growth in number of personnel and firms with growth aspirations do want to move relatively often. With respect to firm relocation and the personal propensity to move, housing characteristics as adapted dwellings, and owner-occupied, single family and large houses are important. With respect to future home-based business, to most firms breaking the work-home combination is not a realistic option. Household characteristics and more specifically the care of small children keeps entrepreneurs home-based. Also entrepreneurs who work almost full-time are relatively strong attached to their home, which may point to an explicit -and maybe also longlasting- choice for home-basedness. Economic policy should therefore foster start-ups within urban neighbourhoods, as many of them seem to be firmly anchored locally by attachment to their home.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p694&r=geo
  262. By: Bart De Jong
    Abstract: Schiphol Amsterdam, the main airport of the Netherlands, is a dynamic node, where the space of places and space of flows meet. The days that Schiphol was just an airport are long gone. This makes it a complex entity. The different governments concerned with the future development of Schiphol appear to be indecisive and lack adequate knowledge needed to understand the dynamics of the airport, as a result of which the planning process is insufficient. It seems that reality and the administrative situation do not fit anymore. Spatial supply and demand differ enormously. Schiphol and the national government both conceptualize the airport by calling it a mainport, but both define the same concept differently. The mainport concept was formed in the mid-eighties, when the Dutch economy was in a period of recession. Two economic motors were appointed: the Rotterdam Harbour and Schiphol Airport. Now after almost twenty years Schiphol evolved enormously while the mainport concept used by the government hardly changed. How is this possible? In this paper I will describe the forming of the mainport concept and the evolution of Schiphol. After assessment of this evolution and the concept, which is done by a combination of in depth interviews, a comprehensive literature study and the analysis of the operative policy documents, I conclude with a problem inventory. I argue that this inventory can help us understand why the mainport concept and Schiphol differ today and why reality and the administrative situation do not fit anymore. In this way, the problem inventory will provide a good basic framework in order to find a solution and make sure that in the recent future reality and the administrative situation will be one again.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p274&r=geo
  263. By: Berk Minez; Nevnihal Erdogan
    Abstract: Abstract Kütahya has been the crade of many cultures throughout the history. Especially, its population grew after Turkish occupation and the city expanded beyond the walls of the city. Traditional life characteristics and tradational production stiles survived till how such as ceramics, textile, leather, carpets and handcrafts. Thus, Centre Business District (CBD) continue to preservative the business vitality together with religious, social and civil architecture examples and its conservative people. So, if the preservation aims the participation of public (owners/users), the social pattern of the area becomes so important in the process. With determining the relation between the social and physical attitudes towards the preservation of the area, suitable solution can be formed which fits with the situation. A social survey was conducted to the offices. The results of the survey related with ownership patterns, the functions, the employee and customers of the shop, the consciousness and tendencies to repair activities. Thus, the results of the study can be useful for policy makers, urban planners and inverts.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p815&r=geo
  264. By: Harry Coccossis; Mary Constantoglou
    Abstract: Tourism is a worldwide socioeconomic phenomenon. Its environmental, social and economic aspects have been for years at the center of interest of policy making and research communities. Sustainable tourism is a concept that mainly reflects the need for comprehensive analysis and integrated planning and management of tourism. In this respect it is important to develop appropriate analytical and policy tools for tourism, particularly to reflect the different conditions, characteristics and patterns of tourism development in geographic space. Spatial typologies for tourism can be an effective tool for this purpose. The main scope of this paper is to analyze the concept, the need and the use of typologies in the overall planning process and in tourism planning process specifically.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p712&r=geo
  265. By: Francisco Diniz
    Abstract: The first step will be to measure the firms sales and purchases economic impact based on small and medium-sized towns and to calculate their degree of integration into the local economy, comparing the local economic integration of small and medium-sized towns within three types of rural area, in six Portuguese small and medium-sized towns. In this paper a series of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Regressions will be presented in such a way as to examine the key characteristics of entity and local environment associated with strong local economic integration, using firm sales and purchases Local Integration Indicators as dependent variables. Each independent variable compared sub-sets of towns and firms to examine the influence of a range of characteristics and distinctions between entities on local economic integration. In order to explain the level of local integration of the sales and purchases of firms, three sets of explanatory variables were taken into consideration. The first set concerns the characteristics of the local context, including country, town type (size and type) and location of the firm within the study area (i.e. in the town centre or hinterland, as previously defined). The second set describes the characteristics of the firm and owner/manager. Besides some usual characteristics (such as firm type, sector, workforce size, age etc), this set also includes indigeneity of the owner/manager, i.e. the length of time that the owner/manager has resided in the study area, and where they moved in from, as well as variables which characterise the firm’s technology (proportion of unskilled workers in the workforce, labour productivity and index of intensity in intermediate goods). Finally, a set of ‘firm environment’ variables were computed. Through these, one will attempt to examine the relationship between the firm (according to its own characteristics) and the integration with local markets of final and intermediate goods and labour.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p208&r=geo
  266. By: Ana Bravo; Antonio Silvestre
    Abstract: This paper aims at presenting a simple model of local decision-making based on the hypothesis of monopoly power on the part of local governments. It adds the contribution of the principal-agent theory by assuming that: (a) monopolistic behavior is constrained by voters’ efforts to monitor the outcomes of policies; (b) local governments’ policies affect local property values. Given those assumptions, the degree of capitalization of property taxes is shown to determine the incentive for voters’ control over policies’ outcomes.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p898&r=geo
  267. By: Paula Linna; Satu Pekkarinen; Tomi Tura
    Abstract: Finland as a society is facing major challenges due to ageing and financial difficulties of municipalities. According to many authorities the Nordic welfare state has come to its end in Finland. Therefore, Finnish municipalities are forced to develop new methods to maintain the good quality of public services. In this paper, we argue that the most efficient method to achieve this is to develop a regional service cluster, which means radical changes in the role of the municipality. Instead of producing all the services themselves, municipalities should act as leaders of the regional service cluster. The leader role demands that municipalities concentrate on their core activity and create strategic partnership arrangements with private service providers to take care of the related support activities. So far, co-operation with private service providers has mostly been limited to purchasing without any common goal. Nonetheless, acting in network requires more strategic co-operation between the actors. Public sector actors should be responsible and control the whole network, for example creating it, finding partners and evaluating the outcome. The research includes the development process of the social and health care sector reform in Päijät-Häme province, Finland, a case which we analyze using the framework of the regional service sector. In this reform, the hospital district is transforming into a new organizational structure which includes all the services of social affairs and health. It is a pilot project in Finland. The purpose of the research study is to create concrete tools how to develop, govern and measure the impacts of regional service cluster. The main research questions are: - What kinds of ways of action and rules should the developer network pursue? - How democratic processes can be assured in the network service structure? - How municipalities’ ownership is managed in the long run? - How the efficient development of human resources and services is taken care of in this network structure? - How the efficient management of the non-public service providers’ network should be governed? The framework can be used in every occasion when municipalities are developing new ways of maintaining their responsibilities of organizing different services to their inhabitants.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p339&r=geo
  268. By: Iva Miranda Pires
    Abstract: In spite of being neighbors the economic relations between Portugal and Spain where irrelevant until recently. Each one of the countries chose, after 2nd War World, different options (Spain's internal market permitted import-substitution, while Portugal's smaller scale and 'special relationship' with the UK encouraged greater openness) and some aspects of the common history (Spain invaded and stayed in Portugal during almost one century) created some distrust reinforced by the unequal dimension of the neighboring country. But Portuguese and Spanish jointly adhesion to EEC, in 1986, created a totally new context that would come to facilitate and even to stimulate the development of the relationships inside Iberian Peninsula. This two until recently quite independent territories are been (re) shaped by intensive economic (and to a less extent social) interdependencies. Another aspect relates with the dynamism of the integration process if we look at the booming of trade and FDI flows between the two economies. Among the main driving forces of the Iberian market integration we identify EU itself deepening process of integration (common market, common economic, social and environment policies, abolition of borders); national governments (namely developing transport and communication infrastructures that facilitate regional mobility) and the economic agents that fast adapt to the new enlarged market exploring opportunities in each of the neighbouring markets. Empirical data on EU process of integration and accomplishment of internal market shows that countries that belong to EU tend to rely more and more on other EU members as a partner to develop trade and FDI flows. After EU adhesion Spain and Portugal quickly become relevant economic partners although due to a more active reaction of Spanish capitals the process has not been consensual in Portugal; complains on the so called “invasion†from Spanish investments where common in the media. More pro-active arguments support that although pursuing a friendly neighbouring relation with Spain Portugal should, at the same time, diversify its internationalisation strategy. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of Spanish investment in Portugal and Portuguese firms’ adaptation to new Iberian market opportunities and challenges.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p713&r=geo
  269. By: Andrew Copus; Dimitris Skuras; Kyriaki Tsegenidi
    Abstract: The present work compares rates of innovative activity among firms located in peripheral dynamic and central lagging areas of the European Union. Data on 600 businesses located in twelve areas, in six countries of the EU were collected in the framework of an EU- funded research project (Aspatial Peripherality, Innovation and the Rural Economy- AsPIRE- QLK5-2000-00783). Empirical evidence shows that the regional rate of innovative activity is very well predicted by easily observable firm characteristics. Oaxaca-Blinder like decompositions between the difference in rates of innovative activity in peripheral and more central areas are undertaken. Decompositions show that the major part of the observed differential innovative activity rates is unobservable, i.e., it is due to unobserved characteristics and not due to observable firm characteristics. Unobserved characteristics may be either firm specific (human and entrepreneurial capital, etc.) or region specific (institutional environment, social capital, traditional economic factors, etc.) and constitute an unobserved type of innovation specific ‘untraded interdependencies’. This conclusion is important for planning policies to support innovation and especially to the regionalization of innovation policies. -
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p295&r=geo
  270. By: Michael C. Burda
    Abstract: Eastern Germany’s recovery from the "unification shock" has been characterized by deep structural change – with apparent repercussions for the West as well – and an integration process involving both capital deepening (extensive and intensive investment) and labor thinning (net out-migration). I propose a constant-returns neoclassical model of economic integration which can account for these facts. Adjustment costs determine dynamics and steady state regional distribution of production factors. The model also explains persistent wage and capital rate-of-return differentials along the equilibrium path. Under competitive conditions, observed factor price differentials contain information on those adjustment costs.
