nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒06‒19
eight papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Cognitive Skills among Adults: An Impeding Factor for Gender Convergence? By Battisti, Michele; Fedorets, Alexandra; Kinne, Lavinia
  2. The Gender Reference Point Gap By Kettlewell, Nathan; Levy, Jonathan; Tymula, Agnieszka; Wang, Xueting
  3. Non-college Occupations, Workplace Routinization, and the Gender Gap in College Enrollment By Chuan, Amanda; Zhang, Weilong
  4. Committee Deliberation and Gender Differences in Influence By Jonas Radbruch; Amelie Schiprowski
  5. Gendered Globalization: The Relationship between Globalization and Gender Gaps in Employment and Occupational Opportunities By Yoav Roll; Moshe Semyonov; Hadas Mandel
  6. Too few women at the top of firms: Foreign ownership, gender segregation and cultural causes By Khorana, Sangeeta; Webster, Allan
  7. Board Gender Diversity and the Cost of Equity: What difference does gender quota legislation make? By Aitzaz Ahsan Alias Sarang; Nicolas Aubert; Xavier Hollandts
  8. Who Cares? Paid Sick Leave Mandates, Care-Giving, and Gender By Tanya Byker; Elena Patel; Shanthi Ramnath

  1. By: Battisti, Michele (University of Glasgow); Fedorets, Alexandra (DIW Berlin); Kinne, Lavinia (Ifo Institute for Economic Research)
    Abstract: While gender differences in labor force participation and wages have been studied extensively, gender gaps in cognitive skills among adults are not yet well understood. Using the PIAAC dataset, this paper presents novel findings on cognitive skill distributions by gender across 34 countries. Despite increasing educational equality, inequalities in numeracy skills favoring men compared to women are pervasive. These skill differences account for a sizable part of the gender wage gap. Furthermore, there are larger disadvantages for women at the top of the wage distribution, which are complemented by lower returns to skills compared to men. We also find that these numeracy-wage patterns are especially pronounced for parents and for those with the highest degree in a non-STEM field of study.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, skills, numeracy, PIAAC
    JEL: I24 J16 J24
    Date: 2023–05
  2. By: Kettlewell, Nathan (University of Technology, Sydney); Levy, Jonathan (University of Sydney); Tymula, Agnieszka (University of Sydney); Wang, Xueting (Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Studies have frequently found that women are more risk averse than men. In this paper, we depart from usual practice in economics that treats risk attitude as a primitive, and instead adopt a neuroeconomic approach where risk attitude is determined by the reference point which can be easily estimated using standard econometric methods. We then evaluate whether there is a gender difference in the reference point, explaining the gender difference in risk aversion observed using traditional approaches. In our study, women make riskier choices less frequently than men. Compared to men, we find that women on average have a significantly lower reference point. By acknowledging the reference point as a potential source of gender inequality, we can begin a new discussion on how to address this important issue.
    Keywords: reference point, risk attitude, neuroeconomics, gender, inequality, experiment
    JEL: C90 D87 D91 J16
    Date: 2023–05
  3. By: Chuan, Amanda (Michigan State University); Zhang, Weilong (University of Cambridge)
    Abstract: This paper explores how non-college occupations contributed to the gender gap in college enrollment, where women overtook men in college-going. Using instrumental variation from routinization, we show that the decline of routine-intensive occupations displaced the non-college occupations of women, raising female enrollment. Embedding this instrumental variation into a dynamic Roy model, we find that routinization decreased returns to the non-college occupations of women, increasing their college premium. In contrast, men's non-college occupations were less susceptible to routinization. Our model estimates that workplace routinization accounted for 44% of the growth in female enrollment during 1980-2000.
    Keywords: gender, college enrollment, human capital, occupations, automation
    JEL: I23 I24 I26 J16 J24 J23
    Date: 2023–04
  4. By: Jonas Radbruch; Amelie Schiprowski
    Abstract: This paper provides empirical evidence on the aggregation of information in committees. We analyze unique data from the decision-making process of hiring committees within a large private company. In the hiring process, committee members first conduct independent one-to-one interviews and give individual recommendations before deliberating on a collective hiring decision. We find that committees’ final hiring decisions are systematically less aligned with the initial recommendations of women than with those of men, even though women and men are equally qualified and experienced. This disparity in influence is strongest when recommendations exhibit high disagreement and when a single woman deliberates with two men. The estimated distribution of influence reveals that almost all men are more influential than the median woman. We offer suggestive evidence that these findings have implications for the effectiveness of gender quotas.
