nep-gen New Economics Papers
on Gender
Issue of 2023‒02‒20
six papers chosen by
Jan Sauermann
Institutet för Arbetsmarknads- och Utbildningspolitisk Utvärdering

  1. Born to Care (or Not): How Gender Role Attitudes Affect Occupational Sorting By Carlianne Patrick; Heather Stephens; Amanda Weinstein
  2. Measuring the Gender Differences in Value of Time by Household Life Stage: An Intertemporal Analysis based on Japan Household Panel Survey By Lo, Ashley Wan-Tzu; Kono, Tatsuhito
  3. Gender Quotas and Bank Risk By Rose C. Liao; Gilberto Loureiro; Alvaro G. Taboada
  4. Gender-Segmented Labor Markets and Trade Shocks By Carlos G\'oes; Gladys Lopez-Acevedo; Raymond Robertson
  5. 'Good job!' The impact of positive and negative feedback on performance By Daniel Goller; Maximilian Sp\"ath
  6. The Economics of Woman's Rights The Mary Paley and Alfred Marshall Lecture By Michele Tertilt; Matthias Doepke; Anne Hannusch; Laura Montenbruck

  1. By: Carlianne Patrick (Department of Economics, Georgia State University); Heather Stephens (Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University); Amanda Weinstein (Department of Economics, University of Akron)
    Abstract: Occupation segregation explains a significant portion of the gender wage gap, with women working in lower paid female-dominated occupations. We examine how childhood and adolescent exposure to gender biased norms about work influence this occupational sorting. We document that early life exposure to traditional gender role attitudes, which view women’s role as caretakers, increase women’s likelihood of employment in care occupations and decrease the likelihood for men, thereby increasing the gender care occupation gap. A decomposition of the factors affecting this sorting shows that a primary channel is through differences in the choice of post-secondary field of study or major. Our results suggest that traditional gender role attitudes may work to segment the labor market for men and women and contribute to the gender wage gap. This suggests that more egalitarian gender role attitudes which increase the share of men entering care occupations would increase wages for both men and women, lowering the gender wage gap.
    Keywords: gender role attitudes, occupation choice
    JEL: J24 J31 R23
    Date: 2023–01
  2. By: Lo, Ashley Wan-Tzu; Kono, Tatsuhito
    Abstract: We investigate the time values for married couples by life stage based on an intertemporal model that represents within-individual and within-couple trade-offs between different activities. Using Japan Household Panel Survey, we find that wives value their time greater than 4, 400 yen/hour when their first child is of pre-school age; the value, however, decreases after their first child reaches school age. These changes reflect their time on work and commute. Conversely, the husbands’ time values are not very different in magnitude. We find that some dual-income households have time burden as they highly value their time saving on childcare.
    Keywords: Gender equality, household welfare, time allocation, value of time as a resource, value of childcare time saving
    JEL: D91 J13 J16 J22 R41
    Date: 2023–01–24
  3. By: Rose C. Liao (Rutgers Business School, Rutgers University); Gilberto Loureiro (NIPE/Center for Research in Economics and Management, University of Minho, Portugal); Alvaro G. Taboada (Mississippi State University, College of Business)
    Abstract: We assess the effects of board gender quota laws using a sample of banks from 39 countries. We document an increase in both stand-alone and systemic risk post-quota among banks that did not meet the quota prereform; the effect is stronger for banks in countries with a smaller pool of women in finance and low gender equality. We find that the propagation of poor governance practices by overlapping female directors and deterioration in the information environment post quota are likely channels driving the results. The evidence is consistent with some banks “gaming” the reform by strategically appointing insiders, which weakens the board’s monitoring function. Our results have policy implications and suggest that supply-side factors are key determinants of the outcome of mandated quotas.
    Keywords: Gender quotas; board of directors; stand-alone bank risk, systemic risk; risk management; board monitoring.
    JEL: G15 G21 G28
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Carlos G\'oes; Gladys Lopez-Acevedo; Raymond Robertson
    Abstract: This paper focuses on how gender segmentation in labor markets shapes the local effects of international trade. We first develop a theoretical framework that embeds trade and gender-segmented labor markets to show that foreign demand shocks may either increase or decrease the female-to-male employment ratio. The key theoretical result shows formally that the effects of trade on gender-segmented labor markets depend crucially on (a) the sectors that face the foreign demand shock; and (b) the domestic relevance of the foreign countries in which the demand shocks originate from. If the foreign demand shock from a relevant market happens in a female-intensive (male-intensive) sector, the model predicts that the female-to-male employment ratio should increase (decrease). We then use plausibly exogenous variation in the exposure of Tunisian local labor markets to foreign demand shocks and show that the empirical results are consistent with the theoretical prediction. In Tunisia, a country with a high degree of gender segmentation in labor markets, foreign-demand shocks have been relatively larger in male-intensive sectors. This induced a decrease in the female-to-male employment ratio, with households likely substituting female for male labor supply.
    Date: 2023–01
  5. By: Daniel Goller; Maximilian Sp\"ath
    Abstract: We analyze the causal impact of positive and negative feedback on professional performance. We exploit a unique data source in which quasi-random, naturally occurring variations within subjective ratings serve as positive and negative feedback. The analysis shows that receiving positive feedback has a favorable impact on subsequent performance, while negative feedback does not have an effect. These main results are found in two different environments and for distinct cultural backgrounds, experiences, and gender of the feedback recipients. The findings imply that managers should focus on giving positive motivational feedback.
    Date: 2023–01
  6. By: Michele Tertilt; Matthias Doepke; Anne Hannusch; Laura Montenbruck
    Abstract: Two centuries ago, in most countries around the world, women were unable to vote, had no say over their own children or property, and could not obtain a divorce. Women have gradually gained rights in many areas of life, and this legal expansion has been closely intertwined with economic development. We aim to understand the drivers behind these reforms. To this end, we distinguish between four types of women’s rights—economic, political, labor, and body—and document their evolution over the past 50 years across countries. We summarize the political-economy mechanisms that link economic development to changes in women’s rights and show empirically that these mechanisms account for a large share of the variation in women’s rights across countries and over time
    Keywords: Women's Rights, Female Suffrage, Family Economics, Bargaining, Political Economy
    JEL: D13 D72 E24 J12 J16 N4 N30 O10 O43
    Date: 2022–11

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