nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒09‒04
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann, Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Women in Management and the Gender Pay Gap By Sondergeld, Virginia; Wrohlich, Katharina
  2. Gender gaps from labor market shocks By Ivandić, Ria; Lassen, Anne Sophie
  3. The gender gap in STEM: (Female) teenagers' ICT skills and subsequent career paths By Hertweck, Friederike; Lehner, Judith
  4. Hold Your Fire! Influence of Female Legislators on Gun Legislation in the US By Rajeev K. Goel; Michael A. Nelson

  1. By: Sondergeld, Virginia (DIW Berlin); Wrohlich, Katharina (DIW Berlin)
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of women's managerial representation on the gender pay gap among employees on the establishment level using German Linked-Employer-Employee- Data from the years 2004 to 2018. For identification of a causal effect we employ a panel model with establishment fixed effects and industry-specific time dummies. Our results show that a higher share of women in management significantly reduces the gender pay gap within the firm. An increase in the share of women in first-level management e.g. from zero to above 33 percent decreases the adjusted gender pay gap from a baseline of 15 percent by 1.2 percentage points, i.e. to roughly 14 percent. The effect is stronger for women in second-level than first-level management, indicating that women managers with closer interactions with their subordinates have a higher impact on the gender pay gap than women on higher management levels. The results are similar for East and West Germany, despite the lower gender pay gap and more gender egalitarian social norms in East Germany. From a policy perspective, we conclude that increasing the number of women in management positions has the potential to reduce the gender pay gap to a limited extent. However, further policy measures will be needed in order to fully close the gender gap in pay.
    Keywords: gender pay gap, women in management, board diversity, two-way fixed effects, linked employer-employee data
    JEL: J16 J31 J71
    Date: 2023–07
  2. By: Ivandić, Ria; Lassen, Anne Sophie
    Abstract: Job loss leads to persistent adverse labor market outcomes, but assessments of gender differences in labor market recovery are lacking. We utilize plant closures in Denmark to estimate gender gaps in labor market outcomes and document that women face an increased risk of unemployment and lose a larger share of their earnings in the two years following job displacement. The majority of the gender gap in unemployment remains after accounting for observable differences in human capital across men and women. In a standard decomposition framework, we document that child care imposes an important barrier to women's labor market recovery regardless of individual characteristics.
    Keywords: childcare; gender gaps; Jjb loss
    JEL: R14 J01 J1
    Date: 2023–08–01
  3. By: Hertweck, Friederike; Lehner, Judith
    Abstract: Skills shortage in the fields of Sciences, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) poses a significant challenge for industries globally. This study examines the interrelationship between high school students' gender, their proficiency in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), and their career preferences in the STEM domain. Based on representative data for German teenagers, our study shows that female adolescents are less likely to choose a career in STEM unless they have strong ICT skills in secondary school. The relationship does not hold for male students. Our findings can be explained with evidence that teenagers sort into occupations they believe to be good at and that female teenagers rather underestimate their true potential. Using different empirical approaches, we also show that ICT skills act as a moderator and not as a mediator in the gender-specific choice of training upon graduating from secondary school.
    Keywords: Career choice, ICT skills, digital literacy, gender gap, STEM
    JEL: I20 J24 J08
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Rajeev K. Goel; Michael A. Nelson
    Abstract: Objective This paper considers the influence of female legislators on gun legislation across US states. Females have behavioral differences from males and likely different exposure to gun-related violence. Method Using data from 1991-2020, we econometrically estimate the drivers of gun legislation across US states. The dependent variables are alternately the total number of gun laws enacted, and 5-year differences in gun laws. Results We find that female legislators in state houses significantly increase the supply of gun laws. Female senators, on the other hand, were no different from their male counterparts. In other results, states with greater population density had more gun laws, while economic prosperity, race, and the elderly population did not generally have significant effects. Finally, when special interest groups, involving gun ownership, mass shooting episodes, and states with a uniform executive are considered, mass shootings and a uniform executive increase laws, while gun owners have the opposite effect. These findings show significance when 5-year differences in gun laws are used. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, when it comes to gun legislation and female legislator representation, it matters which chamber of the legislature females are elected to. Furthermore, different interest groups can significantly bear upon gun legislation.
    Keywords: gun control, gun laws, gender, firearms, legislatures, mass shootings, gun ownership
    JEL: J16 K10
    Date: 2023

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