nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒11‒27
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann, Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Childcare restrictions and gender gap in labor outcomes By Cervini, Maria; Silva, José I.
  2. Educate Some to Represent Many? Education and Female Political Representation in Europe By Bellani, Luna; Hidalgo-Hidalgo, Marisa
  3. How and Why the Gender Pension Gap in Urban China Decreased between 1988 and 2018 By Gustafsson, Björn Anders; Zhang, Peng; Jia, Hanrui
  4. Does the Child Penalty Strike Twice, and If So Why? By Gørtz, Mette; Sander, Sarah; Sevilla, Almudena
  5. The role of shortlisting in shifting gender beliefs on performance: experimental evidence By Miguel A. Fonseca; Ashley McCrea
  6. Gender(ed) equity: The growth of female shareholding in Australia, 1857-1937 By Grant Fleming; Zhangxin (Frank) Liu; David Merrett; Simon Ville
  7. That’s what she said: An Empirical Investigation on the Gender Gap in Inflation Expectations By Lovisa Reiche
  8. Persistent and Gender-Unequal Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Student Outcomes in Italy By Léonard Moulin; Mara Soncin

  1. By: Cervini, Maria; Silva, José I.
    Abstract: Persistent gender gaps exist in labor market outcomes. This study contributes to the literature by examining the gender gap effects of childcare restrictions. Specifically, not using professional childcare services due to issues like access, quality, or costs. Using a specialized module from the 2018 Spanish Labor Force Survey, we identify substantial gender gaps in labor force, employment, full-time employment and hours worked among parents facing childcare constraints. In contrast, parents without such restrictions experience much lower gender gaps. Working time flexibility helps to alleviate the gender gap in hours worked. Additionally, we explore the long-run consequences of extended work interruptions for childcare, revealing a significant decline in women's labor supply, employment rates and full-time share, particularly for career breaks lasting 5 years or more.
    Keywords: Childcare restrictions, gender gap, labor outcomes, working flexibility, work interruptions.
    JEL: C21 J13 J16 J21
    Date: 2023–10–24
  2. By: Bellani, Luna (Ulm University); Hidalgo-Hidalgo, Marisa (Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: Gender disparity is present in many aspects of life, especially in politics. This paper provides new evidence on the impact of women's education on political representation focusing on several European countries. We combine multi-country data from the Gender Statistics Database of the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) and from the European Social Survey (ESS). We find increased female education significantly raises the percentage of women being elected to regional parliaments. We then explore possible channels at the individual level and find education increases women's interest in politics and induces more egalitarian views about gender roles in society among women, although it fails to do so among men.
    Keywords: education, female political participation, compulsory schooling reforms, ESS
    JEL: H52 I21 I23 J24 J31
    Date: 2023–10
  3. By: Gustafsson, Björn Anders (Göteborg University); Zhang, Peng (Zhejiang University); Jia, Hanrui (Shanghai Administration Institute)
    Abstract: In urban China, gender gaps in employment and earnings have steadily increased since the 1990s. Such gender gaps are important because pension rights and amounts are based on labor force participation and wages. However, as this study demonstrates, despite the rise in gender differences in the urban labor market, the average gender pension gap decreased between 1988 and 2018. In the paper, we describe the evolution of the fragmented pension system in urban China using a quantitative approach that distinguishes between pension coverage rates and average benefit amounts. Additionally, we conducted a birth cohort analysis to gain further insights into the reasons for changes in the gender pension gap. We utilized data from the China Household Income Project, focusing on individuals aged 60 years and older. Therefore, this study demonstrates how changes in China's pension system have benefited women more than men during the aforementioned period.
    Keywords: gender pension gap, pension reforms, time effect, cohort effect, urban, China
    JEL: H55 J14 J26 P36
    Date: 2023–10
  4. By: Gørtz, Mette (University of Copenhagen); Sander, Sarah (University of Copenhagen); Sevilla, Almudena (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper compares the labor market impact of grandparents before and after the arrival of the first grandchild. We show that grandmothers' labor market outcomes decline more steeply than grandfathers' after the first grandchild's arrival, leading to a 4-10 percent gender earnings gap 5-10 years later. The child penalty is shifted across generations to grandmothers with low education, but daycare availability only affects child penalties. Gender biases towards older women's work are a contributing factor to the disparity in earnings between grandmothers and grandfathers after the arrival of the first grandchild.
