nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒09‒25
ten papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann, Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Gender Differences in Judicial Decisions under Incomplete Information: Evidence from Child Support Cases By Roberto Asmat; Lajos Kossuth
  2. Discrimination and Constraints: Evidence from The Voice By Anuar Assamidanov
  3. Gender pay gap and Employment choice in Nigeria By Ekpeyong, Paul
  4. Women's Access to Post-Secondary Education and Structural Inequalities By Alnaa, Samuel Erasmus; Matey, Juabin
  5. Young Women in Cities By Koh, Yumi; Li, Jing; Wu, Yifan; Yi, Junjian; Zhang, Hanzhe
  6. Confidence and College Applications: Evidence from a Randomized Intervention By Rustamdjan Hakimov; Renke Schmacker; Camille Terrier
  7. Gender Gaps in Time Use and Entrepreneurship By Pedro Bento; Lin Shao; Faisal Sohail
  8. Foreign Aid and Female Empowerment By Perrotta Berlin, Maria; Bonnier, Evelina; Olofsgård, Anders
  9. Urbanization and Women Empowerment: Evidence from India By Dhamija, Gaurav; Roychowdhury, Punarjit; Shankar, Binay
  10. Do Households Where Women Own Land Fare Better for Food Security? Evidence for Tanzania By Burrone, Sara; Giannelli, Gianna Claudia

  1. By: Roberto Asmat (Vienna University of Economics and Business); Lajos Kossuth (CEMFI, Centro de Estudios Monetarios y Financieros)
    Abstract: We compare decisions by female and male judges in child support trials where a judge decides on the child support amount to be paid by the father. Leveraging the random assignment of cases to judges, we show that female judges set lower child support awards. We find no evidence that this gap is explained by pervasive views on traditional gender norms, nor by female and male judges pursuing alternative judicial goals. Instead, we offer a new perspective on gender differences in judicial decision-making by focusing on cases where the defendant’s income is non-observable due to labor market informality. In these cases, judges must form beliefs about the income before deciding on a child support award. Eliciting such beliefs, we find that female judges rely less on the plaintiff’s claim to form beliefs about the defendant’s income, which explains the gender gap in child support awards.
    Keywords: Gender, judicial decisions, informality.
    JEL: J16 J46 K15 K36
    Date: 2023–05
  2. By: Anuar Assamidanov
    Abstract: Gender discrimination in the hiring process is one significant factor contributing to labor market disparities. However, there is little evidence on the extent to which gender bias by hiring managers is responsible for these disparities. In this paper, I exploit a unique dataset of blind auditions of The Voice television show as an experiment to identify own gender bias in the selection process. The first televised stage audition, in which four noteworthy recording artists are coaches, listens to the contestants blindly (chairs facing away from the stage) to avoid seeing the contestant. Using a difference-in-differences estimation strategy, a coach (hiring person) is demonstrably exogenous with respect to the artist's gender, I find that artists are 4.5 percentage points (11 percent) more likely to be selected when they are the recipients of an opposite-gender coach. I also utilize the machine-learning approach in Athey et al. (2018) to include heterogeneity from team gender composition, order of performance, and failure rates of the coaches. The findings offer a new perspective to enrich past research on gender discrimination, shedding light on the instances of gender bias variation by the gender of the decision maker and team gender composition.
    Date: 2023–08
  3. By: Ekpeyong, Paul
    Abstract: This study investigates the intricate interplay between gender pay gap and employment choices, specifically focusing on the distinctions between the private and public sectors. Employing a comprehensive dataset spanning various industries and professions, we employ an array of analytical methods to uncover the nuanced factors contributing to observed wage disparities between men and women, by employing Blinder decomposition analysis, this research reveals the presence of gender-based wage disparities in both private and public sectors. However, when accounting for selection bias inherent in employment choices, the dynamics of the gender wage gap shift, underlining the significance of considering the role of employment decisions. This study delves into the explained and unexplained components of the wage gap. Surprisingly, corrected results showcase women out earning their male counterparts in the private sector. This unexpected finding highlights the importance of analyzing employment choices for a comprehensive understanding of gender-based wage disparities. In addition to Blinder decomposition, we undertake an estimation of the conditional wage gap, shedding light on how the wage gap evolves over different percentiles of the wage distribution. This multifaceted approach provides deeper insights into the complexities of gender pay discrepancies. Moreover, the study employs multinomial Logit regression analysis to explore the influence of various factors on the employment choices between private and public sectors. By considering variables such as education, experience, and industry, we unveil the intricate determinants impacting individuals' decisions, contributing to the overall gender wage gap. The research's robustness is validated through the application of the Ramsey Reset test, confirming the integrity of the regression model. This study's contribution lies in its comprehensive analysis, combining Blinder decomposition, conditional wage gap estimation, and multinomial Logit regression to offer a holistic understanding of gender pay gap dynamics and employment choices. The findings have implications for policy formulation and future research aiming to create a more equitable labor market.
