nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒09‒18
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann, Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Does gender equality bargaining reduce child penalty? Evidence from France By Pierre-Jean Messe; Jérémy Tanguy
  2. The Search for Parental Leave and the Early-Career Gender Wage Gap By Ilaria D'Angelis
  3. The Gender Gap in Claiming Credit for Teamwork By Klara Kinnl; Jakob Möller; Anna Walter
  4. Gendered effects of minimum wage By Di Nola, Alessandro; Haywood, Luke; Wang, Haomin
  5. Inventor Gender and Patent Undercitation: Evidence from Causal Text Estimation By Yael Hochberg; Ali Kakhbod; Peiyao Li; Kunal Sachdeva
  6. Extreme temperatures: Gender differences in well-being By Ignacio Belloc; J. Ignacio Giménez-Nadal; José Alberto Molina

  1. By: Pierre-Jean Messe (Nantes Université); Jérémy Tanguy (Université Savoie Mont Blanc)
    Abstract: This presentation investigates the effects of firm-level gender equality bargaining on the motherhood penalty using French administrative data. To tackle the endogeneity issue, we exploit the 2010 reform that introduced financial penalties for firms with 50 employees or more not complying with their obligation of negotiating on gender equality. This change led to a strong acceleration of gender equality bargaining after 2010 but only for firms with 50 employees or more. Thus, women who had their first child in concerned firms after 2010 are more likely to be employed in firms covered by a text related to gender equality. Controlling for firms' size effect and time trends as well as a set of other individuals' and firms' characteristics, we identify the causal effect of gender equality bargaining on earnings impact of motherhood. Our estimates show that forcing firms to promote measures related to gender equality has reinforced the motherhood penalty. While the causal effect of this reform is close to zero just after the first child's birth, it turns out to be significantly negative five years after. Our results suggest that some measures mentioned in texts related to gender equality, especially those favoring work–life balance, may act as an indirect discrimination towards mothers.
    Date: 2023–08–11
  2. By: Ilaria D'Angelis
    Abstract: I show that highly educated millennial Americans search for employers that provide parental leave, and that women’s stronger willingness to pay for this benefit contributes to the early-career growth in the gender wage gap. Using an hedonic job search model, I estimate that workers are offered higher wages when hired by employers providing paid and unpaid parental leave, but women are willing to pay, respectively, 40% more and 56% more than men for these benefits. While all workers search for jobs and experience wage growth by entering firms offering both high pay and valuable benefits, the gender wage gap increases as young women accept lower wages, compared to men, upon receiving job offers from employers who provide parental leave. While the early-career growth in the gender wage gap would decline by 75% if willingness to pay for parental leave did not differ across genders, a policy mandating and subsidizing parental leave provision could itself halve the early-career wage-gap growth. The widespread availability of parental leave would lessen workers’ need to accept lower wages in exchange for its provision, reducing the gap in accepted wages between men and women entering leave-providing firms.
    Keywords: Gender wage gap, non-wage benefits, paid parental leave, unpaid parental leave, job search, early careers.
    JEL: J16 J31 J32 J64
    Date: 2023–08
  3. By: Klara Kinnl (Department of Economics, Vienna University of Economics and Business); Jakob Möller (Institute for Markets and Strategy, Vienna University of Economics and Business); Anna Walter (Institute for Markets and Strategy, Vienna University of Economics and Business; Institute for Advanced Studies Vienna)
    Abstract: We investigate gender differences in individual credit claiming for teamwork. In a large-scale online experiment, participants work on an interactive task in teams of two and subsequently report their subjective contribution to the teamwork. In three between-subject treatments, we incentivize participants to either i) state their beliefs about their contribution truthfully, ii) to exaggerate their contribution, or iii) to exaggerate and thereby harm the other team member. Our setup allows us to distinguish between overconfidence and exaggeration with and without negative externalities, and to test whether there is a gender gap in credit claiming. We find that men and women both equally overestimate their contributions, but men exaggerate more than women: As soon as there is an incentive to exaggerate, men claim to have contributed more than women, even when exaggeration harms the team member. This gender gap in credit claiming is particularly pronounced among very large claims and for high-contributors. Strategic misrepresentations of contributions to teamwork can thus have sizeable equity consequences on the labor market.
    Keywords: Experiment, Gender differences, Incentives, Team work, Overconfidence, Beliefs
    JEL: J16 C92 D9
    Date: 2023–08
  4. By: Di Nola, Alessandro; Haywood, Luke; Wang, Haomin
    Abstract: Women are more likely to work in jobs with low hours than men. Low-hour jobs are associated with lower hourly wages and are more likely impacted by minimum wages that set a floor on hourly wages. We document that the first German minimum wage significantly increased women's transition towards jobs with higher weekly hours. We construct and estimate an equilibrium search model with demographic and firm productivity heterogeneity. The model replicates observed gender gaps in employment, hours and wage and the positive relationship between hours and hourly wages. We implement the minimum wage in our model with a penalty to address non-compliance. Based on our model, the minimum wage primarily reduces the gender income gap through the gender wage gap. At its 2022 level, the German minimum wage reduces the gender employment and hours gap due to an upward reallocation effect, resulting in women's increased participation in higher-hour jobs with lower separation rates. The upward reallocation effect is the strongest for women with children and varies by marital state and spousal income. While the minimum wage only modestly discourages firms from posting jobs, it shifts job offers toward full-time positions.
    Keywords: Minimum wage, gender gaps, equilibrium job posting, hour requirement
    JEL: J08 J31 J16 E24 E64
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Yael Hochberg; Ali Kakhbod; Peiyao Li; Kunal Sachdeva
    Abstract: Implementing a state-of-the-art machine learning technique for causal identification from text data (C-TEXT), we document that patents authored by female inventors are under-cited relative to those authored by males. Relative to what the same patent would be predicted to receive had the lead inventor instead been male, patents with a female lead inventor receive 10% fewer citations. Patents with male lead inventors tend to undercite past patents with female lead inventors, while patent examiners of both genders appear to be more even-handed in the citations they add to patent applications. For female inventors, market-based measures of patent value load significantly on the citation counts that would be predicted by C-TEXT, but do not load significantly on actual forward citations. The under-recognition of female-authored patents likely has implications for the allocation of talent in the economy.
    JEL: C13 J16 J24 J71 O30
    Date: 2023–08
  6. By: Ignacio Belloc (University of Zaragoza); J. Ignacio Giménez-Nadal (University of Zaragoza); José Alberto Molina (Departamento de Análisis Económico, Universidad de Zaragoza)
    Abstract: Climate change and global warming have significant implications for people worldwide, necessitating an understanding of how extreme weather conditions affect individuals. This study investigates the relationship between individual affective well-being and extreme temperatures, using data from the American Time Use Survey's Well-Being Module for multiple years. The analysis focuses on daily variations in weather conditions at the county level in the United States. Findings reveal gender-specific outcomes, with males being more susceptible to extreme temperatures. On days with maximum temperatures exceeding 80oF, males experience higher levels of fatigue and stress, as well as reduced happiness and meaningfulness, compared to days with temperatures around 70oF. The study suggests that the negative impact on males' sleep quality may contribute to these gender disparities. Additionally, warmer states have witnessed a decline in the male population over the past four decades. These results offer valuable insights into the gender-specific, affective well-being consequences of climate change, emphasizing the need for gender-sensitive approaches in designing comprehensive strategies for climate mitigation and adaptation.
    Keywords: gender, weather conditions, extreme temperatures, well-being, time use, United States
    JEL: I31 J16 Q54
    Date: 2023–08–27

This nep-gen issue is ©2023 by Jan Sauermann. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.