    Keywords: German Reunification, Regional Integration, Costs of Adjustment, Capital Mobility, Migration
    JEL: F2 J61 P23
    Date: 2006–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hum:wpaper:sfb649dp2006-087&r=geo
  271. By: M-Cristina Martinez-Fernandez; Kim Leevers
    Abstract: University-industry alliances have long been pursued by public funded programs hoping to boost innovation spillovers in a geographical or cognitive area of research-strength by universities. However, there is still a lack of industry-university cooperation in many fields while at the same time the benefits of universities to their regions’ knowledge intensity is firmly advocated (Acs 2004, Martinez-Fernandez & Leevers 2004, Martinez-Fernandez 2004)). The issue is not limited to the dissemination of knowledge, a traditional role of universities, but to introducing change into the region’s innovation system through activities that increase industry competitive advantage. Results from a project conducted in South-West Sydney from 2003 to 2005 shows that active industry engagement by Universities offering specific expertise in frontier technologies has a positive effect in university-industry cooperation if compared with other technologies well established in the private sector. The project results also show that the role of Universities as active facilitators of industry engagement in frontier technologies is a critical element in the regional/local innovation system where the university operates. The paper discusses first the context of the emergence of the UWS Nanotechnology Network as a sophisticated knowledge intensive service activity led by the University. Secondly the paper discusses the particular case of nanotechnology as a science in an early path and the role of universities at this particular stage. Thirdly, the paper discusses the use and barriers of firms to nanotechnology applications and the role played by UWS during the duration of the project. Finally policy issues arise in relation to the role of the public education sector in the early promotion of frontier technologies. References Acs, Z. (2002) Innovation and the Growth of Cities. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. Martinez-Fernandez, M.C. (2004) ‘Regional Collaboration Infrastructure: Effects in the Hunter Valley of NSW’, Australian Planner Vol 41(4); Planning Institute of Australia: Queensland. Martinez-Fernandez, M.C. and K. Leevers (2004) ‘Knowledge Creation, Sharing and Transfer as an Innovation Strategy: The Discovery of Nano-technology by South-West Sydney’. International Journal of Technology Management (IJTM), Volume 28 (3/4/5/6): 560-581.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p819&r=geo
  272. By: Amanda Mackloet
    Abstract: This paper aims to shed more light on the impact of global economic change on the locational dynamics of maritime firms in the port of Rotterdam, and explores if recent port policy strategies provide an answer to these changes. Globalization and increasing competitiveness have caused a decline in the leading role of the port of Rotterdam. More ports are entering the stage, like the port of Shanghai, which has taken over the lead and is now the biggest port in the world. Also, other inland transport hubs are becoming more and more attractive for the location of port related activities. Furthermore, already for decades the port of Rotterdam faces a loss in employment and added value. The contribution of the port to the Dutch economy is steadily decreasing and causes serious debates about the legitimacy (also in terms of environmental issues) of the port. Firms in the port of Rotterdam have to adapt to the changing global economic playing field and change their strategies. This leads to new dynamics in the location of maritime firms. The paper highlights some developments that indicate changing locational dynamics. For instance, central distribution of consumer goods for the entire European market is likely to change into a decentralised pattern, with regional distribution centres in various countries. Also, the integration of logistics chains has given rise to logistics control functions at high strategic levels, stimulating the need for highly skilled workers and an attractive working environment. The question arises whether the port of Rotterdam is up to the challenge, and can provide an answer to the changing locational dynamics. An outline of the port policy strategy will shed more light on this matter. The cases of the Second Maasvlakte and Stadshavens will provide more insight into future developments.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p337&r=geo
  273. By: Bianca Biagi; Manuela Pulina
    Abstract: The life cycle approach (LCA) is considered as a useful prescriptive and normative tool for analysing the development of destinations and evolution of markets. A case study of the Island of Sardinia (Italy) highlights the utility of the LCA approach because this region provides a long run indicator, in terms of nights of stay, number of beds and accommodation for approximately eighty years of tourism activity and, throughout this time span, the Island has experienced several stages of the life cycle. One of the aims of this paper is to verify the lag between tourist consumption and tourist production. An econometric and descriptive approach has detected heterogeneities between the domestic and international tourist life cycle. The main result is that in recent years Sardinian tourism has experienced a decline stage of the domestic demand and a maturity stage for the international demand, while the supply is still in the growth phase. Moreover, the paper shows that the dynamics of tourist demand are strictly dependent on the local public policy makers' actions and socio-economic changes. Furthermore, the development of the accommodation sector is triggered by different factors as well as the tourist demand. In the last few years numerous changes have occurred in Sardinia in terms of transportation (e.g. low cost airlines), progress in information technology and public policy, that have influenced the preferences of tourists; nevertheless, the divergence between demand and supply within the life cycle framework introduces three main critical areas to be addressed: the importance of a long run economic planning; the sustainability of tourism production; and the role of market information for tourist operators.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p65&r=geo
  274. By: Andrea Morrison; Roberta Rabellotti
    Abstract: The process of technological modernisation of the wine industry has increasingly become a global phenomenon involving both traditional wine producing countries – such as France, Italy and Portugal – as well as new emerging producers –as the US, Australia, South Africa, Chile and Argentina. At this respect, the literature (Aylward, 2003; Unwin, 1991) remarks that in the industry the process of technological renovation has been spurred by the consistent investment of new producer countries, as California, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, in creating or strengthening research institutions. These efforts have led to the creation of a specialised wine research system. Conversely, it seems that producers in traditional wine producing areas have often been locked in old technologies and methods of production, due to path dependency. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on how old producing countries have reacted to the increased technological competition by emerging producers. In particular we focus on role played by research organisations (e.g. universities, public research centres) and intermediate institutions (e.g. sectoral associations, extension agencies, technological transfer centres) in generating and diffusing knowledge within the industry. The paper is based on first and second hand information collected in Piemonte, where it is located one of the most important Italian wine cluster. There, we have conducted an extensive fieldwork and interviewed several key informants working at research organisations; extension agencies, associations of producers and other associations acting as opinion/lobbying groups. The information collected are elaborated to reconstruct a detailed picture of actors, linkages and processes underpinning the regional innovation and production wine system.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p199&r=geo
  275. By: Garri Raagmaa
    Abstract: The primary aim of the paper is to provide an overview of the development and topical issues of the Estonian regional policy along with public policy. In order to implement a public policy, choices must be made based on values, which in their turn considerably influence the actual result. Public policy is usually described as a process of making choices from the determination of the situation to evaluation of the policy being implemented. This process has often an irrational character, which is caused by limited information available to decision-makers and limited time. My approach moves on from the statement of Ludek Sukora and his colleagues (Balchin et al 1999, 163) which says that in Eastern European countries, thus, hypothetically in Estonia as well, the former centralised planning economy replaced by relatively small local governments under the conditions of new legislation, where national plans do not work and consistent regional development policies do not exist, has brought about a situation of uncertainty, application of ad hoc methods instead of long-term comprehensive planning, and the use of earlier experience in administrative techniques. Following the above I present following hypotheses: H1) governmental normative documents on regional development change frequently and are often contradictory; H2) institutions responsible for the implementation of regional policy are unstable; H3) national and EU plans do not work and sectoral development plans are not compatible; H4) regional political initiatives depend on activities of different officials or ministers - human factor is critical; H5) no attempts are being made in municipalities to achieve awareness of conceptual basics of national and EU policies and their objectives, instead, different lobbying methods have been applied. In theoretical part, we look at the concept of regional policy and it’s changes in Europe. The empirical part will give a description of the Estonian regional and administrative polices in time, primarily based on observations, on the content analysis of documents and the written media, and interviews carried out in 1990-2005.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p664&r=geo
  276. By: Antonio Carlos Campino; F.M.S. Machado
    Abstract: The main objective of the research is to analyze the relationship between human capital formation, and processes of economic growth and social development by exploring the use of the population's nutritional and health variables to assess the quality of human capital and the mechanisms through which this capital is transmitted between generations among people of different races living in different regions of Brazil. This research includes considerations on recent advances in the economic growth theory that relates health, human capital, and long-term economic growth (see Fogel, R.W. "The Impact of Nutrition on Economic Growth", July/2001.) The evidence is obtained from the analysis of an important Brazilian database, “Pesquisa de Padrão de Vidaâ€, the Brazilian version of the World Bank´s “Living Standard Measurement Surveyâ€, conducted between 1996 and 1997, for the Northeast and Southeast Regions. The model we developed has two phases. In phase one we verified the factors which explain the differences in human capital formation between races, using the region and the area where the person lived as control variables. This part of the study focuses on information pertaining to economically active individuals (people between 19 and 59 years-old, both genders)with the purpose to analyze the connection between individuals' health variables, such as height and health status, and socioeconomic variables, like income and educational attainment, In phase two, the factors that explain the differences in the intergenerational transmission of human capital among races, were determined; area (urban x rural) and region were used as control variables. This part of the study focuses on information pertaining to individuals belonging to the same group, with at least one child to raise (2 to 21 years-old, both genders) in order to evaluate the intergenerational transmission of human capital. Results lead to the conclusion that relevant investments in human capital formation, such as educational attainment, create better opportunities to the individual in terms of employment and income. Beyond these primary effects, however, there are secondary effects, mainly based on the transmission of human capital formation through generations, which result in population lifestyle changes, economic growth and development.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p942&r=geo
  277. By: Timo Hirvonen; Lauri Frank
    Abstract: Most countries dispose towards the development of the information society (IS). Due to increased political interest, there has also been a growing need to collect and compile IS statistics for informed decision-making. Thus, various indicators have been collected and different indices developed to measure IS, to monitor its development and to compare countries in terms of IS performance. Although there is no unambiguous definition of what IS is actually composed of, the availability and use of information and communications technology (ICT) is seen to be an established part of it. This article examines the case of one IS indicator: the measurement of the availability of broadband in Finland from the year 2001 to 2004. The focus is on the overall sensibility of the indicators approach, the evolution of territorial differences at different spatial scales, and the effectiveness of the broadband policy in Finland in years 2001-2004. The analysis shows that the indicators of the availability of broadband might be misleading for purposes of policy formulation and monitoring. The results also indicate that the Finnish broadband policy has resulted in regional differences and spatially uneven impacts in terms of availability. This article is an outgrowth of the ESPON project “Identification of Spatially Relevant aspects of the Information Societyâ€.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p761&r=geo
  278. By: Vincenzo, Claudio Genna
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to analyze the present economic conditions of Southern Italy, particularly regarding the actual competitiveness of this region and possible future developments. We will outline the various features of Southern Italy economy giving emphasis to those limiting its competitiveness and, subsequently, suggesting opportune ways to improve it. Besides an opportunity coming from the international economic scenario, Southern Italy also has a great chance for its development from its traditional sectors. Moreover, it has really important environmental and cultural capitals which, besides an important touristical attractive, represent a potential of competitiveness able to start up development processes. The geographical position of Southern Italy can also bring significant advantages: Mezzogiorno is right in the middle of the mediterranean area which is showing high development potentials and is itself a large potential market. Regarding the institutional and political context, the governmental capacity of local administrations has improved over the last years and they started to pay more attention to increasing and promoting territories’ resources. There has also been a major ability to face criminality and corruption and a new “social disapproval†towards illegal phenomena is growing. Among weaknesses the infrastructural endowment still seems to be inadequate. Transportation infrastructures present low integration between the different modalities with the consequence of difficult reachable market outflows. Logistic systems are still underdeveloped. Negative features are also present within the productive system. Traditional businesses with scarce innovation capacity are still too strong and generally the whole system is not improving network connections and scales economy. Then bureaucracy, even though much less than in the past, is an obstacle especially regarding the start-up of new firms. A big threat is represented by the growing competitiveness of developing countries in some traditional sectors of Mezzogiorno production. Final recommendations will result from the analysis of the actual and perspective economic situation compared with the main developments of global economy.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p663&r=geo
  279. By: Theodoros Andrianos; Michalis Karakotsoglou; Charalampos Rizos
    Abstract: Transportation and communication networks comprise major structure components in the development of a country. The modern economic systems together with the so-called phenomenon of globalization not only demand the construction of extended networks at the dominion of a country, but their connection with networks of other countries as well. For the successful connection of transportation and communication networks certain strategies have to be implemented. The European Union (E.U.) has been a pioneer in establishing connections between its members and other countries of the continent. Thus, Trans-European Networks (TENs) of transportation, communication and energy have been created. Greece, as a member of the European Union, participates in the promotion and construction of the abovementioned networks. Within the framework of the present paper the Trans-European transportation and communication Networks of Greek interest are presented. A description of the economical and technical characteristics of these networks is given. Moreover, an attempt is made to define their expedience and feasibility, as well as the problems arising during their construction. In addition, the effects these networks have on Greek economy and regional development are examined. Finally, an effort is made to examine how these networks contribute to the best utilization of Greece’s geographical position, together with overcoming the fact that Greece has no common borders with other E.U. members.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p763&r=geo
  280. By: Mody, Ashoka (International Monetary Fund); Taylor, Mark P. (University of Warwick and Centre for Economic Policy Research)
    Abstract: In a case study of six East Asian economies, we use dynamic factor analysis to estimate a regional component of the exchange market pressure index (EMPI) as a measure of regional financial stress. The extent to which this indicator is explained by regional economic and financial factors is interpreted as regional vulnerability to crisis. We find that regional external liabilities and exuberance in domestic stock and credit markets, as well as the US high yield spread, were positively correlated with regional vulnerability. Individual country EMPIs are also explained by regional factors, with country-specific factors and trade linkages playing little role.
