nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒05‒01
four papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Gender, Performance, and Promotion in the Labor Market for Commercial Bankers By Marco Ceccarelli; Christoph Herpfer; Steven Ongena
  2. Frontier History and Gender Norms in the United States By Samuel Bazzi; Abel Brodeur; Martin Fiszbein; Joanne Haddad
  3. Who are the gatekeepers of economics? Geographic diversity, gender composition, and interlocking editorship of journal boards By Alberto Baccini; Cristina Re
  4. The motherhood wage and income traps By Cremer, Helmuth; Barigozzi, Francesca; Thibault, Emmanuel

  1. By: Marco Ceccarelli (Maastricht University - Department of Finance); Christoph Herpfer (Emory University - Goizueta Business School); Steven Ongena (University of Zurich - Department of Banking and Finance; Swiss Finance Institute; KU Leuven; NTNU Business School; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR))
    Abstract: Using data from the US syndicated loan market, we find women to be underrepresented among senior commercial bankers. This gap persists due to unequal promotion rates for men and women at the same institution in the same year, and cannot be explained by different individual or managerial performance. The gap is influenced more by individuals than by institutions, with senior bankers showing assortative matching when changing jobs, and perpetuating the gender gap from their previous workplace. Our findings suggest that the gender gap may be partially attributable to women taking on more family care responsibilities. Hard credentials or female leadership at the top of banks do not alleviate the gender gap, but targeted gender discrimination lawsuits and female leadership on the local level result in increased promotion of women.
    JEL: D22 G21 G32 J01 J71
    Date: 2023–03
  2. By: Samuel Bazzi; Abel Brodeur; Martin Fiszbein; Joanne Haddad
    Abstract: This paper explores how historical gender roles become entrenched as norms over the long run. In the historical United States, gender roles on the frontier looked starkly different from those in settled areas. Male-biased sex ratios led to higher marriage rates for women and lower for men. Land abundance favored higher fertility. The demands of childcare, compounded with isolation from extended family as well as a lack of social and market infrastructure, constrained female opportunities outside the home. Frontier women were less likely to report “gainful employment, ” but among those who did, relatively more had high-status occupations. Together, these findings integrate contrasting narratives about frontier women—some emphasizing their entrepreneurial independence, others their prevailing domesticity. The distinctive frontier gender roles, in turn, shaped norms over the long run. Counties with greater historical frontier exposure exhibit lower female labor force participation through the 21st century. Time use data suggests this does not come with additional leisure but rather with more household work. These gender inequalities are accompanied by weaker political participation among women. While the historical frontier may have been empowering for some women, its predominant domesticity reinforced inegalitarian gender norms over the long run.
    JEL: J12 J13 J22 N31 N91 O15 P16
    Date: 2023–03
  3. By: Alberto Baccini; Cristina Re
    Abstract: Members of editorial boards play the role of gatekeepers of science because. This paper analyses the national distribution of editorial boards members of economics journal, their affiliation, and their gender. It studies also the interlocking editorship network generated by the presence of a same person on the editorial board of more than one journal. The analysis is based on a unique database comprising all the 1, 516 journals indexed in the database EconLit with an active editorial board in 2019. For each journal, we manually collected the names of the board members along with their affiliation, obtaining a database containing more than 44, 000 members from more than 6, 000 institutions and 142 countries. These data allow to investigate the phenomenon of gatekeeping in contemporary economics on an unprecedented large scale. The obtained results highlight some common issues concerning the editorial gatekeeping, leading to the conclusion that in Economics the academic publishing environment is governed by an \'elite composed mainly of men affiliated with United States \'elite universities. Homophily in terms of geographic, institutional and gender distribution is higher in the most prestigious journal and among Editors-in-Chief. Finally, it appears that `strategic decisions' in the selection of board members reproduce this homophily.
    Date: 2023–04
  4. By: Cremer, Helmuth; Barigozzi, Francesca; Thibault, Emmanuel
    Abstract: We present a simple dynamic model based on on-the-job human capital accumu- lation affecting the dynamic of wage rates and labor earnings. We show how these dynamics are determined by the interplay between the supply and demand sides of the labor market. The model can generate and explain the different dynamics of women's earnings after childbirth documented in the empirical literature on child penalties. We show that the temporary negative shock in labor supply due to childbearing may cre- ate a wage trap and a permanent divergence of labor earnings between genders. Even when the wage trap is avoided, and working mothers are on a path toward a high-wage equilibrium, slow convergence can permanently lose earnings. We use this model to study the impact of different policies on the gender wage gap and child penalties. We show that mandatory maternal leave exacerbates the shock which pleads against long leaves. Similarly, cash transfers to mothers via the income effect on labor supply ag- gravate gender wage di_erences. By contrast, temporary subsidies to mothers' wages (possibly in the form of Income Tax Credits) are not only useful to exit the wage trap, but also to speed up recovery and reduce the child penalty when the shock in labor supply is small enough to avoid the wage trap. Other family policies, like formal child- care subsidies and in-kind provision of formal childcare, are potentially useful because they reduce the mothers' cost of labor supply, but they a_ect mothers' choices only indirectly.
    Keywords: child penalty, mothers' earnings dynamics, multiple equilibria, wage; and income traps
    JEL: J31 H24
    Date: 2023–04–13

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