nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒11‒13
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann, Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. The Gender Gap in Public S&T Funding: The Matilda Effect in STEM Disciplines in Argentina By Fiorentin, Florencia; Pereira, Mariano; Suárez, Diana
  2. Are majority-female-owned firms more susceptible to bribery solicitations? By Olayinka Oyekola; Martha A. Omolo; Olapeju C. Ogunmokun
  3. Gender, Legal Origin, and Accounting Disclosure: Evidence from More Than 140, 000 Firms By Olayinka Oyekola; Olapeju C. Ogunmokun; Martha A. Omolo; Samuel Odewunmi
  4. Accounting for firms in gender-ethnicity wage gaps throughout the earnings distribution By Van Phan; Carl Singleton; Alex Bryson; John Forth; Felix Ritchie; Lucy Stokes; Damian Whittard

  1. By: Fiorentin, Florencia; Pereira, Mariano; Suárez, Diana
    Abstract: This study explores the presence of gender bias in public grants for science and technology (S&T) activities known as the Matilda effect in STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) in Argentina. The empirical analysis is based on the Scientific and Technological Research Projects program (PICT in Spanish) for the period 20032015 and found that female researchers are less likely to be awarded the first time they apply for a research grant than their male counterparts (-6.2 percentage points, or p.p.). Even for follow-on applications after the first one, without having been awarded before, female researchers remain less likely to be awarded (-3.8 p.p.). However, the probability of being recurrently awarded known as the Matthew effect is the same for both male and female researchers. This paper concludes that female researchers in STEM suffer disadvantages in the allocation of public funds to finance their research projects. Only those female researchers that overcome the initial barriers and obtain their first grant can take advantage, as their male counterparts do, of the Matthew effect that makes them more likely to obtain further awards. These results suggest the need for policies aiming at reducing the initial gender gap in accessing public grants for female researchers in STEM.
    Keywords: Matthew effect;Matilda effect;gender bias;STEM;S&T grants;Argentina
    JEL: N46 O31
    Date: 2022–01
  2. By: Olayinka Oyekola (Department of Economics, University of Exeter); Martha A. Omolo (Department of Economics, University of Exeter); Olapeju C. Ogunmokun (Faculty of Business and Law, De Montfort University)
    Abstract: The answer is No. Our evidence derives from leveraging international firm-level data to examine the statistical importance of gender composition of ownership as a determinant of bribery solicitations. Our data are for 18, 240 firms in 18 industries across 110 countries. For this group of firms, we find that female involvement in ownership is unimportant for explaining which firms are more susceptible to bribery solicitations. However, we find that majority-female-owned firms differ significantly from majority-male-owned firms in terms of their experiences of bribery transactions. Specifically, we establish that firms with majority female ownership are less susceptible to bribery solicitations, when compared to their counterparts with minority female ownership. Additionally, we find that all fifteen sources of business obstacles that we consider are positively related to bribery solicitations. Using an interaction model, we observe that the benefits accruing to majority-female-owned firms in terms of reduced bribery solicitations are diminished in the presence of some perceived business obstacles, namely: corruption, political instability, tax administration, and transportation. Our results, which are robust to several specification checks, including endogeneity tests, add to the gender and corruption literature.
    Keywords: gender, ownership composition, female-owned firms, bribery, corruption, business obstacles
    JEL: D73 J16 L2 O17
    Date: 2023–10–01
  3. By: Olayinka Oyekola (Department of Economics, University of Exeter); Olapeju C. Ogunmokun (Faculty of Business and Law, De Montfort University); Martha A. Omolo (Department of Economics, University of Exeter); Samuel Odewunmi (Department of Economics, University of Exeter)
    Abstract: We explore the hypothesis that the gender of a firm's manager and a country's legal origin are important factors influencing whether or not firms hire external auditors to prepare their financial statements. International evidence from 140, 860 unique firms surveyed in 139 countries over the period 2008-2022 offers significant support for our hypothesis. In particular, our results suggest that: (1) the probability of female-managed firms producing externally audited financial statements is 1.42 percentage points (or 0.03 standard deviation) lower than their male-managed counterparts; (2) the probability of producing externally audited financial statements by firms in common law origin countries is 7 percentage points (or 0.14 standard deviation) higher than for firms located in civil law origin countries; and (3) the lower frequency with which female-managed firms in our sample report audited financial statements is exacerbated when the firms are located in a common law country. We verify that these results are robust with respect to a number of other considerations, including endogeneity issues, alternative proxies for key variables, additional confounding factors, and potential outliers. Our results contribute to the literature on the relationships between manager characteristics, firm disclosure, and country legal environment.
    Keywords: gender, legal origin, accounting disclosure
    Date: 2023–10–14
  4. By: Van Phan (Bristol Business School, University of West of England); Carl Singleton (Department of Economics, University of Reading); Alex Bryson (Social Research Institute, University College London); John Forth (Bayes Business School, City, University of London); Felix Ritchie (Bristol Business School, University of West of England); Lucy Stokes (National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR)); Damian Whittard (Bristol Business School, University of West of England)
    Abstract: Previous studies of gender-ethnicity wage gaps have almost exclusively been confined to analyses of household data, so do not fully account for employer influence and wage-setting power. Exploiting high quality employer-employee payroll data on jobs, hours, and earnings, linked with the personal and family characteristics of workers from the population census for England and Wales, we show that firm-specific wage effects account for sizeable parts of the estimated differences between the wages of white and ethnic minority workers at the mean and other points in the wage distribution, which would otherwise mostly have been attributed to differences in individual worker attributes, such as education levels, occupations, and locations. Nevertheless, substantial gaps persist between the wages of white and ethnic minority employees, especially among higher earners. These patterns differ notably by gender and whichever ethnic minority group is compared with white workers. Since most of the wage disadvantage for ethnic minorities appears to sit within firms, our findings suggest that recent legislative reforms on firm-level gender pay gap transparency could be worth extending in the UK, to encompass gender-ethnicity gaps.
    Keywords: Employer-Employee Data, Unconditional Quantile Regression, Decomposition Methods, UK Labour Market
    JEL: J31 J7 J71
    Date: 2023–10–26

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