    Keywords: currency crisis ; contagion ; vulnerability ; dynamic factor analysis
    JEL: F31 F32 F36
    Date: 2006
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wrk:warwec:776&r=geo
  281. By: Vasilis Avdikos
    Abstract: The attempt to theorise certain concepts like “the region†or "spatial development" should begin with the conceptualisation of the very basic element of them that is space. In the fields of contemporary economic geography and geographical economy there are two broad perspectives of “spaceâ€, which both have formed the basis of a long standing debate in multiple dimensions (eg. deduction- induction, quantitative- qualitative etc). The first perspective sees space as a container of action. Action is clearly demarcated from space, which has become “neutral†and no dynamic relation exists between them. Regions then can be compared and the measurable elements of action can be analysed and modelled through positivism. Scholars from the second perspective partially reject that way of thinking and tend to emphasise on the role of past and that of embeddedness of action in time-space. These see space as a medium for action. Every region (or locality) here is an existent alterity (historically produced) with its own politics, institutions and culture that cannot be compared with other regions in a positivistic sense, nor best practices can be easily transferred. What matters is the inter-relational action that produces space and at the same time it is influenced by space. Action and space form a duality in time. Instead of the statistical comparative methodology and modelling of the first perspective, what is of importance here, not only in terms of methodology but also in terms of policy making, is the deep relational experience of the researcher/ policy-maker with the space. The paper argues that what is needed is not a demarcation line between those two streams of literature but an interdisciplinary approach that gives an emphasis not on the sum of them but in the synthesis of logics and methodologies in an approach that promotes holisticity.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p6&r=geo
  282. By: Riccardo Cappellin; Eugenio Corti; Massimiliano Bianca
    Abstract: This empirical study is a part of a large theoretical and empirical research project, “IKINET – International Knowledge and Innovation Network†(EU FP6, N° CIT2-CT-2004-506242), coordinated by University of Roma “Tor Vergataâ€, on the international/interregional dimension of existing knowledge and innovation networks, where not only information or codified knowledge, as in the collaboration between RTD institutions, but also tacit knowledge, know-how and competencies circulate. With particular focus on how to decrease the “organisational and institutional distance†between the various regions at the international/interregional level, since tacit knowledge and innovation capabilities often are embodied in human capital and individual organisations and institutions. The aim of the paper is to identify the key barriers to an efficient operation of knowledge creation and transfer and innovation networks in the Aeronautical Industrial Cluster in Campania Region, in the south of Italy. In Campania there is a long tradition in this sector and today there are about sixty enterprise that work in the sector, we use, like sample of the regional industrial, fifteen enterprise subdivide in large primer contractor and suppliers of first and second range. Information and data on the selected sample are colleted, and also by suitable questionnaires, and interviews, that the authors have submitted to the entrepreneurs and to the top managers of either the enterprises. We focalize our analysis on firm recent performance and related factor of competitiveness; organizational characteristics of the firms, competencies and management of human resources; innovation history and knowledge creation and transfer processes within the firms; finally we analyze from qualitative point of view relevance of enterprise in the cluster like technological crux. Examined sample give back a realty extremely composed with strategy really different but with some common aim and operative behaviourism that let us to deduce some homogenous group.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p643&r=geo
  283. By: Manuel Romero-Hernandez; Hugo Salgado
    Abstract: In this article we use four different indices to measure cost performance of the European Airline Industry. By using the number of routes as an indicator of Network Size, we are able to estimate indicators of Economies of Scale and Spatial Scope. By estimating total and variable cost functions we are also able to calculate an index of the excess capacity of the firms. For this purpose, we use data from the years 1984 to 1998, a period during which several deregulation measures were imposed on the European airline industry. Some of the implications of this deregulation process for the cost performance of the industry are presented and discussed. Our results suggest that in the year 1998, almost all the firms had Economics of Density in their existing networks, while several of the firms also had Economies of Scale and Economies of Spatial Scope. All of the firms had excess capacity of fixed inputs. These results support our hypothesis that fusion, alliance, and merger strategies followed by the principal European airlines after 1998 are not just explained by marketing strategies, but also by the cost structure of the industry.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p905&r=geo
  284. By: Tomaz Dentinho; David Bedo
    Abstract: Islands are one of the most important destinations for tourism and leisure. However, islands exhibit different levels of attractiveness in the course of time and comparing with other islands. The objective of this paper is to analyze this subject for the Archipelago of the Azores, using gravity models and the travel cost method. The study aims to understand different performances along time and between islands caused by changes in the supply side (e.g. number of hotel beds, animation activities, events, etc.). The regression analysis includes two moments: it starts with the calibration of attractiveness; in a second moment it is focused in answering the question “what affects attractiveness?â€. Beyond its introduction and conclusions, the study is divided into three main parts: model explanation; application of the analytical concepts for the Azores islands; and finally, the analysis of the most relevant results.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p162&r=geo
  285. By: Nikolaos Triantafyllopoulos
    Abstract: It is generally considered that property is by far the largest store of wealth, and development economics suggests that property markets are the bedrock for economic development. Countries make efforts to promote national and international real estate investors and enterprises. Real estate markets are mainly organized by the State through institutional frameworks and practices. In this paper, we focus on the reasons for real estate market low transparency and effects on tourism investments in Greece through a systemic analysis of the property development process. National or international real estate investors encounter an unfamiliar environment in which they find themselves in a difficult position due to low real estate transparency. Specifically: - Absence of financial benchmarks; - Lack of historical or current market statistics; - Financial statements of listed vehicles that are neither detailed nor standardized according to International Accounting Standards; - Urban, regional and environmental planning procedures and codes that are not clear; - Situations where local assistance or under-the-table payments are required to navigate the investment/development/management process; - Lack of title insurance; - Environment in which government or public utilities change urban development status and regulations, introducing risk. Tourism is considered by the Greek State as the most promising economic sector of the country. Tourism Development Co., created in 1998, is a state-owned company that has undertaken to develop and revitalize the assets owned by the Hellenic Tourism Organization located in the most privileged sites of the country (large land plots for development, casinos, marinas, hotels, health clubs, etc.) by the mobilization both of international and national funds. Tourism Development Co, as a State-owned company, is a relevant case to study State transparency, real estate market transparency and international investors’ attitudes and practices, through examining specific projects of property development and privatization.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p545&r=geo
  286. By: Julia Darby; Anton Muscatelli; Graeme Roy
    Abstract: In this paper we examine how sub-central governments respond to significant changes in their grant allocations. We focus on the reactions of State, Regional and Local governments in fifteen countries over a period of 20 to 30 years to significant exogenous increases and decreases in their grant allocations. We observe that when grants are cut, sub-central governments respond by cutting spending on their wage bill and, disproportionately, on capital expenditure. Therefore, while centrally imposed cuts do result in expenditure restraint at the sub-central level, the composition of the adjustment appears to suffer from short-termism. In addition, our results suggest that sub-central politicians seek to further defend current spending programs by significantly increasing local/regional taxation. In contrast, during periods of significant expansions in grants, these revenues remain constant with the full extent of the grants increase passed on to current expenditures. Taken together these two results imply a kind of asymmetric 'fly-paper’ effect. Finally, we trace the different responses of governments according to their degree of expenditure decentralisation and tax and borrowing autonomy.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p508&r=geo
  287. By: Francesco Citarella
    Abstract: After eighteen months of intense preparation and work, in April 2003 the signing of MEMORANDUM OF COOPERATIVE RESEARCH between the NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION’S REGIONAL HEADQUARTERS ALLIED FORCES SOUTHERN EUROPE (AFSOUTH) and the DEPARTMENT FOR STUDIES ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND TERRITORY (DISAT) of the UNIVERSITY OF SALERNO was finalised. Within the framework of cooperation set up between NATO (AFSOUTH – NAPOLI) and DiSAT, we have been invited to carry out activities of study and research regarding the complex social, economic and security problems in Kosovo. Therefore, with the aim of contributing to the consolidation of the process of peace and development in Kosovo, interdisciplinary research has been carried out in the Region last September, preliminary to the drawing up of a REPORT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN KOSOVO. The concept of security, traditionally seen from a purely military perspective, has gradually grown to embrace economic aspects, political-cultural aspects as well as others of a different nature. To guarantee security, then, means not so much or at least, not only, to increase the weight of traditional power factors but rather to reduce to a minimum the conditions of specific vulnerability. Functional to this aim would be to achieve an accurate analysis in order to consent the recommending of such actions that could avoid the most critical and dangerous union of forces. A return to the study then of the problems that encourage these phenomena, their dimension and collocation in space appears to be the longest and most laborious way but also the only one possible. An analysis of the present day economic and political questions in the region must not neglect, furthermore, the considerable imbalances existing in the region between population and uses of the resources. Infact, the report, after having indicated the principal lines of development, follows with the formulation of projects well inserted into a strategic framework, so as to overcome the gap existing between plans, programmes, laws and recommendations on the one hand and real capacity and determination to succeed on the other.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p696&r=geo
  288. By: Yakup Egercioglu