    Keywords: grandchildren, female labor supply, gender, inequality, retirement
    JEL: J13 J14 J16 J22
    Date: 2023–10
  5. By: Miguel A. Fonseca (Department of Economics, University of Exeter); Ashley McCrea (Department of Economics, University of Exeter)
    Abstract: In labour markets, women are often underrepresented relative to men. This underrepresentation may be due to inaccurate beliefs about ability across genders. Inaccurate beliefs might cause a sampling problem: to have accurate beliefs about a group, one must first collect information about that group. However, inaccurate beliefs may persist due to biased belief updating. We run a stylized hiring experiment to disentangle these two effects. We ask participants to create shortlists from a male and a female pool of workers and give them feedback on the skill of those they shortlist. Based on that information, participants hire workers, and provide us with their beliefs about the distribution of skills in the male and female pots. We study how recruiters update their beliefs as a function of their past shortlisting behaviour, and how they shortlist given their beliefs. As expected, participants were more likely to sample from the pool with the highest subjective mean quality (on average men) and lowest subject variance. Participants were not Bayesian updaters but there were no gender-specific biases in updating. Sampling more from a pool and, somewhat surprisingly, greater time spent engaging in sampling behaviour yield more accurate beliefs.
    Keywords: inaccurate statistical discrimination, belief updating, gender, shortlisting, chess
    JEL: C91 D83 J71 J78 M51
    Date: 2023–11–07
  6. By: Grant Fleming; Zhangxin (Frank) Liu; David Merrett; Simon Ville
    Abstract: An evolving literature addresses the role of women in business in colonial Australia. We know less about their contribution as investors, a topic that has received much greater attention in other nations, particularly Britain. We address this lacuna by deploying a dataset of shareholders in Australian companies between 1857 and 1937, covering all major sectors in the economy. We calculate the female share of shareholdings and shareowners, their occupational and geographic backgrounds, and analyse their investment patterns and behaviours including their risk profiles and portfolio construction decisions. Our findings suggest that ‘gender equity’ – and more - had been reached, for at least some companies, by the interwar period. Women investors came from many walks of life, had different motives, and as a class appear to have largely acted independently.
    Date: 2023–11
  7. By: Lovisa Reiche
    Abstract: The gender gap in inflation expectations, i.e., women reporting systematically higher inflation expectations in consumer surveys, is a well-established phenomenon. The dis parity has been attributed to women’s greater involvement in grocery shopping and exposure to volatile food prices. I evaluate this hypothesis using a Bayesian learning framework, which suggests that signal volatility increases mean expectations only when ever the prior is flat. Such a flat prior could be caused by low financial literacy, which is more prevalent in women. Using data from the “Bundesbank Online Panel – House holds”, I find that grocery shopping increases expectations only for a low literacy sample and including a control for financial literacy closes the gender gap fully. This observation has significant macroeconomic implications, including potential gender-based disparities in retirement investment and monetary policy targeting.
    Date: 2023–10–23
  8. By: Léonard Moulin; Mara Soncin
    Abstract: The learning loss caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on students’ outcomes is likely to have lasting effects on which evidence is lacking. Using a differencein-differences design through a triple difference estimator, we identify the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on Italian students’ test scores in the two years following the COVID-19 outbreak. Our findings indicate a persistently negative effect on mathematics and reading scores for grade 5 and grade 8 students in 2021–22, two years after the pandemic began, despite a statistically significant recovery compared to the previous school year. Our analysis highlights the pandemic’s disproportionate impact on girls, leading to a decrease in their academic performance and an intensification of gender-based inequalities (with the exception of grade 8 reading). Our results also show that the pandemic had a greater adverse impact on the academic achievement of students who experienced more prolonged classroom closures.
    Date: 2023

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