    Keywords: public, private, multinomial, logit, blinder decomposition, private, public
    JEL: J0 J08 J3 J7 J71
    Date: 2023–07–19
  4. By: Alnaa, Samuel Erasmus; Matey, Juabin
    Abstract: UN Sustainable Development Goal No.5 urges the attainment of gender equality and women empowerment by 2030. This has intensified the fight for gender parity and female empowerment in Africa with some successes. Despite this, changes in Ghana's educational system have not dispelled the widespread belief that men are better equipped for careers. This is especially in the technical and vocational fields. This misconception has hampered disadvantaged young women's motivation, making them less likely to pursue careers in technical and vocational education and training (TVET). Entrenchments of gendered divisions in higher education and the labour market contribute to structural inequality in society. This study looks at women’s access to post-secondary education and structural inequalities. Additionally, the article updates recent changes in the ratio of female students enrolled in university programs and employment statistics in Ghana. The paper argues that although there are improvements in female enrolment numbers in post-secondary institutions, there is a need for a deliberate policy to increase female intake into tertiary institutions, especially technical universities by granting female-favoured scholarships and opening more online/distance learning platforms for degree programs as well as services to support online enrolment. Employment opportunities should favour the female for a deepening supplementary role at all levels of their participation. Besides, to encourage women gradually shift from conventional roles, it is necessary to invest in their human capital.
    Keywords: Enrolment; Female employment; Women’s access to education; Universities
    JEL: I0 I3 I31 J4 J45 J6 J64 J7 J71 Z1 Z13
    Date: 2023–05–04
  5. By: Koh, Yumi (University of Seoul); Li, Jing (Singapore Management University); Wu, Yifan (Shanghai University); Yi, Junjian (Peking University); Zhang, Hanzhe (Michigan State University)
    Abstract: Young women outnumber young men in cities in many countries during periods of economic growth and urbanization. This gender imbalance among young urbanites is more pronounced in larger cities. We use the gradual rollout of special economic zones across China as a quasi-experiment to establish the causes of this gender imbalance. Our analysis suggests that a key contributor is gender-differential incentives to migrate due to rural women's higher likelihood of marrying and marrying up in cities when urbanization creates more economic opportunities and an abundance of high-income marriage-age men.
    Keywords: urbanization, migration, gender imbalance, labor market, marriage market
    JEL: O15 J12
    Date: 2023–07
  6. By: Rustamdjan Hakimov (University of Lausanne); Renke Schmacker (University of Lausanne); Camille Terrier (Queen Mary University of London)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role played by self-confidence in college applications. Using incentivized experiments, we measure the self-confidence of more than 2, 000 students applying to colleges in France. The best female students and students from low socioeconomic status (low-SES) significantly underestimate their rank in the grade distribution compared to male and high-SES students. By matching our survey data with administrative data on real college applications and admissions, we show that miscalibrated confidence affects college choice controlling for grades. We then estimate the impact of a randomized intervention that corrects students’ under-and overconfidence by informing them of their real rank in the grade distribution. The intervention fully offsets the impact of under- and overconfidence for college applications. Providing feedback also makes the best students, who were initially underconfident, apply to more ambitious programs with stronger effects for female and low-SES students. Among top students, our intervention closes 72% of the gender gap in admissions to elite programs, and 95% of the social gap. We conclude that confidence is an important behavioral consideration for the design of college admission markets.
