nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒05‒15
two papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Gender Segregation in Vocational Education and Occupations in the Context of Digitalisation By Leitner, Andrea; Kreimer, Margareta; Heck, Ines; Vakavlieva, Zora
  2. Child Penalties in Canada By Marie Connolly; Marie Melanie; Catherine Haeck

  1. By: Leitner, Andrea (Institute for Advanced Studies Vienna, Austria); Kreimer, Margareta; Heck, Ines; Vakavlieva, Zora
    Abstract: Austria is one of the countries with persistently high gender segregation in combination with a high matching of training and occupations. In this context, we analyse how educational and occupational segregation interact in the male-dominated fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and in the female-dominated areas of education, health and welfare (EHW). We discuss how atypical education can reduce gender segregation in the labour market and whether automation risks affect women and men in STEM and EHW differently. Firstly, our analysis shows that educational segregation is heavily transmitted to the occupational system in this fields. Secondly, the results point to the potential of gender-atypical fields for reducing segregation but also to their limitations especially since we find a double mismatch for women in STEM. Based on findings from digitalisation and automation research, we find that women are overrepresented in STEM jobs focussing on manual routine tasks which are more likely to be automated than the jobs primarily performed by men. While EHW is less prone to automation in general, the distribution of tasks between men and women indicates vertical segregation despite EHW being a female-dominated sector.
    Keywords: gender segregation, occupational segregation, vocational education, STEM subjects, mismatch, digitalisation
    Date: 2023–04
  2. By: Marie Connolly (Department of Economics, University of Quebec in Montreal); Marie Melanie (Department of Economics, University of Quebec in Montreal); Catherine Haeck (Department of Economics, University of Quebec in Montreal)
    Abstract: Having children has a sizeable impact on women’s labour outcomes, but not on men’s. The differential effects of children by gender are referred to as child penalties, and are now documented in many countries. In this paper, we exploit the Longitudinal and International Study of Adults to estimate Canadian child penalties in both earnings and employment for a period going from five years before the birth of the first child to 10 years after. Using an event study methodology (Kleven et al., 2019a), we find large and persistent negative effects of parenthood for mothers, but not fathers. Mothers’ earnings decrease by 49% the year of birth, with a penalty still at 34.3% 10 years after; the corresponding penalty in employment down 14.2%. We also document larger negative impacts of parenthood for women who had multiple children or those with a lower education level. We finally provide suggestive evidence that family policies such as parental leave and subsidized childcare may help reduce child penalties.
    Keywords: child penalties, family gap, Canada, family policies, subsidized childcare
    JEL: J13 J31 J38
    Date: 2023–03

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