    Abstract: The concept of property, since the beginning of its existence, has played a fundamental role in social life both in physical and moral aspects. That is the point where the issue becomes that much important. In Turkey especially for the last 40 years there has been a massive migration from the rural areas to the urban ones. In parallel with this rapid urbanization, it has been reported by the DIE (State Statistics Institution) that Turkey’s population increase rates are expected to decrease gradually and by the 2050’s the total population is expected to reach and stabilize as 100 million people. This projection of a stable population structure, government policies aligned with this projection, for example issues taken into the agenda like the renewal of the “gecekondu†areas within the next 10 years; these are all some certain clues for the forthcoming stabilization of the urban improvement and future significance of the concept “urban renewalâ€. For this reason the research will focus on the concept “property†which is an effective factor in the urban renewal projects. Property ownership is the most important parameter we face while working on urban renewal projects. Readjustment of property relations imposes certain responsibilities upon the planner. However within the planned period, Development Acts do not envisage an obligation for the planner regarding the matter of property during the preparation of development plans. Furthermore, legislation creates unequal states and makes it extremely hard to readjustment of the property relations and to implement development plans. Preparation process and implementation stage of the development plans are executed in the same manner traditionally. In brief, this proposal, assuming that the preparation and implementation processes of the plans will stay same, studies the effects of urban renewal projects on the property relations and makes suggestions. In brief, for the last 40 years there has been a development plan challenge in Turkey. Plans made without taking the social requirements and demands into consideration are continuously amended via revising localized development plans and results are strange even to the planner himself. Enacted construction pardons have increased the density on the urban areas and invalidated the prepared plans. In such an environment some immovable owners are rewarded while others are fined in a way. For that reason following measures shall be taken: •Concepts of permanent or temporary utilization right and habitation right shall be discussed with a new property definition perspective. Besides regulations must be issued concerning the prevention of land value increases through development plans. •Turkey’s development acts shall be revised and legislation creating unequal status regarding the property rights shall be abrogated. •A new development plan technique, urban design projects and semi public sphere concepts shall be adopted.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p34&r=geo
  289. By: Rossella Murgolo
    Abstract: Over the last few years, the European Union has much stressed both the increasing efficiency of passengers and goods' mobility and ports representing crucial links in the whole transport network. Recent documents by the European Commission have largely dealt with European policies on transports trying to find the means to guarantee a free and fair competition both among different ports and for different competitor transport modes to match management and charging in European ports. This paper aims to find the ports and sea infrastructures in the South of Italie, with respect to Naples port, with a view to realize some recovery works, seen by a juridical and cheap poin of view. The paper, leaving from the competitive analysis of big reconversions of the ports at national and international level, analyses the passengers traffic in order to determine a model of development of the Naples port.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p631&r=geo
  290. By: Lobianco, Antonello; Roberto, Esposti
    Abstract: AgriPoliS is a multi-agent mixed integer linear programming (MIP) model, spatially explicit, developed in C++ language and suitable for long-term simulations of agricultural policies. Once extended to deal with typical characters of the Mediterranean agriculture, AgriPoliS is used in this paper to describe the implementation of alternative policy cenarios and to apply them to two regions located in Central and South Italy. Results suggest that the effects of decoupling policies in the Mediterranean agriculture, as implemented in the 2003 reform, are often dominated by effects of structural trends and only a "bond scheme" would substantially change the regional farm structures. In no scenario we observe remarkable agricultural land abandonment.
    Keywords: Mediterranean Agriculture; Common Agricultural Policy; Multi-Agent Model
    JEL: Q12 C61 Q18
    Date: 2006–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:1182&r=geo
  291. By: Nikolaos Kolios
    Abstract: Migration increased tremendously after the 1960s and migrants went to more destinations than before. This fuelled a public discussion over the consequences of migration in the receiving societies. The discussion concerns primarily the economic integration of immigrants and focuses on their high levels of unemployment and low socio-economic status, which are basic aspects of economic incorporation of immigrants. Moreover, local contexts are expected, due to differences in economic structure, labour market characteristics as well as immigrant population size and composition to affect the economic incorporation of immigrants. Immigrant economic incorporation is gradually acknowledged as a problem in Greece. The later belongs to the ‘new’ immigration countries of the EU and has experienced recent and mass migration. Additionally there is considerable evidence that space features different contexts for the economic incorporation of immigrants in Greece. Literature illustrates different predictors at the level of receiving contexts. Theories regarding the effects of relative immigrant group size on employment argue about different mechanisms. They stress on competing factors such as perceived threat on behalf of the natives and social capital networks that furnish employment for immigrants. Other theories underscore the importance of contextually varying factors such as economic and labour market characteristics namely economic advancement and share of informal activities, rate of unemployment, income inequality and immigrant employment in vulnerable economic sectors or urban labour markets. In this project we use census pooled data and multilevel regression techniques to assess the effects of local contexts on economic incorporation of immigrants in Greece. We test hypotheses regarding the effect of local economic and labour market characteristics as well as immigrant community size on employment and socio-economic status. On the basis of the findings we draw a number of conclusions about economic incorporation of immigrants in Greece.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p54&r=geo
  292. By: Mika Haapanen; Hannu Tervo
    Abstract: An interesting, but yet largely unstudied question concerns migration behaviour in different labour markets from the point of view of duration. How long are residenece spells? Why do some migrants move quite soon after the move, while others stay for a long time? How do personal and family characteristics account for differences in residence spells and repeat migration? Does earlier migration experience or other prior activity or experience explain for this? What is the role of labour market conditions and other region-specific factors? This paper deals with migration behaviour in Finland in 1987-2002. Migration will be analyzed in a duration-model context where movement is seen as terminating an observed residence spell. The data set is based on a Longitudinal Census File and the Longitudinal Employment Statistics File constructed by Statistics Finland. Since 1987, the two basic files are updated annually. These two register-based data sets, together with some other registers, provide panel data on each resident of Finland, from which a 7 per cent random sample bas been taken for this study. The longitudinal data allow us to observe changes of residence and the length of spells remaining in new location. The data set is very rich including hundreds and hundreds of variables for each year. The individual level panel data will be transformed and pooled into a sample of residence spells that began during the period 1988-2001. The maximum of the observed duration of possibly right-censored residence spells if fourteen years. The duration data is interval censored (grouped) – the status of residence spell is only observed at the end of each year. Therefore, discrete time representation for the hazard rate is used. Duration dependence is measured with a set of covariates. Depending on the character of the covariate, the measurement time varies among the variables: some covariates such as sex or parental variables do not change in time, some are measured on year before the residence spell or at the outset of the spell, and the rest such as age, level of education, marital status, family size and regional unemployment are treated as time-varying.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p379&r=geo
  293. By: Ramiro Gil-Serrate; Julio Lopez-Laborda
    Abstract: This paper is an empirical sequel to our previous theoretical analysis of the relationship between tax decentralisation and economic growth. Taking such theoretical work as a point of departure, we ask whether the process of fiscal decentralisation experienced by the Spanish economy since the early eighties supports our main findings. Following recent analytical considerations for fiscal decentralisation measurement, several revenue decentralisation indicators for the Spanish case are proposed. According with the results, we might conclude that revenue control decentralisation to lower levels of government in Spain has generated a positive effect on economic growth. JEL classification: C32; H77;O47
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p214&r=geo
  294. By: Panagiotis Getimis; Nikolaos Hlepas
    Abstract: The fragmentation of local government structures (more than 120 municipalities), combined with the traditional ‘sectoral federalism’ within a centralist state, the lack of visible democratic legitimacy and political responsibility for the whole region, could not foster the implementation of coherent policies for the metropolitan area of Athens. For a long period, the rising socioeconomic complexity combined to a growing deficit of social capital and urban identity, as well as to several self-referential organizations and particularistic interests had led to a series of failures and blockades. The governability-problems of Athens have been a legend for many years. Economic recovery and an unprecedented mobilization due to the city’s nomination for the Olympic Games (in 1996), gave new hope to citizens and stakeholders that had continually been frustrated. Large-scaled projects (with pressing needs for private capital and expertise), a growing voluntary sector and self-confident local leaders shaped new, more “open†networks of metropolitan policies. The success of new, result-oriented metropolitan coalitions in and for Athens has in deed been remarkable: The “face and the image of the city†has drastically changed, while the achievement of effectively organizing the games in a small country should not be under-estimated. The “mega-project†of the Games created a strong public awareness, new platforms and new agendas of public deliberation. During the games, the city revealed the “hidden treasure†of Athenian civil society that proved to be much stronger than expected. Soon after, the need to conceptualize a ‘modern’ scheme of metropolitan governance became a part of the political debate. The need for metropolitan reform is widely accepted but public debate on alternative scenarios seems to postpone the starting point. For the moment, the danger of a “back to normal businessâ€-effect is growing. An environment of non-continuity and disruption, distrust and non-transparency seems to rise again. How could the perspective of metropolitan integration through governance be still kept alive in Athens? How are the positive effects of “mega-projects†for metropolitan governance to be evaluated and further advantaged in cases like the one of Athens?
