nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒11‒06
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann, Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Gender Differences in Cooperation in the U.S. Congress? An Extension of Gagliarducci and Paserman (2022) By Bagues, Manuel; Campa, Pamela; Etingin-Frati, Giulian
  2. Insights about the barriers to achieve gender equality in the decision-making roles and power positions. By Negar Bahadori
  3. Harmonizing the Yin and Yang: Gender Disparities in Subjective Well-Being after Retirement in China By Erkmen G. Aslim; Shin-Yi Chou; Han Yu
  4. Flying to Mars and Venus - the gendered nature of in-work poverty in Europe By Anna Schwarz

  1. By: Bagues, Manuel; Campa, Pamela; Etingin-Frati, Giulian
    Abstract: Gagliarducci and Paserman (2022) study gender differences in cooperative behavior among politicians using information from the U.S. House of Representatives between 1988 and 2010 on (i) the number of co-sponsors on bills and (ii) the share of co-sponsors from the rival party. Through different empirical strategies, they show that women-sponsored bills tend to have more co-sponsors, but the gap is only statistically significant among Republicans. Moreover, Republican women recruit a significantly larger share of co-sponsors from the rival party than Republican men, whereas the opposite is true among Democrats. GP argue that the observed pattern is consistent with a commonality of interest driving cooperation, rather than gender per se, since during this period Republican women were ideologically closer to the rival party than their male colleagues, while female Democrats were further away. We examine the robustness of these findings to (i) the correction of some errors in two control variables of the dataset used by GP and (ii) clustering the standard errors at the individual level, instead of individual-term. These changes have a relatively minor impact on results: most coefficients are still statistically significant and the main conclusions from the analysis are confirmed. Furthermore, we extend the analysis to the 2011-2020 period. The analysis of gender differences in bipartisan cooperation confirms GP's hypothesis that ideological distance plays an important role. However, results are slightly different when we analyze overall cooperation. The gender gap in favor of women is larger in magnitude than in GP and it is statistically significant in several specifications, providing support for the hypothesis that gender also matters for cooperation.
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Negar Bahadori (Department of Social Sciences and Economics, Sapienza University of Rome)
    Abstract: Despite significant advancements in recent years, numerous barriers hinder the full participation and representation of women in higher influential domains. To effectively address the disparities and foster more inclusive and equitable societies, this article presents a literature review, examining the barriers that impede gender equality in decision-making roles and power positions. By shedding light on the complex dynamics and systemic challenges, it aims to contribute to the design of effective strategies for dismantling gender disparities. To investigate why women, struggle to fully advance along the corporate ladder, this study explores the contributing factors to gender inequality in the labor market at three levels: micro, meso, and macro level. Additionally, the article leverages the Varieties of Capitalism framework proposed by Hall and Soskice (2001) to gain insights at a macro level into how gender inequalities in the workplace are shaped and to understand the positioning of Italy within the international context while emphasizing the importance of empirical research to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Understanding the real-world experiences of individuals and organizations working towards gender equality is essential for developing effective strategies to overcome these obstacles and promote equitable representation.
    Keywords: Gender inequality, leadership, women empowerment
    JEL: D63 J16 J70
    Date: 2023–06
  3. By: Erkmen G. Aslim; Shin-Yi Chou; Han Yu
    Abstract: China’s distinctive demographic landscape, early retirement policies, and deeply ingrained gender norms provide a unique backdrop for investigating gender disparities in retirement and subjective well-being. Drawing upon data from the China Family Panel Studies and leveraging the variation around the pensionable age cutoff, we find substantial increases in retirement rates, surging by 19 percentage points for males and 13 percentage points for females in proximity to this age threshold. Notably, retirement manifests significant gender heterogeneity in its influence on life satisfaction, leading to an enhancement among males while not yielding statistically significant improvements among females. Furthermore, this study probes multiple dimensions of subjective well-being and objective health behaviors, laying bare gender disparities in health, behaviors, perceptions of income and social status, and confidence about the future. Males showcase improvements in healthy behaviors, report enhanced self-perceived health, perceive higher relative income and social status, and exude greater confidence about their future. In stark contrast, females show no statistically significant changes along these dimensions. In fact, they tend to engage in health-compromising behaviors, such as increased smoking, and exhibit higher rates of obesity. These findings underscore the imperative of recognizing gender disparities in the consequences of retirement on subjective well-being. They highlight the need for targeted policies aimed at enhancing social and economic opportunities for women, ultimately striving for greater gender equality in the post-retirement phase.
    JEL: I10 I12 I31 J16 J26
    Date: 2023–10
  4. By: Anna Schwarz (Department of Economics, Vienna University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: This paper addresses the invisibility of women in in-work poverty research by analyzing the Eurostat in-work poverty indicator in combination with a novel individualized in-work poverty indicator. The latter relies on individual income, but still accounts for the household in defining the poverty threshold. I show that men are more often in-work poor due to assumed sharing with other household members, while women are mostly individually poor, but lifted out of poverty on the household level. The latter is not captured by the Eurostat indicator. This seems to be driven by household dynamics. Living with children makes women more financially dependent on their partner- increases individualized in-work poverty-, which in turn increases the burden on men's income - increases Eurostat in-work poverty. This pattern is most prevalent in countries with a stronger gender division of labor. My results uncover the blind spots in in-work poverty measurement and additionally highlight the potential of using the individualized indicator to measure financial dependency within the household.
    Keywords: poverty measurement, gender, intra-household inequality, in-work poverty
    JEL: I32 J16 O57 D13 D31
    Date: 2023–09

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