nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒09‒11
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann, Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. The gender composition of supervisor-worker dyads: Career blocks and gender pay gap By Paola Profeta; Giacomo Pasini; Valeria Maggian; Ludovica Spinola
  2. Lost female talent: Gender differences in college aspirations and expectations in Germany By Erdmann, Melinda; Helbig, Marcel; Jacob, Marita
  3. Parental Health Penalty on Adult Children's Employment: Gender Difference and Long-Term Consequence By Jiayi Wen; Haili Huang
  4. We've Got You Covered: Employer and Employee Responses to Dobbs v. Jackson By Adrjan, Pawel; Gudell, Svenja; Nix, Emily; Shrivastava, Allison; Sockin, Jason; Starr, Evan

  1. By: Paola Profeta (Bocconi University); Giacomo Pasini (Université de Venise Ca' Foscari); Valeria Maggian (Université de Venise Ca' Foscari); Ludovica Spinola (Université de Venise Ca' Foscari)
    Abstract: We present how the gender composition of supervisor–worker dyads affects workers' outcomes. We use fine-grained longitudinal personnel data on workers from an Italian insurance company over the period 2014–2021 and assign to each worker the gender of the direct supervisor. We implement an individual worker's fixed-effect model, together with a dichotomous variable that captures pre- and post- COVID-19 period and time-varying individual characteristics. Our findings show that, although both male and female managers evaluate similarly the performance of male and female workers, female supervisors grant-lower amount of one-off bonus than male managers to both male and female workers. Moreover, both male and female workers have a lower probability of receiving a promotion from an employee of level VI to middle-managers when the manager is a female.s When exploiting a heterogeneous analysis by gender, results confirm that the gender of the supervisors does not affect workers' performance assessments, while it negatively impacts the total amount of bonus of both male and female workers. We interpret these results as evidence either that female managers are more severe to conform to a masculine gender stereotype associated with a leadership position that female managers are at the head of marginal areas and offices and hence receive less funds to provide bonuses and promotions to workers they supervise.
    Date: 2023–08–11
  2. By: Erdmann, Melinda; Helbig, Marcel; Jacob, Marita
    Abstract: Our study focuses on the gender gap in college aspirations and enrolment among high school students in Germany. We build on socialisation theory, rational choice theory, and formal restrictions to college access to explain gender differences in idealistic college aspirations, realistic college expectations, and the disparities between the two. Specifically, we examine the prevalence of 'pessimistic' college expectations, where college aspirations are higher than expectations, which we expect to be more likely among young women than young men. By analysing survey data from 1, 766 upper secondary students in Germany, we find that women are equally interested in pursuing higher education as their male counterparts. They even express higher aspirations for college enrolment. However, women are more pessimistic than men about realising their aspirations. While factors such as the subjective probability of success and perceived costs impact both genders, young women are also affected by formal restrictions limiting entry to their preferred fields of study.
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Jiayi Wen (Xiamen University); Haili Huang (Xiamen University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the long-term gender-specific impacts of parental health shocks on adult children's employment in China. We build up an inter-temporal cooperative framework to analyze household work decisions in response to parental health deterioration. Then employing an event-study approach, we establish a causal link between parental health shocks and a notable decline in female employment rates. Male employment, however, remains largely unaffected. This negative impact shows no abatement up to eight years that are observable by the sample. These findings indicate the consequence of ``growing old before getting rich'' for developing countries.
    Keywords: Gender Inequality; Female Labor Supply; Health Shock; Aging
    JEL: D13 I10 J22 O15
    Date: 2023–08–18
  4. By: Adrjan, Pawel (Indeed Hiring Lab); Gudell, Svenja (Indeed Hiring Lab); Nix, Emily (University of Southern California); Shrivastava, Allison (Indeed Hiring Lab); Sockin, Jason (IZA); Starr, Evan (Smith School of Business)
    Abstract: Following the June 24, 2022 Dobbs v. Jackson Supreme Court ruling, which overturned the federal right to abortion established in Roe v. Wade, hundreds of employers publicly announced policies covering out-of-state employee travel for abortions and related care. Leveraging data from Indeed and Glassdoor, we first document that companies with more female and more Democratic-leaning employees and executives were more likely to announce these policies. We then examine the causal impact such announcements had on recruitment, job satisfaction, and pay by introducing a new methodology to recover similar employers who did not make announcements using workers' revealed preferences in job search. Difference-in-differences estimates reveal that for announcing companies: (i) vacancies received more job seeker interest, particularly in Democratic-leaning states and female-dominated jobs in states with "trigger" laws that outlawed abortion, (ii) satisfaction with management fell amongst existing employees, particularly in male-dominated jobs, and (iii) posted wages increased, especially for companies where employee sentiment declined. These results highlight the complicated trade-off employers face from engaging in sociopolitical dialogue, in particular how signals of company culture can help recruit new workers but alienate current ones.
    Keywords: culture, abortion, politics, gender, job search, job satisfaction
    JEL: J13 J16 M14
    Date: 2023–08

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