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p845&r=geo
  295. By: Jan Capek; Iva Ritschelova
    Abstract: The e-government should start with electronic collaboration of governmental departments. Several services, like email, video conference, discussion forums, use of shared documents, etc. should be supported for assisting the efficient and productive collaboration of remote governmental departments. Since the functionality of the provided services is well known, no detailed description of each service phase is provided. The services for citizens are offered through so called governmental portals. The typical use of a governmental portal is to provide information to the citizens and to support several types of citizen–government transactions (e.g. issuing birth certificates, submitting tax forms, conducting electronic payments, etc.). These services open security requirements for an e-Government platform. Their compilation has been based on the security requirements derived for each independent service suite, for the Authentication processes.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p361&r=geo
  296. By: I. Gidarakou; Eleni Dimopoulou; R. Lagogianni; S. Sotiropoulou
    Abstract: Retaining young people in rural areas is a crucial factor in regional development since they are considered to be the most important human capital asset especially in promoting endogenous development. Retaining young women is of outmost importance as women leave more often than men rural areas due to factors such as the existing hierarchical structure in agricultural labour and the masculinisation of economic and leisure activities in such areas. The ‘young farmers’ EU programme, managed in Greece by the Ministry of Rural Development & Food, aims at improving the age structure in rural areas, attracting young people (up to 40 years old) to agriculture and, finally, retaining young people in rural areas. For young women, such a programme may provide a chance to empower their position within the household, become professional farmers, participate in decision-making within cooperatives and other bodies involved in agriculture and thus in decisions related to agricultural policy, and to participate as dynamic actors in the rural development process. In the frame of a wider research project concerning young women farmers in the West Macedonia region, Greece, despite a general trend indicating that young women entered the ‘young farmers’ programme as farm managers but do not actually overcome the traditional role as farmer wives or daughters, a nucleus of young women active in agriculture with a positive attitude towards farming is also found. The present paper focuses on the later category. Their occupational trajectories since the time they finished school, their entrance and role in farming, their participation in collective bodies as well as their attitude towards the ‘young farmers’ programme as related to gender are presented and discussed. Data were drawn through a survey and, mainly, in-depth interviews, acquired within the aforementioned research project. The aim of the paper is to develop a critical view of on-going policies and policy instruments and thus to highlight the need for spatially and socially targeted research which would, in turn, facilitate the optimal implementation of the ‘young farmers’ programme along with the empowerment of young women in the family farm and the public image of farming and thus the re-orientation of the attitudes of, no matter how small, a number of women towards agriculture
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p936&r=geo
  297. By: Aikaterini Kokkinou
    Abstract: Technology is apparently one of the main determining sources of productivity and economic growth and there is a huge literature on productivity, growth and innovation. This paper is aiming to review the main topics related to productivity, growth and innovation activities. In particular, the paper is also aiming to apply some econometric models, in order to estimate the effects of innovation activities to productivity growth in EU member states and to conclude to some safe results and policy implications.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p452&r=geo
  298. By: Pavlos Kanaroglou; D.M. Scott; A. Paez; K.B. Newbold; H.F. Maoh
    Abstract: As in other developed countries, Canada’s population is aging. In fact, by 2026, approximately 21% of Canadians will be at least 65 years old – an increase of almost 9% from 2001. In absolute terms, the elderly population is expected to grow from 3.935 mi
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p946&r=geo
  299. By: Naftaly Goldshlger; Vladimir Mirlas; Eyal Ben Dor; Mor Eshel
    Abstract: Numerous cultivated fields are prone to salinization processes, mostly as a result of the use of low quality irrigation water. The degradation of soils in the Jezra’el Valley, one of Israel's most important agricultural areas, is a good example to this phenomenon. In this area, increasing salinity caused by irrigation with domestic effluent water was observed. An increase in the soil salinity is followed with an increase in the soil SAR, that deteriorate soil structure and infiltration rate. The main reason of soil salinization near local water reservoirs is the transition from seasonal reservoirs of winter flood water to an annual water reservoir that collect domestic effluents as well. As a result an increase of the fields water table in the vicinity of the reservoir is evident. This complicated phenomenon emphasizes the importance of testing and mapping the changes in the soil properties caused by irrigation with low water quality to improve the soil and water management in arid regions and prevent the adverse effect to the environment. Soil sampling to determine changes in soil salinity is time consuming. An alternative method is suggested based on remote sensing methodology. In each of the research sites chemical data such as, EC and SAR were acquired from analysis of soil samples and from remote sensing data, using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electromagnetic Conductivity & Susceptibility (EM). All the mentioned data were applied to GIS analysis. Within the agricultural land, a geo-referenced data base of the changes in the soil's salinity was built, allowing us to map and predict the salinization phenomena for optimal management of the soil salinization processes. The primary spectroscopic results showed that the main mineral found in the soil profile (0-60 cm) were gypsum and sodium chlorite. The primary GPR and EM results showed that there is a possibility to identified buried layers and to observed lateral and vertical changes in the soils profiles.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p23&r=geo
  300. By: Paschalis Arvanitidis
    Abstract: Over the last years the issue of property market efficiency has attracted increasing attention in both academic and professional research. Yet, the concept of property market efficiency is poorly developed and inadequately theorised. The conventional approaches (i.e. ‘allocative efficiency’ and ‘efficient market hypothesis’) provide flawed and ambiguous judgements as they assess efficiency with reference to idealised benchmarks, they do not take into account the intrinsic characteristics and dynamic process of the property market and they are artificially dissociated from important operational issues. In turn, institutionalist attempts to articulate more refined and pragmatic conceptualisations of property market efficiency, while they have provided useful insights, remain methodologically underdeveloped and incomplete. Building on the latter approaches the current paper explores a possible way to evaluate the effectiveness of the property market in delivering a combination of outcomes that will generate and/or sustain urban economic development. This provides the basis for the development of the idea of a ‘purpose efficient property market’. To achieve this, two theoretical devices are developed: ‘institutional uncertainty’ and ‘institutionalised variety’. Institutional uncertainty assesses the quality of the wider (urban) institutional arrangements and reflects how effectively the urban socioeconomy adapts to pressures and provides a secure economic environment. Institutionalised variety evaluates particular institutions, in this case the property market, in terms of diversity in institutions, organisations, and products provided. Such a micro-level variety is deemed necessary both for the system to reproduce itself through time and for macro dynamics to be successfully sustained. In that sense, macroeconomic order and relative stability are reinforced alongside, and arise upon, variety and diversity at the micro-level. Putting the arguments together, the property market purpose efficiency is understood with reference to the market’s ability to match ‘institutionalised variety’ to the level of ‘institutional uncertainty’ that the wider urban institutional environment exhibits. In that sense, a purpose efficient property market allocates optimal resources to institutionalised variety, given the level of uncertainty the wider institutional environment carries, and thereby delivers the property products that the economy requires at the prevailing price.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p567&r=geo
  301. By: Mercy Escalante-Ludena
    Abstract: This paper presents breakthroughs of the proposal for a methodology to develop innovation networks with virtual links. It considers stages of analysis, design, implementation and follow up and can be applied to both large companies and SMEs. Fragmented approaches have predominance in literature, for this reason we want to close that gap somehow, within the framework of a systemic, dynamic, organic, and transparent approach. The methodology values the already existing contributions, from which new elements have been added, specially the support of electronic networks (ICT). We consider that innovation in networks must transcend spatial frontiers, thus considering virtual links since they turn the organizations faster and more flexible, therefore facilitating a more efficient access to information and knowledge; considered the key aspects in today’s interactive innovation process. The research methodology was bibliographical, documental, and exploratory.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p881&r=geo
  302. By: George Halkos
    Abstract: This paper uses a dynamic panel data for 23 OECD and 50 non-OECD countries for the time period 1960-1990 in order to estimate the relationship between economic development (in the form of GDP) and environmental pollution (in the form of sulphur emissions)
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p527&r=geo
  303. By: Forni Andrea; Olivetti Ivano; Frenquellucci Ferdinando; Regina Pasquale; Scipioni Federica; Di Giampietro Federica
    Abstract: The study deepens the problem list in the application of the VAS and the new procedures relative EMAS II° to industrial areas e/o territorial organizations, and it analyzes some cases of study. The cases of study analyzed are those of the district of Solofra and the area ASI in Trapani in south Italy, and Prato in centre Italy, The objective principals of the project are integral part of the project LIFE-SIAM 2005: to define to analyze the degree of vertical integration (from the directive UEs to the local actions) and horizontal (from the partenariato for the governance to the forums of AG21L) of the principles of the sustainability and the governance in the territory beginning from the location and management of the industrial areas; the analysis of the methods experimented of shared territorial planning of the development, based on an approach multidisciplinary, comprendente partenariato, planning, evaluation and monitoring; the analysis of the levels of know managerial how and necessary planning development of a collaborative climate and of effective relationships among the Local Authorities, the citizens, the productive system, the experts and the scientific world; the analysis of the necessary professional dimensions and applications with the purpose to form new subject responsible and figures professional able to plan and to manage the governance and the sustainable development beginning from the industrial areas. The project as defined a new Model of Industrial Sustainable Area. These objectives of analysis will be pursued through the verification on the field of the state of application, the adaptation and the integration of different community tools of environmental politics, what the Evaluation Environmental Strategy (VAS), ex Directive 2001/42/CE and the EMAS, ex Rule 761/2001/CE, in the procedures of governance effected on the territory. The study intends to give a contribution to show the difficulties attuative in to integrate different voluntary community tools inside models as the governance, or of policy as the sustainable development, and to allow one innovative approach of theirs, how much more possible inserted in the planning and territorial management. The study as experimented the application of the Model in the case study.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p9&r=geo
  304. By: Zoltan Bajmocy
    Abstract: The idea of setting up university business incubators (UBIs) has recently gained attention in the less favoured regions of the new entrants of the European Union. But the foreign best practices almost always derive from highly developed regions, which makes them difficult to adapt. In the lagging behind regions universities are unable to accomplish such a project without local government support and EU subsidies. Thus university business incubation can and must be interpreted as a local economic development tool. The main objective of present paper is to answer the question whether a UBI programme can be successful in a less favoured region of a transition country or not, and which are the main peculiarities that have to be considered when adapting the patterns of more developed regions. Raising the question is underlain by the observation that the international literature of business incubation pays little attention to the problem of the necessity and feasibility of incubation. First we review the most important findings of literature on UBI’s contribution to the enhancement of local university-industry relations with a special emphasis on the service providing function and the spin-off process. Second we interpret the results of an empirical analysis carried out in the Szeged sub-region, Hungary. We examined the expectations of local SMEs towards university-related incubation on a sample of 170. We supplemented this by analysing the entrepreneurial motivations of the students and, as a new feature, PhD students of the University of Szeged on samples of 286 and 134. Moreover we examined the sparse process of spin-off formation with interviews. The attitudes of local SMEs towards incubation are rather heterogeneous but some characteristic patterns can be identified. The analysis of students and PhD students and the interviews reinforced the hypothesis that incubation can only be the second step in enhancing the local knowledge commercialization, a well-developed pre-incubation strategy must be implemented prior to that. In the concluding part on the basis of the literature review and the empirical analysis we point out the factors which are necessary to consider in our opinion when planning and managing a UBI project in a less favoured region.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p190&r=geo
  305. By: M. Oguz Sinemillioglu; Mine Baran
    Abstract: Since the beginning of 1950’s the migration of population from countryside to cities constitutes a subject as an important part of demographic changing on its own. Since the second half of 1970’s, especially domestic migration from the small and medium size cities to big cities, by turning into family migration became dense in the three big metropolises in west. (Ãstanbul, Ankara, Ãzmir). In 1990’s both the migration from east and Southeast Anatolia to other regions and the obligatory migration inside the region have been added to elements which effect movement of population. While this changing, which occurs in the dynamics of domestic migration during the time, does not exist in most of present researches, one of the other absence is social sex viewpoint. In the studies about migration, the lack of social sex viewpoint is not peculiar only to Turkey but also it seems limited in international literature. Present studies show there are important differences between women and men in the point of migration causes, participation to migration process, experiences during this process and effects of migration, attitudes and reactions of immigrants. In the core of these differences there are, collaboration inside the family between woman and man and parallel to this, social roles of woman and man, which described by customs and traditions. Women’ life relating to migration is generally closely related to their situations in family as a wife, a mother or a young girl about to marry. The relations between them and both the places they left and they just came is formed in this base. Consequently, in a migration process, which includes a social and place changing, identity of sex has an important role as much as socio-economic class, culture, ethnic or national identity. G.A.P. Region which is in the Southeast of our developing country has a village-city appearance by the effects of both many side social, physiological, economic and urban destruction which created by terror and fight and generally the feudal structure in the region, extreme poverty, lack of top and underground structure and the political and economic choices which does not mind about neighborhood values. This work has aimed at examine to migration which is one of the most important social fact in the world we live in the context of woman and urbanization and to expose the appearance of women in extent of G.A.P. region in domestic immigration…
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p754&r=geo
  306. By: Paolo Buonanno (Department of Economics, University of Bergamo); Leone Leonida (Department of Economics, Queen Mary University of London)
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of education on criminal activity in Italy. We propose a theoretical framework to determine the effects of education and past incidence of crime on criminal activity, and we test its predictions using annual data for the twenty Italian regions over the period 1980-1995. The results show that education is negatively correlated with delinquency and that crime rates display persistence over time. Our results are robust to model specifications and endogeneity.
