nep-geo New Economics Papers
on Economic Geography
Issue of 2005‒05‒14
24 papers chosen by
Vassilis Monastiriotis
London School of Economics

  1. Regional Convergence in Italy: 1951-2000 By Claudio Morana
  2. Regional Productivity and Accessibility to Knowledge and Dense Markets By Karlsson, Charlie; Pettersson, Lars
  3. Sigma-Convergence Versus Beta-Convergence: Evidence from U.S. County-Level Data By Andrew Young; Matthew Higgins; Daniel Levy
  4. Growth and Convergence across the US: Evidence from County-Level Data By Matthew Higgins; Daniel Levy; Andrew Young
  5. Solow and the Native Americans: Technological Residuals and the Economic Performance of U.S. Native American Economies By Voxi Heinrich Amavilah
  6. Does the Home Market Effect Arise in a Three-Country Model? By Jens Südekum
  7. Demand for Environmental Quality: A Spatial Hedonic Approach By David M. Brasington; Diane Hite
  8. Public and Private School Competition: The Spatial Education Production Function By David M. Brasington
  9. Upgrading in global value chains: lessons from latin american clusters By Elisa Giuliani; Carlo Pietrobelli; Roberta Rabellotti
  10. Does Spatial Disaggregation Matter in Job Creation and Destruction Flows? By Elena Cefis; Roberto Gabriele
  11. Property Owners in Australia: A Snapshot By Marion Kohler; Anthony Rossiter
  12. De URBAN I à URBAN III : un point de vue économique sur la politique de cohésion en Europe By Mehdi Abbas
  13. Was ist und was braucht ein bedeutender Finanzplatz? By Reinhard H. Schmidt; Michael Grote
  14. Regionale Entwicklung mit und ohne räumliche Spillover Effekte By Hans-Friedrich Eckey; Reinhold Kosfeld; Matthias Türck
  16. A REGIONAL ECONOMIC POLICY FOR COLOMBIA By Juan David Barón; Gerson Javier Pérez; Peter Rowland
  18. THE ECONOMICS OF TRANSMILENIO, A MASS TRANSIT SYSTEM FOR BOGOTÁ By Juan Carlos Echeverry; Ana María Ibáñez; Luis Carlos Hillón
  19. Consideraciones para una política económica regional en Colombia By Juan David Barón; Gerson Javier Pérez
  20. La economía del departamento de Córdoba: ganadería y minería como sectores claves By Joaquín Viloria De La Hoz
  21. Dimensión espacial de la pobreza en Colombia By Gerson Javier Pérez
  22. Land use mix and daily mobility. The case of Bordeaux (In French) By Guillaume POUYANNE (IERSO, IFReDE-GRES)
  23. Proximities, industries and territories (In French) By Jean-Pierre GILLY (LEREPS-GRES); Yannick LUNG (E3i, IFReDE-GRES)
  24. Central Place Theory By Marcus Berliant

  1. By: Claudio Morana (SEMEQ Department - Faculty of Economics - University of Eastern Piedmont)
    Abstract: In the paper we assess the convergence hypothesis for the Italian economy over the period 1951-2000, using a new methodological approach. The approach is based on a two-step recursive principal components estimator, allowing to monitor the progress of the convergence process over time and to distinguish between steady-state and transitional dynamics. The overall conclusions of our work are in favour of a two-speed unconditional convergence process in per capita GDP across Italian regions, occurring at a slow pace and not monotonically.
    Keywords: convergence, economic growth
    JEL: C32 O11
    Date: 2004–05
  2. By: Karlsson, Charlie (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Pettersson, Lars (Jönköping International Business School)
    Abstract: Accessibility to knowledge and local service markets can be assumed to explain regional growth performance. The role of regional supply of services and educated labour with respect to regional development are stressed by many researchers. In this paper we make an empirical analysis using panel data for Swedish municipalities. The purpose is to analyse the relationship between regional productivity measures as gross regional product per square kilometre and accessibility to educated labour. We also acknowledge the extension of the regional economy in terms of functionality and access to population as a measure of accessibility to labour and to purchasing power. We estimate first a cross-section model by using OLS. Second we employ a panel data model, using time distance access to population and the share local labour force with longer higher education as explanatory variables. In the analysis we compare the results for Sweden from the different models with other studies in this field. We find that local externalities for increasing returns are very important in the Swedish economy. Our estimated models yields a high level of goodness of fit, and the results indicates that the elasticity for longer higher education and population density are around unity in the Swedish economy with respect to performance of regional gross domestic product per square kilometre
    Keywords: Agglomeration; Productivity; Sweden; Spatial; Regional; accessibility
    JEL: D24 J24 O47 R11 R23 R40
    Date: 2005–05–09
  3. By: Andrew Young (Emory University); Matthew Higgins (Emory University); Daniel Levy (Bar-Ilan University)
    Abstract: In this paper we outline (i) why ó-convergence may not accompany â- convergence, (ii)cite evidence of â-convergence in the U.S., (iii) and use USA county-level data containing over 3,000 cross-sectional observations to demonstrate that ó-convergence does not hold across the U.S., or within the vast majority of the individual U.S. states.