    Keywords: college choice, confidence, information treatment, matching mecha-nism, gender and social gap, survey experiment
    JEL: I24 J24 D91 C90
    Date: 2023–08–31
  7. By: Pedro Bento (Texas A&M University, Department of Economics); Lin Shao (Bank of Canada); Faisal Sohail (University of Melbourne, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The prevalence of entrepreneurs, particularly low-productivity non-employers, declines as economies develop. This decline is more pronounced for women. Relative to men, they are more likely to be entrepreneurs in poor economies but less likely in rich economies. We investigate whether gender gaps in time dedicated to non-market activities, which narrow with development, can account for this pattern. We develop a quantitative framework in which selection into occupations depends on one's ability and time, and features gender-specific distortions and social norms around market work. When calibrated to match cross-country data, we find that differences in social norms are almost entirely responsible for the patterns of gender gaps in both time use and entrepreneurship. Through these channels, social norms account for a substantial part of cross-country differences in output per worker and firm size, and have significant welfare implications for women.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, time use, gender, development, firm size.
    JEL: J2 L2 O1
    Date: 2023–09–01
  8. By: Perrotta Berlin, Maria (Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics); Bonnier, Evelina (Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics); Olofsgård, Anders (Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics)
    Abstract: We estimate the community-level impact of foreign aid projects on women’s empowerment in the country with the most complete recent record of geo-coded aid project placement, Malawi. Our estimates can thus be interpreted as the average impact of aid from many different donors and diverse projects. We find that aid in general has a positive impact, in particular on an index of female agency and women’s sexual and fertility preferences. Gender-targeted aid has a further positive impact on women’s sexual and fertility preferences, and more tentatively on an index focusing on gender-based violence. However, the positive impact of gender-targeted aid disappears in patrilineal communities, and men’s attitudes towards female agency in the areas of sexuality and fertility are even negatively affected. This suggests that donors need to consider that the impact of aid on female empowerment can depend on the community context when they decide on aid project design and placement.
    Keywords: foreign aid; gender; development; geo-coded data; impact analysis
    JEL: F35 J16 O19
    Date: 2023–08–31
  9. By: Dhamija, Gaurav; Roychowdhury, Punarjit; Shankar, Binay
    Abstract: The paper examines the short-term implications of urbanization on women empowerment in India. In theory, urbanization can affect women either positively or negatively. Women in urban areas, compared to their rural counterparts, are thought to enjoy greater social, economic, and political opportunities and freedoms. At the same time, research shows barriers to women's empowerment remain widespread in urban environments. We measure urbanization using satellite-based nighttime light intensity data. Fixed effects estimation results show that urbanization positively affects women's labor market participation, agency within households, mobility, access to information, and attitudes toward domestic violence (thereby making them more likely to report incidences of violence). However, the effect of urbanization on women's financial autonomy is negative, and on health is mixed. These results, we show, are robust to unmeasured confounders to a large extent. In light of the rapid urbanization that India is currently experiencing, the importance of these findings cannot be overemphasized. They suggest that while urbanization could go a long way toward economically empowering women in India, the government also needs to devise complementary policies and interventions that could tackle the adverse consequences of urban expansion.
    Keywords: Gender, India, Nighttime Lights, Urbanization, Women Empowerment
    JEL: J16 O12
    Date: 2023
  10. By: Burrone, Sara (University of Florence); Giannelli, Gianna Claudia (University of Florence)
    Abstract: This paper aims to study the relationship between women's land ownership and household food security in Tanzania, using data from three waves of the Tanzanian National Panel Survey. The analysis focuses on the Household Dietary Diversity Scale (HDDS) as a measure of food security, and we categorize land ownership by gender and whether it is solely or jointly owned. Additionally, we examine the impact of the gendered division of crop cultivation on household food security, distinguishing between cash crops and food crops. We estimate several fixed-effects specifications and perform a heterogeneity analysis to disentangle the effects of women's land ownership across households with varying levels of dependence on home-produced food. The findings reveal that women's land ownership significantly influences household dietary diversity. Specifically, women's sole ownership of food crops and joint ownership of cash crops have positive effects on household food security, especially for households reliant on purchased food. These results underscore the importance of women's ownership of income-generating crops in enhancing food security. Overall, this research provides valuable insights for policymakers, emphasizing the significance of women's land ownership in driving household food security in Tanzania. By uncovering the positive impacts of women's land ownership, the study highlights the importance of gender equity in agricultural systems and the potential for women's empowerment to foster sustainable development and food security.
    Keywords: gender equity, food security, land ownership, Tanzania
    JEL: O12 Q15
    Date: 2023–08

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