    Keywords: Crime; Education; Panel Data
    JEL: I2 J24 K42
    Date: 2005–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:brg:wpaper:0503&r=geo
  307. By: Christos Th. Kousidonis
    Abstract: The plans of the ‘Thessaloniki International Trade Fair (TIF) SA’ to develop the area occupied by the facilities of the Trade Fair ignited a strong debate. The TIF SA was established in 1925 and the General Trade Fair, as it came to be called, organised on an annual basis, has since become a major event for the city of Thessaloniki and its region. The activities of the TIF SA expanded in a wide range of related activities. On the other hand, the General Trade Fair is currently facing very serious competition. The General Trade Fair takes place in facilities located in an 18-ha property of which TIF SA is the sole proprietor. This property, roughly located at the geometric centre of the city, is part of a wider, ribbon-like, zone extending from the sea front to the grove surrounding the city, comprised of public open spaces and low ratio of floor-space-to-plot areas, occupied by educational, cultural, recreational, sports and exhibition activities of at least city scale importance, and owned by the public sector. Proposals for relocating the General Trade Fair first appeared in 1985. For as long as Thessaloniki was a candidate for the 2008 EXPO, the TIF SA was seriously considering relocating the Trade Fair to one of its properties outside Thessaloniki. Last fall, the TIF SA announced preliminary plans for renovating the facilities in the centre and, in the process, intensifying the use of its property mainly with a hotel, movie theatres and new retail facilities. On the other side, major actors, including the Mayor, clearly oppose to these plans. The conflict generates debate and scenarios revolving around two apparent extremes: Adoption of the TIF SA proposal or redevelopment of the wider, ribbon-like, zone with priority given to the public open spaces and the pedestrian. If Thessaloniki or the TIF SA were to eventually prepare a dossier for the 2015 EXPO, the situation might call for drastic proposals encompassing new plans for the city and its region, economies of scale and concentration regarding the exhibition-related activities, and the make-up of the image of the city.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p588&r=geo
  308. By: Escobal, Javier
    Abstract: This Study provides a conceptual framework to study the impact of rural infrastructure investment in market development and in the enhancement of income generating opportunities for the poor in rural Peru. The study uses descriptive methods and regression analysis together with relatively new impact evaluation techniques, like propensity score matching, to understand the causal paths through which the access to new or improved infrastructure services affect the livelihood strategies and livelihood outcomes of rural households. The data sources included in this study include regional time series data, several cross-section household level data sets coming from rural representative Living Standard Measurement Surveys; a household panel data set coming from the same source, together with specialized surveys developed by the author. The analysis shows that there are important complementarities in rural infrastructure investment. That is, even if any particular infrastructure investment (related to roads, electricity, telecommunication, water, or sanitation services) may be subject to diminishing returns, if done in isolation, this effect can be overcome if it is done in combination with other investments. In this way it is possible to get a sustained growth effect on rural incomes from infrastructure investment. The study shows that infrastructure investments reduce transaction costs and enhances the opportunities for spatial arbitrage, paving the way for improving market efficiency. However, the study warns that efficiency and equity gains may not occur simultaneously, because those that are better off in rural areas may obtain higher returns to infrastructure investments because of a larger private asset base or because of a better access to other public infrastructure.
    Keywords: Peru; rural infrastructure; poverty; economic geography; rural roads; impact evaluation; non-agricultural employment
    JEL: I38 D23 R12 Q13 O18
    Date: 2005–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:727&r=geo
  309. By: David Meintrup; Chang Woon Nam
    Abstract: This study identifies the shadow market area of air pollutants based on the Gaussian plume model. Since pollutants are dispersed by wind, transport costs are irrelevant in its formation. Pollutant distribution on the ground level has an asymmetric bell-shape in the wind direction. Apart from the linear functions, the exponential and quadratic shadow price functions are considered for the compensation of health hazard of consumers, when the strict liability in the framework of Coase theorem applies. The shadow market area for pollutants is shell-shaped. This specific characteristic has an implication for market boundaries between polluters and their location decisions.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p412&r=geo
  310. By: Dorothea Papathanassiou-Zuhrt; Odysseas Sakellarides
    Abstract: Natural und cultural heritage is commonly recognized as the major capital for sustainable tourism development. Many rural regions throughout Europe (UK, Germany, Switzerland, Italy), recognised the necessity to investigate widespread shortcomings and factors of success for the valorisation of local and regional heritage. Transinterpret I has been a successfully implemented transnational cooperation within the framework of C.I. Leader II that has established standards and recommendations concerning the quality of heritage presentation in a recreational learning environment. Transinterpret managed to improve practical applications in the field of heritage interpretation, especially in a visitor-friendly heritage presentation field with cognitive tools, validated by praxis and data. Projects and applications within Transinterpret are planned according to the standards and recommendations of a dynamically evolving database and are subjected to professional evaluation offered by checklists of the partner database and highly specialized human resources. The development of an international quality label for a visitor-centric Heritage Interpretation and further development of topics and planning issues related with interpretation as a sub-discipline of heritage management has been also a significant aim of the Transinterpret. In 2006 Greece has entered the second phase of Transinterpret - Transinterpret II. Priorities regarding tourism planning at local and regional level were -a novel form of managing heritage resources in order to create high added value tourism products, a wiser distribution of tourism expenditure, the creation of a distinct heritage tourism identity, which would not be conceived as an exchangeable commodity at global level. Creating and “exporting†place identity and place attachment was also a significant motive for Greek partners (Ipiros, Aitoloakarnania, Olympia, Drama, Xanthi, Rodopi, Kozani and Kastoria) to enter the cooperation. Being sustained by a Competence Centre operating nationwide, Greek partners will dynamically contribute to an innovative heritage management in their areas as well as in the partner areas. Through cognitive processing of information with tourism value and leisure time management in recreational learning environments for non captive audiences the partners aim to create attractive interpretive products and services, which would guarantee them visitor satisfaction, multipliers at local and regional level and a distinctive image confirmed by the Transinterpret II logo.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p653&r=geo
  311. By: Konstantinos Lalenis; Elias Beriatos
    Abstract: Cultural reproduction is one of the main prerogatives to determine behavioural interaction between immigrants and their host environment. And in turn, cultural reproduction mainly develops within a framework of urban conditions, policies and substructures aimed to provide for residence, mobility and transportation, education and information, health and social services, and leisure, cultural and athletic activities. A major challenge nowadays for urban planning and urban governance is to incorporate in its processes the new dynamics created by increasing migration, and secure for immigrants all the above in an acceptable quality –that in essence is fostering their human rights. Greece has been traditionally a source of outgoing migration until early ´90s, when the collapse of the neighbouring communist regimes and the destabilization of the Middle East made it a destination of migration, mainly coming through its northern and eastern borders. According to the Greek legislation, immigrants who arrived and resided in Greece since late ´80s and after the collapse of the socialist states in Europe can be distinguished in two categories: the ones of Greek origin and the ones without it. And one could see a clear difference in policies aiming to accommodate the “repatriating Greeks†in their new environment, than the ones targeted to the other immigrants, the former being more in variety, more elaborated and better financed than the latter. This paper will examine the policies and projects related to providing immediate and intermediate shelter and permanent housing for the refugees, the up to now outcomes of these policies, and their repercussions for human rights of immigrants. Aim of the paper is to relate these policies to the current urban planning and governance framework –and hence to the dominant ideological and political currents and their repercussions for human rights-, to evaluate the outcomes of these policies as it concerns the effects on immigrant well-being, and to attempt conclusions for reassessment of the Greek urban planning system with an effect on immigration, seen in a broader theoretical framework covering EU, the MENA countries, and the wider Balkan area.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p553&r=geo
  312. By: Tomoyasu Tanaka
