nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒04‒17
three papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Gender Segregation: Analysis across Sectoral-Dominance in the UK Labour Market By Riccardo Leoncini; Mariele Macaluso; Annalivia Polselli
  2. Welcome on board? Appointment dynamics of women as directors By Schoonjans, Eline; Hottenrott, Hanna; Buchwald, Achim
  3. Replication: Reshaping Adolescents' Gender Attitudes: Evidence from a School-Based Experiment in India By Fiala, Lenka; Fleisje, Erlend M.; Reiremo, Tore Adam

  1. By: Riccardo Leoncini; Mariele Macaluso; Annalivia Polselli
    Abstract: Although the degree of gender segregation in the UK has decreased over time, women's participation in traditionally "female-dominated" sectors is disproportionately high. This paper aims to evaluate how changing patterns of sectoral gender segregation affected women's employment contracts and wages in the UK between 2005 and 2020. We then study wage differentials in gender-specific dominated sectors. We found that the differences in wages and contractual opportunities result mainly from the propensity of women to be distributed differently across sectors. Hence, the disproportion of women in female-dominated sectors implies contractual features and lower wages typical of that sector, on average, for all workers. This difference is primarily explained by persistent discriminatory constraints, while human capital-related characteristics play a minor role. However, wage differentials would shrink if workers had the same potential wages as men in male-dominated sectors. Moreover, this does not happen at the top of the wage distribution, where wage differentials among women in female-dominated sectors are always more pronounced than men.
    Date: 2023–03
  2. By: Schoonjans, Eline; Hottenrott, Hanna; Buchwald, Achim
    Abstract: Increasing the participation of women in top-level corporate boards is high on the agenda of policymakers. Yet, we know little about director appointment dynamics and the drivers and impediments of women appointments. This study builds on organizational and group-level behavior theories and empirically investigates how ex-ante board structures and gender-specific board dynamics impact the representation of women on corporate boards. We study boards of listed firms in Europe between 2002 and 2019 and find a declining appointment probability for every additional woman, i.e. the share of women already on the board negatively predicts the likelihood of additional women appointments. Further, we find evidence of a replacement effect, i.e. the likelihood of a woman being appointed as director is significantly larger when a woman, compared to when a man, leaves the board. We do not find spillover effects from non-executive to executive boards. These results are robust to econometric model specifications that address potential endogeneity concerns using matching and instrumental variables. Our results confirm that board director appointments are gender specific and suggest that demand-side factors such as explicit and implicit norms drive women appointments up to a certain threshold.
    Keywords: Executive Directors, Non-Executive Directors, Appointments, Board Dynamics, Gender, Tokenism, Critical Mass, Corporate Governance
    JEL: G34 J08 J16 J71 L22
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Fiala, Lenka; Fleisje, Erlend M.; Reiremo, Tore Adam
    Abstract: Dhar et al. (2022) examine the effect of a gender attitude change program in secondary schools in India. In their preferred specification, the authors show that the program made the students report more gender-egalitarian attitudes by 0.18 of a standard deviation, and shifted self-reported behaviors to be more aligned with gender-progressive norms by 0.20 standard deviations (both significant at 1% level). In contrast, they found no effect on girls' aspirations, as these were already high before the intervention. The effects did not attenuate between the first end-line (right after the programme was completed) and the second (two years later). To put the paper's results in perspective, we first comment on the authors' deviations from their pre-registration and pre-analysis plans, provide detailed power calculations, and add multiple-hypothesis-testing-adjusted standard errors. Second, we show that the paper's results are perfectly reproducible. Third, we show that the results are robust to excluding control variables, and alternative ways of constructing indices and dealing with non-response.
    Date: 2023

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