nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒04‒24
three papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Gendered parenthood-employment gaps in midlife: a demographic perspective across three different welfare systems By Lorenti, Angelo; Jessica, Nisen; Mencarini, Letizia; Myrskylä, Mikko
  2. Less but better? The influence of gender on political activity By Nicolas Fremeaux; Paul Maarek
  3. How Does Unethical Behavior Spread? Gender Matters! By Kim L. Böhm; Sebastian J. Goerg; Lilia Wasserka-Zhurakhovska; Lilia Zhurakhovska

  1. By: Lorenti, Angelo; Jessica, Nisen; Mencarini, Letizia; Myrskylä, Mikko
    Abstract: Women’s labor force participation has increased remarkably in western countries, but important gender gaps still remain, especially among parents. This paper uses a novel comparative perspective assessing women’s and men’s mid-life employment trajectories by parity and education. We provide new insight into the gendered parenthood penalty by analyzing the long-term implications, beyond the core childbearing ages by decomposing years lived between ages 40 to 74 into years in employment, inactivity, and retirement. We compare three countries with very different institutional settings and cultural norms: Finland, Italy, and the U.S. Our empirical approach uses the multistate incidence-based life table method. Our results document large cross-national variation, and the key role that education plays. In Finland years employed increase with parity for women and men and the gender gap is small; in the U.S. the relation between parity and years is relatively flat, whereas among those with two or more children a gender gap emerges; and in Italy, years employed decreases sharply with parity for women, and increases for men. Education elevates years employed similarly for all groups in Finland; but in the U.S and Italy, highly educated mothers experience only half of the gender gap compared to low-educated mothers. The employment trajectories of childless women and men differ greatly across countries.
    Date: 2023–03–12
  2. By: Nicolas Fremeaux (LEMMA - Laboratoire d'économie mathématique et de microéconomie appliquée - Université Paris-Panthéon-Assas); Paul Maarek (LEMMA - Laboratoire d'économie mathématique et de microéconomie appliquée - Université Paris-Panthéon-Assas)
    Abstract: In this article, we study gender differences in the quality of politicians. We analyze the activity (number of bills, amendments, reports, questions and interventions) and effectiveness (number of bills and amendments passed) of parliamentarians. We collected detailed data on the activity of French parliamentarians between 1993 and 2022. Using fixed-effect regressions and RDD strategies based on close elections, we do not find any systematic gender difference regarding activity except for the number of bills authored, which is lower for women. However, this difference is observed only for newcomers and fades after a few years, suggesting a behavioral explanation. Regarding effectiveness, female parliamentarians are more likely to have their amendments passed. This is probably due to the quality of their amendments, as women author fewer amendments with the sole objective of obstruction, are more often present for the vote on their amendments and bills, have a higher share of sponsored amendments and have a lower proportion of their amendments deemed inadmissible, which again suggests a behavioral explanation. On the other hand, women in the opposition party are less likely to have their bills passed than men in the opposition party. This is linked to discrimination within the party, which less often selects bills drafted by women to submit them to a vote.
    Keywords: gender, elections, lawmaking, French parliament
    Date: 2023–03–21
  3. By: Kim L. Böhm; Sebastian J. Goerg; Lilia Wasserka-Zhurakhovska; Lilia Zhurakhovska
    Abstract: Using an online experiment with two distinct dishonesty games, we analyze how dishonesty in men and women is influenced by either thinking or learning about the dishonesty of others in a related, but different situation. Thinking is induced by eliciting a belief about others’ dishonesty in a different game. We find that such belief elicitation (1) increases males’ (but not females’) dishonesty and (2) has no influence on participants’ beliefs about the dishonesty of others in the game that they themselves play. Learning is induced by receiving a signal about the actual honest or dishonest choices of others in a different game. We find that the level of unethical behavior provided in such a signal (1) increases females’ (but not males’) dishonesty and (2) is positively correlated with participants’ beliefs about the dishonesty of others in the game that they themselves play. We conclude that gender matters when examining how unethical behavior spreads. Both genders update their beliefs about others’ dishonesty in the same way when presented with information about others’ choices, but dishonesty in men is triggered by merely thinking about others’ dishonesty, while women only respond to actual information on others’ dishonesty.
    Keywords: dishonesty, unethical behaviour, thinking and learning about other’s dishonesty, gender, experiment
    JEL: C90 D01 D80 D91
    Date: 2023

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