    Keywords: Committee Decision-Making, Gender Differences, Hiring
    JEL: D71 J16 M51
    Date: 2023–05
  5. By: Yoav Roll; Moshe Semyonov; Hadas Mandel
    Abstract: Despite the steady increase in the number of women who join the labor force, there are still substantial cross-country variations in both women’s labor force participation and gender-linked occupational inequality. Utilizing micro-data from 47 countries (circa 2013) obtained from the Luxembourg Income Study, we examine the extent to which globalization and each of its three components (economic, social and political) affect gender-based economic inequality. In particular, we investigate the effect of globalization on two outcomes: women’s labor force participation and women’s relative odds of obtaining high-income, high-status jobs. The findings show, first, that social globalization is more consequential for gender inequality in the labor market than either economic or political globalization. Second, while social globalization increases women’s labor force participation, it reduces women’s relative odds of obtaining lucrative, high-status jobs. The findings are discussed in light of the comparative literature on gender-based inequality.
    Date: 2022–03
  6. By: Khorana, Sangeeta; Webster, Allan
    Abstract: This study uses enterprise survey data from a sample of 26 countries to address the question "why are there too few women at the top of firms?". That is, it asks why the proportion of firms with females at the top is low in relation to the share of females in full-time employment. To reduce the risk of bias arising from a confounding variable the range of explanatory variables used was wide, including data at the level of the firm, sector and country. An important contribution to the analysis was made by the inclusion of national cultural attitudes. The most important findings of the enterprise level analysis were that foreign owned firms were statistically significantly less likely to employ a female top manager, that the pattern of female top managers by sector follows a wider pattern of gender segregation, and that national cultural attitudes are important in the determination of the gender of the top manager. Having established the importance of cultural attitudes in determination of the gender of top managers the study uses a second set of data to analyse national attitudes associated with hostility to female executives. Unsurprisingly this hostility to female executives is predominantly on the part of males rather than females but religion and a lack of education are important too. The paper contributes to the literature on gender in International Business and overlaps with the literature dealing with the need for affiliates to adjust to local culture.
    JEL: J16 E24 F23
    Date: 2023
  7. By: Aitzaz Ahsan Alias Sarang (Iqra University); Nicolas Aubert (CERGAM - Centre d'Études et de Recherche en Gestion d'Aix-Marseille - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - UTLN - Université de Toulon); Xavier Hollandts (Kedge BS - Kedge Business School)
    Abstract: This study examines the relationship between women directors and the cost of equity (COE). Investigating the French firm's sample, we find a significant negative effect of women directors on the cost of equity. Our results also document that the effect of women directors on reducing the cost of equity is significant for firms that have a critical mass of at least four women directors. Using the difference-in-difference (DID) and propensity score matching (PSM) approach, we find that the relationship between female directors and lower equity costs is significant for the period following the Copé–Zimmermann gender quota law. The results show that women directors' presence on corporate boards is also supported by economic reasons. The study provides implications in relation to the Copé–Zimmermann law in France.
    Keywords: Cost of Equity, Gender Quota Laws, Critical Mass, Women on Corporate Boards
    Date: 2025–05–12
  8. By: Tanya Byker; Elena Patel; Shanthi Ramnath
    Abstract: We use employment data from the Current Population Survey to assess the efficacy of state-mandated paid sick leave policies on leave-taking behavior with a focus on any variation by gender. We find that these policies increase leave taking for care-giving for men by 10-20%, and this effect is strongest for men with young children in the household. In addition, we find that Hispanic men and men without a bachelor’s degree, who historically have had low access to paid sick leave, are 20–25% more likely to take care-giving leave. By comparison, we do not find evidence that these policies affect leave taking for own sickness for men or women, nor do we find evidence that these policies affect care-giving leave taking for women. Our evidence highlights the importance of studying care-giving leave within the context of paid leave policies and the importance of considering gender differences in the treatment effect within this context.
    Keywords: Paid Sick Leave; care-giving leave; Gender; leave taking; career
    JEL: H31 J14 J38
    Date: 2023–04

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