    Keywords: Economic Growth, Convergence, ó-convergence, sigma convergence, â-convergence, beta convergence, US County Level Data
    JEL: O40 O11 O18 R11
    Date: 2005–05–12
  4. By: Matthew Higgins (Georgia State University); Daniel Levy (Bar- Ilan University); Andrew Young (University of Mississippi)
    Abstract: We use county data with 3,058 observations to study growth and convergence in the US. We assess the effect of 40 conditioning variables on the counties’ balanced growth paths. Using OLS and 3SLS-IV, the later yielding consistent estimates, we report estimates for the full sample and for metro, non-metro, and five regional samples. We find that (1) OLS yields convergence rates around 2 percent, but 3SLS yields 6–8 percent; (2) convergence rates vary across the U.S. E.g., Southern counties converge 2½ times faster than Northeastern counties; (3) government size at all levels (federal, state and local) is negatively correlated with growth; (4) the relation between educational attainment and growth is nonlinear; and (5) large finance, insurance and real estate industry, and entertainment industry is positively correlated with growth but the population share employed in education is negatively correlated with growth.
    Keywords: Economic Growth, Convergence, Conditional Convergence, County- Level Data, 3SLS Instrumental Variables Estimate, Balanced Growth Path, Public Sector, Industry Composition, Educational Attainment
    JEL: O40 O11 O18 O51 R11 H50 H70
    Date: 2005–05–12
  5. By: Voxi Heinrich Amavilah (REEPS & Glendale College)
    Abstract: This paper decomposes the large regression residuals of income across 84 U.S. Native American economies (USNAEs) into Solow and Solow-like parts. Decomposition is accomplished algebraically. The calculations find a weak to negative correlation between income and Solow residuals, and a strong correlation between income and Solow-like residuals, especially those associated with human capital and external technology. It also finds that technological residuals are skewed towards high income USNAEs. The reason seems to be that high income USNAEs are better able to build human capital which supports the Nelson-Phelps channel for transmitting technology from external sources.
    Keywords: performance, Solow-Solow-like technological residuals, U.S. Native American economies (USNAEs), infrastructure, superstructure, growth
    JEL: O47 R30 F43 D24 C31 P47 O51
    Date: 2005–05–05
  6. By: Jens Südekum
    Abstract: It is uncertain whether the fundamental “home market effect” (HME) generalizes from a two-country model to a more realistic setting with multiple countries. We present a three-country version of the seminal model by Krugman (1980) and analyse under which circumstances the HME is present once third country effects are taken into account. We show that both expenditure shifts and exogenous enlargements among foreign countries can rule out the HME.
    Keywords: New trade theory, home market effect, hub effect
    JEL: F12 F14 R12
    Date: 2005–05–09
  7. By: David M. Brasington; Diane Hite
    Abstract: We first estimate the relationship between house prices and environmental disamenities using spatial statistics, confirming that nearby point-source pollutants depress house price. We then calculate implicit prices of environmental quality and related characteristics from the house price hedonics to estimate a demand curve for environmental quality, finding a price elasticity of demand of ?0.12. We find evidence of significant spatial effects in both the hedonic and demand estimations. We find that environmental quality and school quality are purchased together (elasticity =-0.80), environmental quality and house size are substitutes (elasticity=0.91), and environmental quality and lot size are not related goods.
