nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒06‒26
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Parenthood and the Gender Gap in Commuting By Bütikofer, Aline; Karadakic, René; Willén, Alexander
  2. Gender and the time cost of peer review By Diane Alexander; Olga Gorelkina; Erin Hengel; Richard S.J. Tol
  3. A, B, or C? Question Format and the Gender Gap in Financial Literacy By Maddalena Davoli
  4. Unintended Consequences of Family Planning Policies on the Breastfeeding Gap between Sons and Daughters By Chae, Minhee; Cai, Yong; Kim, Jun Hyung; Lavely, William
  5. Same-sex role model effects in education By Alexandra de Gendre; Jan Feld; Nicolás Salamanca; Ulf Zölitz
  6. Political representation and the evolution of group differences within parties: Evidence from 110 years of parliamentary speech By Jeremias Nieminen; Salla Simola; Janne Tukiainen

  1. By: Bütikofer, Aline (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Karadakic, René (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Willén, Alexander (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: Childbirth increases the opportunity cost of commuting and makes it difficult for both parents to work far away from home. Using detailed Norwegian register data, we show that the commuting patterns of men and women diverge immediately after childbirth and that those differences persist for at least a decade. We show that this divergence in commuting exposes mothers to more concentrated labor markets with fewer job opportunities and establishments of lower quality. These findings help explain the child penalty documented in the prior literature and have important implications for the design of policies seeking to address the remaining gender wage gap.
    Keywords: Commuting; Gender Wage Gap; Parenthood
    JEL: J16 J22 J42 J61
    Date: 2023–05–25
  2. By: Diane Alexander (The Wharton School, Philadelphia, PA, USA); Olga Gorelkina (University of Liverpool, UK); Erin Hengel (London School of Economics); Richard S.J. Tol (Department of Economics, University of Sussex, BN1 9SL Falmer, United Kingdom)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate one factor that can directly contribute to—as well as indirectly shed light on the other causes of—the gender gap in academic publishing: length of peer review. Using detailed administrative data from an economics field journal, we find that, conditional on manuscript quality, referees spend longer reviewing female-authored papers, are slower to recommend accepting them, manuscripts by women go through more rounds of review and their authors spend longer revising them. Less disaggregated data from 32 economics and finance journals corroborate these results. We conclude by showing that all gender gaps decline—and eventually disappear—as the same referee reviews more papers. This pattern suggests novice referees initially statistically discriminate against female authors, but are less likely to do so as their information about and confidence in the peer review process improves. More generally, they also suggest that women may be particularly disadvantaged when evaluators are less familiar with the objectives and parameters of an assessment framework.
    Keywords: Gender Inequality, Statistical Discrimination, Research Productivity, Peer Review
    JEL: A11 D8 J16 J24 J7
    Date: 2023–06
  3. By: Maddalena Davoli
    Abstract: Financial literacy surveys, composed primarily of multiple-choice questions, consistently show women having lower financial knowledge than men. The education science literature finds that gender bias is inherent in multiple-choice testing. Using data from PISA 2015, this paper investigates the differential gender effect of question formats on students' financial literacy assessments. This paper, employing data from PISA 2015, analyzes the differential gender effect of question formats on students' financial literacy assessment. Having answers to both multiple-choice and open-response questions for each student, we employ a panel specification and use within-student variation while controlling for students' fixed characteristics. Findings show female students performing worse when answering multiple-choice questions with no observable difference for the open-response format. Robustness tests indicate that the question characteristics underlying the multiple-choice format partly drive the results. I show how school policies aimed at training students for the multiple-choice format may help close the gender gap.
    Keywords: gender gaps, financial literacy, PISA, question format, within-student estimate
    JEL: I21 I24 J16 G53 D91
    Date: 2023–05
  4. By: Chae, Minhee (Nankai University); Cai, Yong (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Kim, Jun Hyung (Jinan University); Lavely, William (University of Washington)
    Abstract: We examine the effect of a Chinese family planning policy (FPP) known as "Later, Longer, and Fewer" on the gender gap in breastfeeding. We find that FPP increased the daughter-son breastfeeding gap in favor of sons in rural areas. Mean intensity of the FPP predicts the gender gap to be 35% greater than the gap without FPP. The effects are explained by the skewed gender composition of last-born children produced by sex-selective stopping behavior. The findings indicate a way in which FPP, in the context of son preference, widens gender gap in child development.
    Keywords: "Later, breastfeeding, son preference, family planning, Longer, Fewer" campaign
    JEL: J1 J13 J16 J18
    Date: 2023–05
  5. By: Alexandra de Gendre; Jan Feld; Nicolás Salamanca; Ulf Zölitz
    Abstract: We study same-sex role model effects of teachers with a meta-analysis and our own study of three million students in 90 countries. Both approaches show that role model effects on performance are, on average, small: 0.030 SD in the meta-analysis and 0.015 SD in our multi-country study. Going beyond test scores, our multi-country study documents larger average role model effects on job preferences (0.063 SD). To understand the universality of these effects, we estimate the distributions of country-level same-sex role model effects. Although role model effects on test scores appear universally small, we find substantial cross-country variation for job preferences, with larger effects in countries with larger gender gaps. These results are consistent with role models inspiring students to overcome gender stereotypes and pursue a STEM career. However, in countries with negligible gender gaps, role models do not seem to have this equalizing function.
    Keywords: Same-sex role models, STEM, teachers, external validity, multi-country study, gender role models, standardized test scores, grades, job preferences, science, math, reading, meta-analysis, meta-science
    JEL: I21 I24 J24
    Date: 2023–06
  6. By: Jeremias Nieminen (Department of Economics, Turku School of Economics, University of Turku.); Salla Simola (Storytel); Janne Tukiainen (Department of Economics, Turku School of Economics, University of Turku.)
    Abstract: We study the long-term evolution of party demographics and the associated changes in parliamentary speech patterns of various within-party groups in Finland during 1907-2018. We find significant speech differences by gender and university education status, while other MP characteristics - age, white-collar job, first-term MP status, or urbanicity - do not predict speech patterns. We find that when female seat share began to rise in the late 1950s, there is a concurrent increase in speech differences by gender. As the representation of women increased, there was also a shift in speech topics female MPs specialized in. Additionally, we observe a sharp increase in speech differences by education when the seat share of university-educated increased in the 1960s. These results suggest that descriptive representation of these groups may play a role in changing speech patterns, and thus, in their substantive representation.
    Keywords: intra-party politics, parliamentary speech, descriptive representation, substantive representation
    JEL: D72 N44 J16 P00
    Date: 2023–06

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