    Abstract: Due to the current fiscal crisis faced by many Japanese local governments, we decided to conduct research to assist local governments in reducing costs, by reviewing previous studies, as well as investigate the factors affecting wasteful expenditure. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of local governments in Japan, applying an econometric technique. Further, we calculate indices of cost efficiency using the stochastic cost frontier method. For the purpose of this research we have focused specifically on city areas of municipal governments to examine whether or not information technology contributes to cost efficiency. The hypotheses that we tested were whether or not, the use of information technology equipment and outsourcing of information technology operations by local governments would result in greater cost efficiency. The results show that outsourcing information technology operations increases cost efficiency.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p234&r=geo
  313. By: Ana Salome Garcia Muniz; Antonio Morillas Raya; Carmen Ramos Carvajal
    Abstract: The determination of key sectors (Perroux, 1955; Hirschman, 1958) has raised a long tradition of studies in the input-output field. Their analysis allows the identification of those sectors has a high effect in the demand and supply of the system and therefore, they constitute the basis of the growth and development of a territory. With the aim of standing out those sectors with a more relevant position in the economy, we propose from the network theory a definition of centrality that we consider it is new new in the input-output field. This definition is based in the consideration of three complementary characteristics: total effects, mediative effects and inmediate effects. These measures called for us multilevel indicators have the enormous advantage of allowing the comparison between structures of different size and approach the key sector concept thorough a relational and global view.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p514&r=geo
  314. By: Roberta Capello; Barbara Chizzolini; Ugo Fratesi
    Abstract: The paper presents the second step of an ambitious research project, which has the aim to provide territorial scenarios of the New Europe in 15 years, developed under different hypotheses on the most important driving forces of change in the fields of economy, demographic, society, technology and institutions. The first step was presented last year at the ERSA conference in Amsterdam. In that occasion, the paper dealt with the econometric model (labelled MASST – Macroeconomic, social, sectoral and territorial model) built for the forecasting activity, presenting its strengths and weaknesses and the main results obtained by the estimates of the model. In this paper the additional work is presented, and the main conceptual and methodological steps forward analysed. In particular, the aims of the paper are the following: - to present the main driving forces that influence the future of Europe and of its territory. These are of different nature: socio-cultural (future migration forces and future birth and death rates), institutional (deepening vs. widening of enlargement), macroeconomic (trend in the euro/$ exchange rate, trend in fiscal morality – i.e. trend in public debts, revision of the Maastricht parameters -, trend in interest rates, trend in inflation rate, geo-political orientation of FDI, rebalancing of external accounts of big emerging countries; increase in energy price), political (reforms of the structural funds and of the Community Agricultural Policy); - to present the different hypotheses under which the scenarios are built. The idea is to build three scenarios, a baseline scenario, a competitive and a cohesive scenario, and to present the differences among them; - to present the results of the simulation. The MASST model is able to provide both regional GDP growth rates and GDP levels, as well as regional population growth rates, and population levels, for the three scenarios. The model is able to provide the simulations for 27 Countries (the old 15 EU members, the new 10 Countries and Bulgaria and Romania) and for their 259 regions.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p177&r=geo
  315. By: Alam, M. Shahid
    Abstract: This paper reviews the growing body of evidence on the relative economic standing of different regions of the world in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In general, it does not find support for Eurocentric claims regarding Western Europe’s early economic lead. The Eurocentric claims are based primarily on estimates of a per capita income, which are plagued by conceptual problems, make demands on historical data that are generally unavailable, and they use questionable assumptions to reconstruct early per capita income. A careful examination of these conjectural estimates of per capita income, however, does not support claims that Western Europe had a substantial lead over the rest of the world at the beginning of the nineteenth century. An examination of several alternative indices of living standards in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries – such as real wages, labor productivity in agriculture, and urbanization – also fails to confirm claims of European superiority. In addition, this paper examines the progress of global disparities – including the presence of regional patterns – using estimates of per capita income.
    Keywords: Global economy; Disparities; Regional patterns; Per capita income; Real wages; Labor productivity; Agriculture; Eurocentric
    JEL: O11 N17 N0 F54 O40 N14 N16 N15 N13 N10
    Date: 2006–12–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:1289&r=geo
  316. By: Fumitoshi Mizutani; Shuji Uranishi
    Abstract: Unlike the expressway systems of the U.S. and Europe, where road use is largely free of charge, the Japanese expressway system consists mostly of toll roads. The toll expressway system was instituted after World War II to expedite construction of a nation-wide expressway network. Originally it was intended that the system ultimately become free of charge, as soon as the national expressway network was completed and construction debts repaid. Although expressway tolls are collected based on each individual route, tolls are included in the same budget and pooled for the construction of other routes, in what is called a pool system. However, problems have occurred in such a system. Expressway users have been required to continue paying expressway tolls along trunk expressways near big cities where construction costs have long been completely repaid. Furthermore, in rural areas where the demand for expressway use is low, the system continues to construct expressways simply because rural residents expect them to be constructed. Users have also been dissatisfied with the high price of expressway use, attributing the cost to what they have perceived as the monopolistic nature of the public corporation system, which, like the former Japan National Railway, had no competition. In this environment, Prime Minister Koizumi appointed a special committee to define the role of the Japan Highway Public Corporation and to determine whether or not it should be privatized, and the issue of highway privatization became controversial in Japan. Although there were effective arguments pro and con, it was decided that the corporation be privatized. In October, 2005, the Japan Highway Public Corporation was privatized and separated into three expressway companies, and the following companies were also privatized: the Metropolitan Expressway Public Corporation, the Hanshin Expressway Public Corporation, and the Honshu-Shikoku Bridge authority. The main purpose of this study is to assess the privatization policy taken by the government. The aspects which we will especially focus on are (1) ownership, (2) regional subdivision, (3) cost structure, (4) investment behavior, (5) pricing system, (6) management and incentive system of internal organization, (7) public regulations, and (8) political intervention. We will evaluate these aspects comparing the before-privatization and after-privatization periods of the Japan Expressway Public Corporation. As the performance results of the new organization are not available yet because privatization is quite recent, our conceptual outcomes will be based on theory and the lessons learned from the privatization of the Japan National Railway.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p226&r=geo
  317. By: Daniel Felsenstein; Joseph Persky
    Abstract: The job-chains model of local labor market change is a demand-driven analytic device for estimating the effects of new job creation. This paper explores the effects of restricting supply, i.e. limiting job access, on the model’s primary outcomes: vacancy chain multipliers, welfare effects and distributional impacts. Major sources of labor supply are the local unemployed, out of the labor force and in-migrants. Three simulations are reported relating to 1) restricting new jobs to current local residents (i.e. no in-migrants), 2) restricting new jobs to current residents in the first round of hiring only and 3) restricting hiring to local unemployed/out of labor force on the first round alone. The results are compared to the basic model that assumes no supply-side restrictions. In terms of chain length, welfare effects, distributional impacts and policy palatability, first round restrictions on in-migrants would seem to be the most plausible option. However, as an economic development strategy,well targeted demand-side initiatives would still seem to be preferable.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p82&r=geo
  318. By: Henrik Orzen (School of Economics, University of Nottingham); Martin Sefton (School of Economics, University of Nottingham)
    Abstract: We conduct an experiment on price competition in a segmented market. Each segment contains one seller and one consumer, and consumers incur transportation costs when they buy from a seller located in another segment. We observe persistent price dispersion in our experimental markets with the implication that consumers frequently switch suppliers. We find that larger markets are more competitive, and that competitive pressures in large markets preclude sellers from exploiting higher consumers’ willingness to pay. We compare laboratory outcomes against several theoretical benchmarks. We find that mixed strategy equilibrium predictions from the analysis of a static model perform better than alternative benchmarks in organizing the data.