  8. By: David M. Brasington
    Abstract: School vouchers may increase the competition public school districts face. Greater competition may spur public schools to improve student outcomes, which reliably predict labor market productivity and earnings. Previous school competition studies do not use spatial statistics; they fail to incorporate spillovers and the effect of omitted variables into their education production functions. Significant spatial effects are found in all regressions, and spatial statistics improves adjusted R-squared. There seems to be no consistent association between private school attendance rates and public school achievement, or between the number of public school districts in a county and public school performance. Competitive effects, which seem plausible in non-spatial regressions, dissipate when spatial statistics is used. When school inputs appeared statistically significant in non-spatial regressions, the spatial regressions generally made the significance disappear. Poverty appeared to depress reading and writing passage rates, but this effect disappeared in the spatial models.
  9. By: Elisa Giuliani; Carlo Pietrobelli; Roberta Rabellotti (SEMEQ Department - Faculty of Economics - University of Eastern Piedmont)
    Abstract: The literature on industrial districts in advanced and less developed countries has shown that clustering helps local enterprises overcome growth constraints and compete in distant markets. Nevertheless, recent contributions have stressed that more attention needs to be paid to external linkages and to the role played by global buyers to foster upgrading at cluster level. In this study, we contribute to this debate focusing on the analysis of the relationships existing between clustering, global value chains, upgrading and sectoral patterns of innovation in Latin America. We find that sectoral specificities matter and influence the mode and the extent of upgrading in clusters integrated in global value chains.
    Keywords: Latin America, small enterprise, industrial policy, clusters, global value chain, innovation
    JEL: O1 O3 O54 R11
    Date: 2004–02
  10. By: Elena Cefis; Roberto Gabriele
    Abstract: The paper investigates the changes in job creation and destruction flows considering a very disaggregate level of analysis. If institutional setup plays a more important role compared to other factors, than at lower levels of aggregation we should observe that job flows regularities are in line with national ones. We explore the issue using a unique database on the population of firms in Trentino (a North-Eastern Province of Italy) from 1991 to 2001. We find that: (a) job flows show a ”fractal” nature, i.e. many regularities appear to be scale invariant (magnitude of flows and their persistence). In particular job flows magnitude is in line with the average values for Italy; (b) there are some qualifications to ”fractality”: entrant firms’ contribution to job creation process is lower than the corresponding contribution at national level, whereas the job destruction share accounted for by exit firms is around 30%, in line with stylized facts; (c) size and age shape the job flows; (d) shifts of jobs between macro sectors are rare.
    Keywords: Labour Reallocation, Job Flows, Sample Selection, Two-Stage Heckman Estimator.
  11. By: Marion Kohler (Reserve Bank of Australia); Anthony Rossiter (Reserve Bank of Australia)
    Abstract: Property represents more than half of all household assets in Australia and its share has been rising in recent years. Since most property purchases require debt financing because of the size of the purchase, property makes up a large part of both sides of households’ balance sheets. This paper uses household-level data to examine what determines the ownership of residential property and the holding of property debt by households in Australia. We examine these decisions for both owner-occupied and investment property. The results suggest that the household’s age, composition, income and wealth are important factors determining property ownership and gearing decisions. Income and wealth are found to be more influential in determining the value of property owned, while the household’s age is more influential in determining the gearing. Household composition is important for decisions on owner-occupied property, but has a limited influence on investment property decisions.
    Keywords: home ownership, investment property, gearing
    JEL: D12 R21
    Date: 2005–05
  12. By: Mehdi Abbas (LEPII - Laboratoire d'Economie de la Production et de l'Intégration Internationale - - CNRS : FRE2664 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II)
    Abstract: Fin 2006 s'achèvera le programme d'initiative communautaire Urban destiné à soutenir la réhabilitation économique et sociale des quartiers en crise. Ce programme constitue l'élément majeur de la politique de développement économique et de cohésion sociale de la Commission européenne. Cette contribution analyse le rapport de Commission relative à la préparation du programme Urban III (2007-2013). A l'aune des enseignements de la nouvelle géographie économique, cette contribution aborde la question de la redistribution spatiale et urbaine de la croissance dans le contexte de l'élargissement. L'hypothèse retenue considère l'élargissement comme un renforcement de la concurrence entre sites urbains. Le travail aborde ensuite, dans une approche d'économie politique, les conséquences socio-économiques de l'intégration spatiale régionale.
