nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒08‒21
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Who Does the Talking Here? The Impact of Gender Composition on Team Interactions By David Hardt; Lea Mayer; Johannes Rincke
  2. How Does Gender Quota Shape Gender Attitudes? By Chen, Yen-Chien; Fan, Elliott; Ho, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Matthew Yi-Hsiu; Liu, Jin-Tan
  3. Commuting in dual-earner households: International Gender Differences with Time Use Surveys By Echeverría, Lucía; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Molina, José Alberto
  4. Board Gender Diversity Reform and Corporate Carbon Emissions By Raul Barroso; Tinghua Duan; Siyue Guo; Oskar Kowalewski

  1. By: David Hardt; Lea Mayer; Johannes Rincke
    Abstract: We analyze how the gender composition of teams affects team interactions. In an online experiment, we randomly assign individuals to gender-homogenous or gender-mixed teams. Teams meet in an audio chat room and jointly work on a gender-neutral team task. By design, effects on team performance can only work through communication. We find that all-male teams communicate more than all-female teams and outperform teams of both alternative gender compositions. In mixed teams, males strongly dominate the team conversation quantitatively. Past exposure to gender-mixed teamwork makes females more reluctant to engage in mixed teams, while for males the opposite is true.
    Keywords: teams, teamwork, gender composition, communication, team performance, preference for teamwork, online experiment
    JEL: C92 C93 D83 J16
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Chen, Yen-Chien (National Chi Nan University); Fan, Elliott (National Taiwan University); Ho, Yu-Hsin (National Taiwan University); Lee, Matthew Yi-Hsiu (National Taiwan University); Liu, Jin-Tan (National Taiwan University)
    Abstract: Starting in 2002, each electoral district in Taiwan is required to reserve one seat for women out of every four seats at the local councils, creating a 'zigzag' function of female councilors proportion across districts. Using this function, we estimate the effects of exposure to female political leadership on gender attitudes and behaviors. For son preference, we find that the gender quota reduced the propensity for parents with two daughters to give a third-parity birth, whereas there is no such effect on parents with two children of other sex compositions. This finding is confirmed by the evidence of self-reported son preference revealed in survey data. We further find that the gender quota encouraged female high school graduates to attempt college admission and pursue a college major in law or political science, which commonly prepare students to develop a career in politics. The gender quota also empowers married women to play a more active role in multiple household decisions. Our findings support the hypothesis that female political leaders perform as role models who elicit more egalitarian gender attitudes from women.
    Keywords: gender quota, son preference, gender role model, gender norms
    JEL: J16 J13 I23 D10
    Date: 2023–07
  3. By: Echeverría, Lucía; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Molina, José Alberto
    Abstract: Prior literature analyzing gender differences in commuting has reported that men commute longer distance/time than do women, and one explanation for this gender gap is based on household responsibilities falling on women. But most of the literature examining gender differences in commuting has not considered the interdependence that exists between the members of couples. We analyze gender differences in commuting time for a sample of dual-earner couples living in Spain, Italy, South Korea, and the United Kingdom, taking into account the inter-relatedness of decisions within couples. We estimate Ordinary Least Squares equations for men and women on commuting time and mode of transport (private, public, and active transport) including own characteristics as well as spouse attributes and commuting choices. Results indicate that the number of children is significantly related to shorter commuting times for female workers in all countries, with no associations found for their male counterparts. In addition, having children is associated with changes in the commuting mode choice of women in Italy, Korea and the UK, but no associations are found for men. Our evidence indicates that, while the presence of children is related to commuting behavior of women, it is not the case for men. Furthermore, we find that couples' decisions on commuting are complementary, which may shed light on their relationship that should be addressed by theoretical models.
    Keywords: commuting, gender differences, dual-earner couples, intra-spousal effects, household responsibilities, Multinational Time Use Study
    JEL: R40 J22 O57 D19
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Raul Barroso (IESEG School of Management, Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 9221 - LEM - Lille Économie Management, F-59000 Lille, France); Tinghua Duan (IESEG School of Management, Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 9221 - LEM - Lille Économie Management, F-59000 Lille, France); Siyue Guo (IESEG School of Management, France); Oskar Kowalewski (IESEG School of Management, Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 9221 - LEM - Lille Économie, F-59000 Lille, France)
    Abstract: We examine the impact of international gender diversity reforms in the board of directors on carbon emissions. Employing a difference-in-differences-in-differences analysis, we analyze the relationship between the increase in female representation on boards following these reforms and changes in firms' carbon emissions. Our results reveal a significant decline in carbon emissions with an increase in the proportion of female board members. The reduction in carbon emissions is observed to be more pronounced when gender reform is legally enforced. Additionally, our findings indicate that a combination of climate regulations and higher female representation on boards leads to a decline in both, direct and indirect carbon emissions. These findings underscore the importance of legal enforcement in promoting board gender diversity, which, in turn, plays a critical role in addressing climate change.
    Keywords: : gender diversity reforms, climate change, law, enforcement
    JEL: G34 J16 Q54 K42
    Date: 2023–07

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