    Keywords: Spatial Price Competition; Price Dispersion; Experiments
    JEL: C72 C92
    Date: 2006–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cdx:dpaper:2006-14&r=geo
  319. By: Patrizia Riganti
    Abstract: This paper discusses the use of conjoint analysis to assess the non market impacts of tourism presence in small and medium sized European cities. It presents the methodological approach developed to this purpose within the EU funded project PICTURE (Pro-active management of the Impact of Cultural Tourism upon Urban Resources and Economies) and its application to the case of the city of Syracuse, Italy. Tourism is one of Europe’s largest economic sectors and features among the largest key industries of the 21st century and cultural tourism is one of the forms of tourism that is expected to witness the most important growth in the future. Sustainable cultural tourism strategies have the potential to assist the conservation of local identities, embedded in their respective cultural heritage, while supporting economic growth. However, tourism in cultural sites can also bring negative impacts, which need to be analyzed and assessed. Economic valuation can support decision making in this sector. This paper first discusses to what extent is possible to value in economic terms the positive and negative externalities brought by cultural tourism to heritage destinations, and which are the currently available valuation techniques. Then it focuses on how to manage destinations in a way to limit negative impacts whilst spreading the positive ones in the region. Then it reports the results of a conjoint analysis study on the city of Syracuse, Italy, carried out on a sample of residents and tourists. In particular it looks at the marginal utility associated to attributes interpreting the carrying capacity of the site. Finally, the paper focuses on the potential and limitations of conjoint analysis studies for the above purposes. Conjoint analysis is a non market valuation technique frequently used to place a value on a good. It is a stated-preference method, in the sense that it asks individuals what they would do under hypothetical circumstances, rather than observing actual behaviors on marketplaces, simulating a hypothetical market and analysing stated preferences rather than observing actual market behaviour. In a typical conjoint analysis choice individuals are asked to choose among alternative variants of a good described by a number of attributes. The alternatives differ from one another in the levels taken by two or more of the attributes. The technique assumes the choice between the alternatives is driven by the respondent’s underlying utility. Conjoint choice experiments were initially developed by Louviere and Hensher (1982) and Louviere and Woodworth (1983). Conjoint choice experiments have been widely used to value environmental and natural resources, and more recently cultural heritage. Previous research seems to confirm that the technique is flexible enough and can be successfully adapted to the assessment of policy strategies. The paper discusses the steps that should be considered when developing a conjoint choice experiment for similar purposes.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p678&r=geo
  320. By: Vito Genna
    Abstract: This report pursues the objective to define the connection that ties exploitation of the environment quality in the protected areas and the opportunities of economic and tourist development. Sicilian protected areas involve a territory full of an extraordinary variety and concentration of historical, artistic and environmental resources, so that they represent one of the main tourist attractions of the Island. Unfortunately, the Sicilian protected areas system shows serious backwardnesses, so that the prevailing image is one of wide zones in state of abandonment and degrade. It needs to start a process of investments and programmes in order to realize an integration between both the basical aims of environmental safeguard and the promotion of sustainable touristic and economic activities. The report presents a brief description of protected areas’ features, as long as considering protected territories as an instrument of local economic and social development. The second part of the paper is focused on the main features of the Sicilian protected areas system, in order to highlight the matters concerning the tourist-recreational exploitation of the protected territories in a sustainable viewpoint.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p670&r=geo
  321. By: Francesco Citarella
    Abstract: The advent of the Third Millenium, as do all periods of transition, offers the starting point for proceeding towards a new interpretation of the process of development in the field of tourism which enterprise appears to lend itself as a contribution towards the achievement of certain objectives or aims of the European Union (UE), such as the protection of the environment, sustainable development, the improvement of the quality of living standards, the overcoming of conflicts for enduring peace, the growth of European regions and of employment and not least the enacting of a policy of cohesion. During recent years numerous factors such as the globalisation of the economy, the new economy, a better functioning of a single Market and the introduction of the Euro currency have all contributed to a greater internationalisation of the streams/flows and at the same time, have obliged Member states to face new challenges, which can either constitute opportunities or risks, according to the actions which will be undertaken and according to the capacity of anticipation, programming and managing of such change. On such a premise will be founded the necessity to select an integrated policy of tourism on a communitary level which, taking into consideration the specificity of the relevant sectors, will guarantee the European Community its place as representative of the most important geographical space on the world tourist market.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p693&r=geo
  322. By: Giovanni Luca Barletta; Dino Borri; Domenico Camarda; Giovanni Circella
    Abstract: International concerns about security in transport systems are leading to a new international regulation in this field. This introduces new requirements for operators and authorities as well as it opens new challenges, in particular when referred to seaports and maritime transport in the Mediterranean area, where many seaport terminals and infrastructures are affected by a noteworthy technological divide from North European contexts. In such contexts, the adoption of the new regulations can represent the right chance for upgrading the local operative standards, increasing latu sensu the quality of maritime transport performances, while conferring a greater level to security and safety checks. This paper explores the chances for increasing the level of Mediterranean seaport competitiveness allowed by technological innovations in transport systems, both in operations and organization of these infrastructures. The aim of the work is to study the effects of the adoption of technological solutions such as wireless communications and radiofrequency identification on the competitiveness of Mediterranean seaport infrastructures. Technological solutions designed to identify good items help operators in organizing activities in terminals and make maritime transport faster in delivering goods, by cutting the handling time and costs in seaport terminals. Seaports that adopt this kind of technologies, and the surrounding economic areas connected to seaports, have a greater attractiveness on shipping companies and operators, since they allow faster handling activities and easier checks on goods. Besides, the analysis of direct and indirect effects of the use of such technologies specifically focuses on the contribution that the use of these solutions gives in ensuring higher security levels, by increasing the level of information and knowledge associated to goods. The different types of security provided (e.g. for people, environment and goods) and the extreme flexibility of the technologies involved give the overall worth of the challenge. It seems to be a great chance of growth for the Mediterranean area, more than a mere compliance to the international security regulations.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p607&r=geo
  323. By: Antonis Rovolis; Alexandra Tragaki
    Abstract: During the last two decades, Southern Europe has become a destination region for migrants, as a result of demographic, economic and social developments across Eastern and Southern Europe. A number of common characteristics have been put forward to explain the unexpected and simultaneous transformation of this part of Europe into an appealing destination for new migratory flows. Those common explanatory factors of the reasons why immigrants are attracted to countries in Southern Europe have led to the development of the so-called “Southern European model of migrationâ€, while the examination of immigrants’ personal characteristics across Greece, Italy and Spain reveals some interesting differences. This paper sheds light on who the immigrants are, their specific characteristics, how they are spatially distributed and the causal factors of this distribution- the latter through the use of regression analysis.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p877&r=geo
  324. By: Milorad Filipovic
    Abstract: Western Balkan countries comprises following entities: Bosnia and Hercegovina, Serbia and Montenegro, Kosovo and Metohija, Albania and Macedonia. Even there are just four sovereign(internationaly recognised) states among those entities, number of different names (8) shows to us all fragmentation and tendencies toward further dissolution of this region to increasing number of small and weak states. Tendencies that are shown in WB region are quite different from those in other transition countries in Europe. Instead of cooperation in economic, financial and all other important fields, like Visegrad group countries did in nineties and strenghten their negotiation position compared with the EU, WB countries try to flatter to EU member states and to build their better position through deterioration of the position of other regional states. On the internal plan, all WB countries are still rely on weak institutional capacity - mechanisms that enables governments non-transparent behavior, manipulation with judicial system and judges, selective implementation of the laws, very high and resistant level of corruption in all social and economic fields, surviving of organised crime structures which are very often related to government officials at all levels of authority etc. Integration of WB countries in the EU will be very long term and difficult process as the precondition for that will be building of effective institutional mechanisms that could provide governance comparative with other transition countries and in more distant future with European mature market economies. It isimportant also to establish efficient regional cooperation and to increase level of income and competitiveness to cope with the competition from EU. Experiences from other Balkan countires should be useful for WB region - Greek's as one old member state and Romania's and Bulgaria's as candidate meber states. WB countries expect to have greater understanding of EU officials for the very serious problems that have to be resolved and it is out of question that without important support from outside WB it will be impossible to do so.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p270&r=geo
  325. By: Georgia Pozoukidou
    Abstract: Information technology, urban models and decision support tools have been and will continue to be an integral part of the decision making process in planning. Despite their unambiguous significance, they are underutilized in professional practice. Literature suggests that there is a continuous failure to use complex planning methods like urban models, land use models, and decision support tools in agencies. At the same time there is little or no research on the reasons why there is such an underutilization of these tools in planning practice. As part of a larger project, this paper presents the results of a study on the applicability and effectiveness of a complex land use modeling tool in planning practice and agencies’ decision making processes. The study intended to capture users’ perspective and record their experiences when using the modeling tool. The basic research assumption was that there are certain functional and structural factors that could operate as obstacles, or bottlenecks, and block or delay the implementation of such systems. A questionnaire identifying these factors was developed and distributed to the participants. Ten U.S. Metropolitan Planning Organizations participated as users (of the land use modeling system) and were asked to evaluate the tool in the context of their planning and decision making practices. The results showed that if we set aside the considerable user expertise that is required to utilize urban land use models and PSS in general, there are factors that could prohibit the applicability or reduce the usability of these tools in practice. The main factors reported as potential bottlenecks were extensive data requirements, lack of operational support from PSS’s provider and limited understanding of PSS’s usability in planning tasks. Based on the research results there are suggestions regarding the development, application and dissemination of PSS in planning practice and agencies. Perhaps more importantly, this paper provides the planning scientific community with a useful understanding of the context, challenges and design choices involved when developing PSS that are intended to fulfill their dual role, as tools for planning practitioners that lack modeling experience and as instruments to facilitate a more democratic planning process.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p769&r=geo
  326. By: Carolin Häussler (Institute for Innovation Research, Technology Management, and Entrepreneurship, Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich. haeussler@bwl.uni-muenchen.de); Hans-Martin Zademach (Institute of Economic Geography, Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich. zademach@bwl.uni-muenchen.de.)
    Abstract: This paper addresses the evolution of biotechnology clusters in Germany between 1996 and 2003, paying particular attention to their respective composition in terms of venture capital, basic science institutions and biotechnology firms. Drawing upon the significance of co-location of “money and ideas”, the literature stressing the importance of a cluster’s openness and external linkages, and the path dependency debate, the paper aims to analyse how certain cluster characteristics correspond with its overall performance. After identifying different cluster types, we investigate their internal and external interconnectivity in comparative manner and draw on changes in cluster composition. Our results indicate that the structure, i.e. to which group the cluster belongs, and the openness towards external knowledge flows deliver merely unsystematic indications with regard to a cluster’s overall success. Its ability to change composition towards a more balanced ratio of science and capital over time, on the other hand, turns out as a key explanatory factor. Hence, the dynamic perspective proves effective illuminating cluster growth and performance, where our explorative findings provide a promising avenue for further evolutionary research.
    Keywords: Cluster evolution, dynamic perspective, basic science, venture capital, biotechnology, Germany
    JEL: O18 O32 L22
    Date: 2006–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:trf:wpaper:188&r=geo
  327. By: Andre De Palma; Moez Kilani; Robin Lindsey
    Abstract: This paper extends an earlier paper by the authors ("Maintenance and congestion pricing with competing roads" presented at ERSA 2005) by introducing two user groups: heavy and light vehicles (viz. trucks and cars). This extension is important since heavy vehicles generate higher congestion and (much) higher pavement damage externalities than do light vehicles. The model features a simple road network with two routes linking a common origin and destination. Pavement quality on each route depreciates with usage and due to natural weathering. Three administration regimes are analysed. The first two regimes are the second best and first best optima. In the second-best regime maintenance levels are chosen for the two routes, but no tolls are applied. In the first-best regime, both maintenance levels and tolls are set to support an optmal division of traffic between the two routes as well as an optimal quality of service. The final regime is a Duopoly. In this regime each route is owned and operated by a different firm that maximises its own profit by choosing a maintenance level and a toll. The analysis (which is still in progress) entails solution and comparison of the outcomes of the three administration regimes. Among other things, we are interested to see in which regimes routes are differentiated so that one route is mainly used by heavy vehicles and the other by light vehicles. Preliminary results suggest that (as in the case of homogeneous users) private ownership is distorted towards excessive tolls and low maintenance effort.
    Date: 2006–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa06p896&r=geo
  328. By: Danny Soetanto; Marina van Geenhuizen
    Abstract: University spin-offs (USOs), as a type of entrepreneurial firms, face the challenge of obtaining sufficient resources to realize perceived business opportunities. USOs are vulnerable to many obstacles in this endeavor, particularly obstacles related to a lack of entrepreneurial knowledge (skills). Support such as office facilities, loan, and business coaching provided by incubator organizations, may help USOs to overcome obstacles. On the other hand, USOs may also overcome the lack of resources by participating in networks of supportive relationships. Social networking by USOs, including its spatial dimension, is not well understood. For instance, it is still not known how