    Keywords: cohésion sociale;politique urbaine;Union européenne
    Date: 2004–08–30
  13. By: Reinhard H. Schmidt; Michael Grote
    Abstract: In this paper, we first discuss the notion of „important financial centres“ and the socio-economic and political conditions which need to be fulfilled for such a centre to exist. We then address the issue of the so-called “end of geography” which has attracted a lot of attention recently. Under this suggestive title some authors have recently advances the proposition that specific locations lose their role as economic centres and are more and more replaced by so-called virtual centres. We do not suscribe to this view since, as we argue in our paper, we do not agree that proximity has lost much of its importance in the financial business. However, the provocative proposition rightly directs attention to the really important question of how competition plays out in this area. We therefore analyse which kind of competition is relevant in the case of financial centres and how it affects the position of Frankfurt in the international hierarchy of financial centres. Our proposition is that “horizontal competition” such as that between Frankfurt and Paris is not really relevant, and much less relevant than “vertical competition” between Frankfurt and London as the main centre in Europe on the one hand, and Frankfurt and different local subcentres in Germany on the other. That is, Frankfurt must fear to lose business to London and/or to the We conclude with a set of observations on how the role of Frankfurt as a financial centre can be strengthened.
    JEL: G15 R11
    Date: 2005–04
  14. By: Hans-Friedrich Eckey; Reinhold Kosfeld (Department of Economics, University of Kassel); Matthias Türck (Department of Economics, University of Kassel)
    Abstract: Der wirtschaftliche Entwicklungsstand von Regionen hängt nicht nur von ihrer eigenen Leistungsfähigkeit ab, sondern aufgrund räumlicher Überschwappeffekte auch von jener angrenzender Wirtschaftsräume. Positive Spillovers (Lieferverflechtungen, Nutzung der Infrastruktur in Nachbarregionen u. ä.) und negative Spillovers (z. B. Umwelteffekte) begründen eine wechselseitige Beeinflussung des Entwicklungsstands von Wirtschaftsräumen. Die räumlich-ökonometrische Analyse erlaubt eine Simulation von ökonomischen Größen mit und ohne Effekte angrenzender Gebiete. Hier sei die Arbeitsproduktivität betrachtet, die als Indikator für die Leistungsfähigkeit von Wirtschaftsräumen steht. Mit Hilfe von Eigenvektoren, die die Nachbarschaftseffekte wiedergeben, wird ein erheblicher Varianzanteil der Arbeitsproduktivität erklärt. Eine die Grenzen von Wirtschaftsräumen überschreitende netzwerkbasierte Regionalpolitik erscheint damit ökonomisch sinnvoll zu sein. Insbesondere Metropolen beeinflussen in hohem Maße die Arbeitsproduktivität im Umland. Einige ostdeutsche Regionen in Brandenburg und Sachsen würden ohne das schlechte wirtschaftliche Umfeld eine deutlich überdurchschnittliche Arbeitsproduktivität aufweisen. Andere Regionen, beispielsweise im Harz und in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, sind aufgrund der dünnen Besiedlung sowohl mit als auch ohne Berücksichtigung von Nachbarschaftseffekten unattraktiv.
    Keywords: Agglomerationstheorie, räumliche Ökonometrie, räumliche Filterung
    JEL: C21 R11 R58
    Date: 2005–05
  15. By: Gerson Javier Pérez V.; Peter Rowland
    Abstract: This paper presents four case studies of economies with well-developed regional policies. These include the European Union, Spain, Italy and Brazil. These cases have been chosen because of their relevance when studying regional problems in Colombia. In all of the cases regional policy has had a relatively poor performance, since regional disparities have not been significantly reduced. However, one could argue that disparities would have been larger without these policy initiatives. Thus, the results highlight the difficulties in developing a successful regional policy.
    Date: 2004–08–31
  16. By: Juan David Barón; Gerson Javier Pérez; Peter Rowland
    Abstract: This paper proposes a framework for a regional economic policy in Colombia. The regional characteristics and disparities of the country are studied, and regional disparities are shown to be both significant and persistent over time. This calls for a policy initiative to promote the development of the poorer regions of the country. The study here draws lessons from other cases of regional economic policy, and proposes a framework based on the regional policy initiative that is currently being implemented in Brazil.
    Date: 2004–11–30
  17. By: Samuel Jaramillo
    Abstract: Este trabajo consiste en la construcción de diferentes series de precios referidas al mercado de la vivienda en Bogotá en un período que se extiende desde 1970 hasta 2004. Se presenta inicialmente una serie atinente a la evolución del canon de alquiler a partir de las cifras construidas por el DANE para calcular el Índice de Precios al Consumidor. Como complemento y punto de contraste con esta serie, que es un Índice, se construyen cifras sobre el alquiler a partir de las ofertas publicadas en los periódicos, lo cual permite además, tener magnitudes absolutas de precios. Con una metodología similar se construyen dos series de precios de compraventa de vivienda usada y de vivienda nueva. Finalmente, se adaptan cifras producidas por la Lonja de Propiedad Raíz de Bogotá, referidas al precio de la tierra destinada a vivienda, de tal manera que sean comparables con las cifras anteriores. Este conjunto de series tienen la ventaja de ser congruentes entre sí, lo que abre la posibilidad de realizar diferentes análisis. Un cálculo en este sentido que tiene gran relevancia y que se desarrolla en el texto, es una estimación de la evolución de la rentabilidad de la inversión en alquiler de vivienda. Las series tienen una expresión agregada y una desagregación ulterior en tres estratos de ingreso. Hasta 1984 son de frecuencia anual, y a partir de allí se tienen cifras semestrales. Entre los principales rasgos que pueden extraerse de una mirada preliminar de estas cifras se pueden destacar las siguientes: los diferentes precios de la vivienda muestran una tendencia de largo plazo a la baja en términos reales bastante pronunciada. En contraste, los precios del suelo muestran un crecimiento positivo y muy acentuado. A pesar de esta disparidad los distintos mercados parecen estar muy conectados, pues las oscilaciones de los precios sobre sus respectivas tendencias son muy convergentes. La proporción del alquiler con respecto al precio de los inmuebles tiende a contraerse con el tiempo. Esto, y el hecho de que en años recientes se ha vivido una fase de depresión de precios particularmente profunda y prolongada, determina que la rentabilidad de la inversión en alquiler en la última década ha sido muy baja, incluso inferior al rendimiento de las opciones financieras más pasivas. Comienza a observarse una tendencia a la recuperación en los precios, aunque un poco desigual en los distintos estratos: más pronunciada en el submercado de altos ingresos, incipiente en los ingresos medios y más débil en los ingresos bajos.
    Keywords: vivienda
    JEL: R31
    Date: 2004–10–01
  18. By: Juan Carlos Echeverry; Ana María Ibáñez; Luis Carlos Hillón
    Abstract: By the end of the 1990s, inefficiency, excess supply and low service quality characterized the mass transit system of Bogotá. The average travel time to work was one hour and ten minutes, obsolete buses provided public transport, traffic generated 70 percent of air pollution and there were frequent traffic accidents. To address all of these issues, the municipal and national governments designed and put in place a new mass transit system named TransMilenio (TM), which came into operation in January 2001. The purpose of this paper is to analyze Bogotá’s mass transit system before and after TM, study the political economy of its adoption process and conduct a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the first phase of the system. The new transit system is a hybrid model that combines public planning of the network structure, route tendering conditions, regulation and supervision, as well as private operation of the separated functions of revenue collection and transport service. The adoption of this new model needed to resolve delicate political economy issues that characterized private transport systems in many developing countries. The new organization had a sizeable impact on TM users’ by improving traveling conditions significantly. In addition, congestion, pollution and traffic accidents plummeted in TM corridors. However, the type of transition adopted for the remaining transport corridors not covered by TM caused unforeseen negative spillovers, as a consequence of slow scrapping rates and bus and routes relocation. Consequently, although the CBA for the first phase of the corridors covered by TM is positive, once these additional measures are taken into consideration, the net effect is negative due primarily to increases in travel time for passengers using the traditional transport system. In order to minimize the negative spillovers during the full implementation of TM, expected to last until 2015, integration of the traditional and new systems should be carried on, and strict regulation of the traditional public transport system should be crafted.
    Keywords: urban transport
    JEL: R41
    Date: 2004–08–01
  19. By: Juan David Barón; Gerson Javier Pérez
    Abstract: Este trabajo propone un marco de trabajo para una política económica regional en Colombia. Se estudian las características regionales y se muestra que las disparidades regionales son significativas y persistentes en el tiempo. Por ello, se hace necesario llevar a cabo una política económica que promueva el desarrollo de las regiones más pobres de país. Este estudio aprovecha lecciones de otros casos de política de economía regional y propone un marco de trabajo basado en una iniciativa de política regional que actualmente se está aplicando en Brasil.
    Keywords: Economía Regional,
    JEL: R23
    Date: 2004–11–30
  20. By: Joaquín Viloria De La Hoz
    Abstract: En esta investigación se indaga sobre que elementos han obstaculizado el desenvolvimiento económico de Córdoba. Es tradición afirmar que el departamento cuenta con suelos de gran fertilidad, pero en el documento se analiza la calidad de la tierra no sólo en función de la capa vegetal, sino también en los niveles de precipitación y recurso hídrico. Éste último genera sequías e inundaciones, que caracterizan gran parte de la geografía cordobesa, representando elevados costos en la geografía cordobesa, que deben pagar los pobladores asentados en zonas bajas cerca de los ríos, los agricultores, ganaderos y el gobierno. Estos factores climáticos afectan la productividad agrícola del departamento del Córdoba, inferior a la media nacional. De igual manera, las deficiencias en la educación y el manejo inadecuado de las finanzas públicas territoriales también inciden negativamente en es escaso desarrollo departamental.
    Keywords: Economía Regional,
    JEL: R10
    Date: 2004–11–30
  21. By: Gerson Javier Pérez
    Abstract: Con base en los indicadores de necesidades básicas insatisfechas (NBI) y de calidad de vida (ICV), se realiza un análisis espacial de la pobreza en Colombia. El documento pretende establecer si existen evidencias acerca de dependencia espacial en las medidas de la pobreza en los departamentos y municipios del país. Esto se realiza a través del cálculo del estadístico I de Moran a nivel global y local. La metodología permite además ubicar clusters de pobreza, así como detectar si existió algún proceso de difusión de la pobreza. Los resultados muestran evidencias significativas de dependencia espacial tanto a nivel departamental como municipal, indicando que la ubicación geográfica es importante como determinante de la pobreza en el país. Es decir, que el hecho de que cada municipio tenga los vecinos que tiene es determinante fundamental para explicar la pobreza. Se encontraron clusters y procesos de difusión en algunos municipios y departamentos. Se destaca que en la mayoría de los casos los municipios pobres están rodeados de otros municipios pobres, y que los municipios ricos están rodeados de ricos. Esto podría ser el resultado tanto de correlaciones en las dotaciones naturales de factores, de externalidades o una combinación de ambas.
    Keywords: Pobreza,
    JEL: R00
    Date: 2005–01–05
  22. By: Guillaume POUYANNE (IERSO, IFReDE-GRES)
    Abstract: The question of the urban form-daily mobility interaction was recently renewed. The model of the Compact City aims at increasing densities to decrease the use of the automobile. However, the density-mobility interaction is questioned in the polycentric city : on one’s hand, suburban employment centers produce original kinds of travel, such as cross-commuting or multi-prupose travelling ; on the other hand, they facilitate co-location of jobs and housing. That’s why the reflexion on the urban form-mobility interaction goes through the quantitative aspects of urban form (density) to qualitative ones : the diversity of land use. The idea is that land use mix brings the origin and the destination of the trips closer. In this paper, we make a distinction between two types of diversity : the functional one (i.e. the jobs-housing balance) and the economic one. Both may have an impact on daily mobility. We apply this question to the case of the metropolitan area of Bordeaux. In a first step, we test a general urban form model : we notice a significant impact of the degree of diversity on travel behaviour. Thus we are led to question about the influence of the type of diversity on travel patterns. We comment these results thanks to the location behaviour of the firms according to their activity.
    Keywords: Urban form, travel patterns, functional diversity, economic specialization
    JEL: R12 R14 R41
    Date: 2005
  23. By: Jean-Pierre GILLY (LEREPS-GRES); Yannick LUNG (E3i, IFReDE-GRES)
    Abstract: The paper compares the research agendas of two different approaches of a meso-analysis which could combine industrial and spatial dynamics: the economics of proximity approach on one side, the regulation theory on the other side. Their specificities and divergences are identified in the first part, considering the parallel trajectories of the two French research groups developing these approaches during the last years, “Dynamiques de proximité” and “Régulation-Secteur-Territoire” respectively. The second part discusses their possible convergence.
    Keywords: Industry, meso-analysis, post fordism, proximity, regulation theory, spatial dynamics
    JEL: B52 D21 L10 R11 R30
    Date: 2005
  24. By: Marcus Berliant (Washington University in St. Louis)
    Abstract: This is a short dictionary entry. Central place theory is a descriptive theory of market area in a spatial context. Its definition, history, and relation to modern microeconomic theory are provided.
    Keywords: Market Area, City Hierarchy, Hexagonal Structure, Spatial General Equilibrium Theory, Transport Cost, Increasing Returns to Scale
    JEL: R12
    Date: 2005–05–12

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